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DEFINITION OF

THE LIMIT OF A
FUNCTION AND
LIMIT THEOREMS

DEFINITION
Let f be a functioned defined at every
number in some open interval containing a,
except possibly at the number a itself. The limit of
f(x) as x approaches a is L, written as

lim

f ( x) L

xa
if the following statement is true:
Given any >0, however small, there exists
a >0 such that
If

0 xa

then

f ( x) L

Example 1
Use the definition of a limit
to prove:

lim (4 x 5) 3
x 2

LIMIT
THEOREMS

Limit Theorem 1
Limit of a Linear Function
If m and b are any constants,

lim (mx b) ma b
x a

Limit Theorem 2
Limit of a Constant
If c is a constant, then for
any number a,

lim c c
x a

Limit Theorem 3
Limit of the Identity Function

lim x a
x a

Limit Theorem 4
Limit of the Sum and Difference
of Two Functions
If lim f ( x) L and lim g ( x) M , then
xa

x a

lim f ( x) g ( x) L M
x a

Limit Theorem 5
Limit of the Sum and Difference
of n Functions
f n ( x) Ln
If lim f1 ( x) L1 ,lim f 2 ( x) L2 , and lim
xa
x a

x a

then

lim f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) ... f n ( x) L1 L2 ... Ln


x a

Limit Theorem 6
Limit of the Product of Two
Functions
If lim f ( x) L and lim g ( x) M , then
xa

x a

lim f ( x) g ( x) L M
x a

Limit Theorem 7
Limit of the Product of n
Functions
f n ( x) Ln
If lim f1 ( x) L1 ,lim f 2 ( x) L2 , and lim
xa
x a

x a

then

lim f1 ( x) f 2 ( x)... f n ( x) L1L2 ...Ln


x a

Limit Theorem 8
Limit of the Quotient of Two
Functions
If lim f ( x) L and lim g ( x) M , then
xa

x a

f ( x) L
lim

xa g ( x)
M

if

M 0

Limit Theorem 9
Limit of the nth Root of a
Function
f ( x) L
If n is a positive integer and lim
x a
then,

lim n f ( x) n L
x a

With the restriction that if n is even, L>0

Limit Theorem
If a is any real number except
zero

1 1
lim
x a x
a

Limit Theorem
If a>0 and n is a positive
integer, or if a0 and n is an odd
positive integer, then

lim x a
n

x a

EXERCISES:
Find the limit and, when applicable,
indicate the limit theorems being applied.

(3x 5)
1. lim
x 2
2.

lim 7

3.

lim x

4.

x 5

x 6

lim x(2 x 1)
x 4

EXERCISES:
Find the limit and, when applicable,
indicate the limit theorems being applied.
1. lim (5 x 7)

x 2

x
2. lim
x 4 7 x 1
3.

x
lim 3
x 4 7 x 1

2
lim
(
x

7
x

5
)
4. x 3

EXERCISES:
Find the limit and, when applicable,
indicate the limit theorems being applied.
2

t 5
1. lim 3
t 2 2t 6
2x 1
2. xlim
1 x 2 3 x 4

8r 1
3. lim
r 1
r 3

x 3x 4
4. lim
x2
x3 1
5. lim

x 2 3x 4
2x2 x 1

6. lim

5 2x
5 x

x 1

x 3

EXERCISES:
Find the limit and, when applicable,
indicate the limit theorems being applied.
3

x 2x 3
1. lim
x 2
x5
2

x 25
2. lim
x 5 x 5

x 2
3. lim
x 4 x 4

EXERCISES:
Find the limit and, when applicable,
indicate the limit theorems being applied.

3x 1
2
1. xlim
1 9 x 1
3
2

3 x 17 x 20
2. lim
x 4 4 x 2 25 x 36
3

8t 27
3. lim3
2
x
4t 9
2

x5 2
x 1

4. xlim
1
3

s 1
5. lim
x 1 s 1