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APPLICATION OF

BETTER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPs)


IN SMALL HOLDER SHRIMP FARMS
2002-2006
Arief Taslihan, Richard B. Callinan, Derek Foster,
Supito, Erick Sutikno, Lideman, and Saldyansah

BACKGROUND:
How important is BMP to be
implement?

WSD outbreaks have hammered Indonesian


farmers during the past decade

Because of WSD, most farmers must emergency


harvest their shrimp in the first 2 months post
stocking

and leave many thousands of hectares of ponds


(extensive, semi-intensive and intensive) idle
and unmanaged

Typical smallholder farmer


practices

Pond preparation
Ponds are not well
dried
Organic matter from
previous crops
accumulated in pond
bottom as rich organic
muddy soils
Removing blackish
mud soil just put
inside of the dike

Water pumping system without


prior treatment

Selection and stocking of fry

Ponds are stocked


with low quality PLs
which have not been
PCR tested
PL source hatchery is
unknown (untraceability)
Excessive stocking
density

Typical problems during grow out


Overpopulation of benthic macro
algae
Depletion of oxygen during early
morning
Resulting mass mortality,
presumably due to oxygen drop,
characterized by swollen opercula
Developing WSD outbreak
When shrimp survive until the 3rd
month, they frequently develop
black gill disease (fouling) followed
by low level mortality

Uneven growth

WSD

Benthic macro algae

Pinky disease

In response, we
developed a BMP
program which we
then:
validated using key
farmers
extended farmer-tofarmer within farmer
groups

Objectives of the BMP program


To reduce the risk of white
spot disease in semi- intensive
shrimp ponds
To improve farmers shrimp
production
To alleviate poverty among
coastal communities

BMP program was built around


basic WSSV biosecurity for shrimp ponds
1.
2.

Stock PCR test negative


PLs
Keep the virus out of the
pond by setting a fencing
around the pond to
prevent introduction of
virus carrier

5 basic BMPs introduced in validation trials with


key farmers
Proper pond soil preparation
Water treatment : elimination
of WSSV carriers
Providing good quality seed,
including two step PCR test
negative for WSDV (OIE
standard procedure)
Proper water quality
management: providing
paddle wheels as oxygen
stabilizer
Better feed management

Jepara validations of BMP (July 2002- August


2003)

Percent
successful: 67%

No. of
ponds

Success*

Failure

Remarks

High salinity
stress triggered
WSSV
outbreak during
first trial

Implementation of BMP at farmers


level

Location I: Sidoarjo

Total East Java implementation 2003-2006


Pond
Location

Total
ponds

Successfull crop
(Ponds)

Failure
crop
(Ponds)

Candi sub
district,
Sidoarjo district

19

18

Prolong of dry season


caused failure due to
less water exchange

Tanggulangin
sub. district,
Sidoarjo district

6
3

4
3

2
0

Failure due to flood on


day 75 of culture

Duduk
Sampean
sub.district
Gresik district

5
14

4
14

1
0

Failure due to flood on


day 85 of culture

Soil quality support successful crop


White: semi-intensive; yellow: traditional

Remarks

Program dissemination at Sidoarjo

Location II: South Sulawesi trials


2003-2005

Result of South Sulawesi trials


Pond
location

No. of
ponds

success

Failure

Remarks

Pinrang

WSD; excessive stocking


density, over loaded

Pangkep

Semi-intensive
Extensive
Farm layout and local
environment made
biosecurity
unmanageable

Maros

Crop loss due to acid soil

Percent successful: 12%

Acid soil ponds, Maros case study

Premature harvest at day 95,


without WSSV accident due to
low water quality

Location III: Praya, West Nusatenggara


(July September 2006)

Implementation: July 2005 September 2006

Total trial
pond

Successfull*

Failure

4 (100%)

Problems

High salinity
(~42 ppt)

Performance of trial pond at Peras,


Central Lombok District, West
Nusatenggara
Parameter
Pond area (m2)
Stocking density (Pls/m2)
DOC (days)
Production (Kg/pond)
Production
(Kg/ha)

per

Size (shrimp/kg)
FCR
Survival rate (%)

hectare

Pond 1

Pond 2

5000

4000

60.000 (12 Pls/m2)

50.000 (12 Pls/ m2)

129

129

904.5

891.5

1.809

2.228

63

47

1:1.5

1:1.6

95

84

Performance of dissemination
program 2002-2006
Total
ponds

76

Success full Loss crop Percentage


crop

61

15

80%

Workshop on BMP implementation


6-8 March 2006 in Surabaya
At the end of the project
implementation, a three days
workshop was conducted at
Surabaya
BMP based experience in
shrimp ponds was presented
during the workshop
Workshop was participated 82
participants consisted of DGA
staff, provincial and district
fisheries agencies, farmers
and stake holders

Continuing farmers participation on


BMP implementation of post project
Area for BMP
implementation has
developed to > 30 Ha
in Gresik
Strong participation of
key farmers take
important role in BMP
implementation in the
area

Expand farmers participation to


implement BMP in Gresik district

Emerging lessons
Key farmer character
influenced program
success
Local farm environmental

conditions and biosecurity


issues must be
considered for program to
succeed

Conclusions
Implementation of BMP program is likely to
be successful only where the following
conditions are satisfied:
1. Local environment is suitable for extensive
and semi-intensive shrimp culture and allows
farm bio-security
2. Hatcheries and reliable PCR test facilities are
available locally
3. Farmers are enthusiastic about participating
and are organized into groups; key farmer
choice is critical
4. District/provincial government (Dinas
Perikanan) must support program
5. Extension support from private sector is also
important

Extension material

Books and VCDs have distributed to farmers around Java, Aceh, Riau,
South Sulawesi, West Nusatenggara and East Kalimantan provinces