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Some Definitions

Job: Instance of a task


Jobs require resources to execute.
Example resources: CPU, network, disk.
We will simply call all hardware resources processors.
Job (Jij): Unit of work, scheduled and executed by system.
characterized by the following parameters:
Temporal parameters: timing constraints and behavior
Functional parameters: intrinsic properties of the job.
Resource parameters: resource requirements.
Interconnection parameters: how it depends on other jobs
and how other jobs depend on it
E.g.. Transmission of a data packet
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Some Definitions
Task: A sequential piece of code.
Task (Ti): Set of related jobs jointly provide function.
Timing constraint:
constraint imposed on timing behavior of a job: hard
or soft.
Release Time:
Instant of time job becomes available for execution.
If all jobs are released when the system begins
execution, then there is said to be no release time
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Some Definitions
Response time:

Length of time from release time to instant job


completes.

Deadline:
Relative deadline
The maximum allowable response time of
a job

Deadline or Absolute Deadline

Instant of time a job's execution is required to be


completed.

If deadline is infinity, then job has no deadline.

Absolute deadline is equal to release time plus relative


deadline

Validation: demonstration by a provably correct,


efficient procedure or by exhaustive simulation and
testing.
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Hard versus Soft


Hard: failure to meet constraint is a fatal fault.
Validation system always meets timing
constraints.

Deterministic constraints

Probabilistic constraints

Constraints in terms of some usefulness


function.

Soft: late completion is undesirable but


generally not fatal.

No validation or only demonstration job meets


some statistical constraint.

Occasional missed deadlines or aborted

HARD AND SOFT TIMING


CONSTRAINTS
In principle, our definition of hard and soft timing

constraints allows a hard timing constraint to be


specified in any terms.
Examples are
deterministic constraints (e.g., the relative deadline
of every control-law computation is 50 msec or the
response time of at most one out of five consecutive
control-law computations exceeds 50 msec);

probabilistic constraints, that is, constraints defined


in terms of tails of some probability distributions
(e.g., the probability of the response time exceeding
50 milliseconds is less than 0.2); and

constraints

in terms of some usefulness function


(e.g., the usefulness of every control- law
computation is 0.8 or more)
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Validating Constraints
Validation: Demonstration by a provably
correct, efficient procedure or by exhaustive
simulation and testing. Involves three steps:
1.timing constraints of each application and
corresponding components are consistent,
2.each component can meet its timing constraints
if executed alone and required resources are
available,
3.The underlying scheduling algorithm(s), all
timing constraints are met

Developing a Reference
Model
Modeling the system to focus on timing properties
and resource requirements. Composed of three
elements:

workload model - describes applications supported


by system
Temporal parameters
Precedence constraints and dependencies
Functional parameters

resource model - describes system resources


available to applications
Modeling resources (Processors and Resources)
Resource parameters

algorithms - defines how application uses resources


at all times.
Scheduling Hierarchy
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Resources
Resources can be divided into passive and
active:
Active resources == Processors (P ): they
i
execute jobs.
Every job must have one or more processors
Same type if functionally identical and used
interchangeably.
Passive resource == Resource (R ):
i

job

may require Resources in addition to


processor.
reusable resources are not consumed.
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