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Welcome to the presentation

on

General functions of
Complex Variables
Presented by :
Mohammed Nasir Uddin
Assistant Professor
Dept. Of ICT
Faculty of Science and
Technology(FST)
Bangladesh University of Professionals
(BUP)

Objectives:
Introduction
Learning Out comes

Discussion Points
Vector Representation of CN

DE Moivers Theorem
Dot and Cross Product of CN

Learning

Outcomes

To understand about Vector Representation of Complex Number

To know DE Moivers Theorem

Be familiar with the Dot and Cross Product

Discussion Points

DE Moivers Theorem

Vector Representation of CN

Dot and Cross Product of CN

Point Sets

Home Work
Solved Problems:
19,20,21,22,2339,40,41,48,45
Supplementary Problems:
90,93

AXIOMATIC FOUNDATIONS OF
COMPLEX NUMBER SYSTEM
A Complex number is define as an ordered pair (a,b) of real number
a and b.
1. Equality: (a,b) = (c,d) iff a = c, b=d
2. Sum: (a,b)+(c,d) = (a+c, b+d)
3. Product: (a,b).(c,d) = (ac-bd , ad +bc) and m(a,b) = (ma,mb)

If z1, z2, z3 belong to the set S of complex numbers, then


1. Closure Law: z1 + z2 S and z1 z2 S
2. Commutative Law:
Addition: z1 + z2 = z2 +z1
Multiplication: z1 z2 = z2 z1
3. Associative Law:
Addition: z1 + (z2 + z3 ) = (z1 +z2 ) + z3
Multiplication: z1 (z2 z3 ) = (z1 z2 ) z3
4. Distributive Law: z1 (z2 + z3 ) = z1 z2 +z1 z3

5. Identity Law:
Addition: z1 + 0 = 0 + z1
Multiplication: 1. z1 = z1..1
0 is called the identity with respect to addition
1 is called the identity with respect to multiplication
6. Inverse Law of Addition: For any complex numbers z1 and z2
such that z1 + z2 = 0
Then z1 is called the inverse of z2 with respect to addition and
denoted by z2
7. Inverse Law of Multiplication: For any complex number z1 0
such that z1 . z2 = z2.z1 = 1
Then z1 is called the inverse of z2 with respect to multiplication and
denoted by z2-1 or 1/z2

Why Study Complex Analysis?


1. Applications. (Harmonic Functions.) Many applications are a lot
deeper than this course will go. (Spectral theory, Fourier
analysis, number theory.)
2. Practice in two-dimensional visualization. (Contour integrals.)
3. Differentiable functions of a complex variable have a
lot of really nice properties.

Polar Form of Complex Number


Or
Trigonometric Form for
Complex Numbers

Polar Coordinate System


The polar coordinate
system is based on a point,
called the pole, and a ray,
called the polar axis.

Trigonometric (Polar) Form of a


Complex Number
The expression r (cos +isin )
is called the trigonometric form or (polar form) of
the complex number x + yi.
The expression cos + i sin is sometimes
abbreviated cis.
Using this notation r (cos +isin ) is written
r cis or rei

x x 2 x3 x 4 x5
e 1 .....
1! 2! 3! 4! 5!
x

2
3
4
5
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
eix 1

.....
1!
2!
3!
4!
5!

ix x 2 ix 3 x 4 ix 5
1

.....
1! 2! 3! 4! 5!

x x3 x5

x2 x4
1 .... . i .....
2! 4!

1! 3! 5!

So eix cos x i sin x

i 2 1
i 3 i 2 i i
i4 i2 i2 1
i5 i 4 i i
i 6 (i 2 )3 1

Rectangular and Polar


Coordinates
If a point has rectangular coordinates (x, y)
and polar coordinates (r, ), then these
coordinates are related as follows.
x r cos
y r sin
r x2 y 2

Slide 8-14

y
tan , x 0
x

Polar Form (Relationships Among x, y, r, and ):


z x iy
= r cos + i r sin

x2 y2
= r (cos + i sin )
y
arctan
x
x

Any complex number has two representations


Rectangular:

z = x + i y where x = r cos and y = r sin

Polar:

z = r ei where ei = cos + i sin


and

r x y

arctan

y
x

Polar Form
P Z= x+iy
r

x2 y2
= r cos + i r sin
y
arctan

x= r cos

Polar : z = x + i y = r(cos + i sin) = r ei


where x = r cos , y = r sin and Polar coordinates (r,)
Here , r = (x2 + y2) = x + iy is called the modulus or absolute
value of z. Which is denoted by mod z or z.
and is the angle which line OP makes with the positive x axis.
called the amplitude or argument of z. which is denoted by arg z.
= arc tan(y/x)

Conversions
i.Rectangular to Polar
ii.Polar to Rectangular

Conversions (MRS- 14/16)


Rectangular to polar

Problem - 16(a): Write 2+i 2 3 in polar form

Problem - 16(a): Write 2+i 2 3 in polar form

Solution: Let, the Cartesian complex form


x+iy = 2+ i 23
Here, x = 2 and y = 23

2+i 2 3

4
600
2

Modulus or absolute value, r 2 i 2 3 4 12 4


Amplitude or Argument,
sin 1 (2 3 / 4) sin 1 ( 3 / 2) 600 / 3( Radians)
Then 2 i 2 3 r (cos i sin )
4(sin 600 i cos 600 )
4(sin i cos )
3
3

The result can also be written as 4 cis /3


or using Eulers formula, as 4 ei/3

2 3

Conversions
Polar to Rectangular

e.g. Write 3e

2i

in rectangular form

e.g. Write 3e 2 i in rectangular form


Solution:
Let, the polar form of complex number
r ei = 3 e2i
Here, r =3 and = 2
We know, r ei = r (cos + isin)
3e 3(cos 2 i sin 2)
3(0.4161 0.9093i )
2i

1.2483 2.7279i

2.7279
3
1.2483

2 rad

Conversions
Polar to Rectangular (2)
e.g. Write 2e i in rectangular form

2e i 2(cos(1) i sin( 1))


2(0.5403 0.8415i )

1.0806 1.6829i

1.0806
-1 rad

i
re
r (cos i sin )
cf

1.6829

H.W: MRS 14/16, 14/17, 27/81-84

State & prove DE MOIVERs theorem.

Statement:
For all real values of n,
cosn +i sinn is a value of (cosn +i sin)n.

Proof:
Case 1: If n is a positive integer, by actual multiplication
we have,
(cos1+ i sin1) (cos2 + i sin2)
= cos 1 cos 2+ i sin 1 cos 2 + i sin 2 cos 1 sin 1 sin 2
= cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 + i (sin 1 cos 2 + cos 1 sin 2)
= cos (1 + 2) + i sin (1 + 2)
Similarly,
( cos 1 + i sin 1) (cos 2 + i sin 2) (cos 3 + i sin 3)
= { cos (1 + 2) + i sin (1+ 2)} (cos 3 + i sin 3)
= cos (1 + 2 + 3) + i sin(1+ 2 + 3)

Proceeding as above, we can write


( cos 1 + i sin 1)(cos 2 + i sin 2)(cos 3 + i sin 3)(cos n+ i sin n)
=cos(1 + 2 ++ n) + i sin (1 + 2 ++ n) (i)
Putting 1= 2== n= in (i), we have
(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n

Case2 : When n is a negative integer, let n = -m, where m is a


positive integer. Then
1
(cos i sin ) (cos i sin )
(cos i sin ) m
1

cos m i sin m
cos m i sin m

(cos m i sin m )(cos m sin m )


cos m i sin m

cos 2 m i 2 sin 2 m
cos m i sin m

cos 2 m sin 2 m
cos m i sin m
cos m i sin(m)
cos( m) i sin( m)
cos n i sin n
n

Case 3: When n is a fraction, positive or negative


Let n = p/q, where q is a positive integer and p is a positive or negative
integer according as n is positive negative but q 0.
Then
(cos / q i sin / q) q cos q. / q i sin q. / q
cos i sin

Taking qth root of both sides,


we have cos /q + i sin /q is one of the roots of (cos +i sin )1/q

i.e. cos /q + i sin /q is one the values of (cos +i sin )1/q


Raising both quantities to the power p, we have (cos /q + i sin /q)p
is one of the values of (cos +i sin )p/q
i.e.

(cos i sin ) p / q (cos / q i sin / q) p


p
p
cos i sin
q
q

(cos i sin ) n cos n i sin n

Hence one of the values of (cos i sin ) n is cos n i sin n

Prove the identities:


(a)cos5 = 16 cos5 - 20cos3 + 5cos
(b) sin5/sin = 16 cos4 -12 cos2 +1

THANK YOU