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# Welcome to the presentation

on

General functions of
Complex Variables
Presented by :
Mohammed Nasir Uddin
Assistant Professor
Dept. Of ICT
Faculty of Science and
Technology(FST)
(BUP)

Objectives:
Introduction
Learning Out comes

Discussion Points
Vector Representation of CN

DE Moivers Theorem
Dot and Cross Product of CN

Learning

Outcomes

## Be familiar with the Dot and Cross Product

Discussion Points

DE Moivers Theorem

Vector Representation of CN

## Dot and Cross Product of CN

Point Sets

Home Work
Solved Problems:
19,20,21,22,2339,40,41,48,45
Supplementary Problems:
90,93

AXIOMATIC FOUNDATIONS OF
COMPLEX NUMBER SYSTEM
A Complex number is define as an ordered pair (a,b) of real number
a and b.
1. Equality: (a,b) = (c,d) iff a = c, b=d
2. Sum: (a,b)+(c,d) = (a+c, b+d)
3. Product: (a,b).(c,d) = (ac-bd , ad +bc) and m(a,b) = (ma,mb)

## If z1, z2, z3 belong to the set S of complex numbers, then

1. Closure Law: z1 + z2 S and z1 z2 S
2. Commutative Law:
Addition: z1 + z2 = z2 +z1
Multiplication: z1 z2 = z2 z1
3. Associative Law:
Addition: z1 + (z2 + z3 ) = (z1 +z2 ) + z3
Multiplication: z1 (z2 z3 ) = (z1 z2 ) z3
4. Distributive Law: z1 (z2 + z3 ) = z1 z2 +z1 z3

5. Identity Law:
Addition: z1 + 0 = 0 + z1
Multiplication: 1. z1 = z1..1
0 is called the identity with respect to addition
1 is called the identity with respect to multiplication
6. Inverse Law of Addition: For any complex numbers z1 and z2
such that z1 + z2 = 0
Then z1 is called the inverse of z2 with respect to addition and
denoted by z2
7. Inverse Law of Multiplication: For any complex number z1 0
such that z1 . z2 = z2.z1 = 1
Then z1 is called the inverse of z2 with respect to multiplication and
denoted by z2-1 or 1/z2

## Why Study Complex Analysis?

1. Applications. (Harmonic Functions.) Many applications are a lot
deeper than this course will go. (Spectral theory, Fourier
analysis, number theory.)
2. Practice in two-dimensional visualization. (Contour integrals.)
3. Differentiable functions of a complex variable have a
lot of really nice properties.

## Polar Form of Complex Number

Or
Trigonometric Form for
Complex Numbers

## Polar Coordinate System

The polar coordinate
system is based on a point,
called the pole, and a ray,
called the polar axis.

## Trigonometric (Polar) Form of a

Complex Number
The expression r (cos +isin )
is called the trigonometric form or (polar form) of
the complex number x + yi.
The expression cos + i sin is sometimes
abbreviated cis.
Using this notation r (cos +isin ) is written
r cis or rei

x x 2 x3 x 4 x5
e 1 .....
1! 2! 3! 4! 5!
x

2
3
4
5
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
(
ix
)
eix 1

.....
1!
2!
3!
4!
5!

ix x 2 ix 3 x 4 ix 5
1

.....
1! 2! 3! 4! 5!

x x3 x5

x2 x4
1 .... . i .....
2! 4!

1! 3! 5!

i 2 1
i 3 i 2 i i
i4 i2 i2 1
i5 i 4 i i
i 6 (i 2 )3 1

## Rectangular and Polar

Coordinates
If a point has rectangular coordinates (x, y)
and polar coordinates (r, ), then these
coordinates are related as follows.
x r cos
y r sin
r x2 y 2

Slide 8-14

y
tan , x 0
x

## Polar Form (Relationships Among x, y, r, and ):

z x iy
= r cos + i r sin

x2 y2
= r (cos + i sin )
y
arctan
x
x

Rectangular:

Polar:

## z = r ei where ei = cos + i sin

and

r x y

arctan

y
x

Polar Form
P Z= x+iy
r

x2 y2
= r cos + i r sin
y
arctan

x= r cos

## Polar : z = x + i y = r(cos + i sin) = r ei

where x = r cos , y = r sin and Polar coordinates (r,)
Here , r = (x2 + y2) = x + iy is called the modulus or absolute
value of z. Which is denoted by mod z or z.
and is the angle which line OP makes with the positive x axis.
called the amplitude or argument of z. which is denoted by arg z.
= arc tan(y/x)

Conversions
i.Rectangular to Polar
ii.Polar to Rectangular

## Conversions (MRS- 14/16)

Rectangular to polar

## Solution: Let, the Cartesian complex form

x+iy = 2+ i 23
Here, x = 2 and y = 23

2+i 2 3

4
600
2

## Modulus or absolute value, r 2 i 2 3 4 12 4

Amplitude or Argument,
sin 1 (2 3 / 4) sin 1 ( 3 / 2) 600 / 3( Radians)
Then 2 i 2 3 r (cos i sin )
4(sin 600 i cos 600 )
4(sin i cos )
3
3

## The result can also be written as 4 cis /3

or using Eulers formula, as 4 ei/3

2 3

Conversions
Polar to Rectangular

e.g. Write 3e

2i

in rectangular form

## e.g. Write 3e 2 i in rectangular form

Solution:
Let, the polar form of complex number
r ei = 3 e2i
Here, r =3 and = 2
We know, r ei = r (cos + isin)
3e 3(cos 2 i sin 2)
3(0.4161 0.9093i )
2i

1.2483 2.7279i

2.7279
3
1.2483

Conversions
Polar to Rectangular (2)
e.g. Write 2e i in rectangular form

## 2e i 2(cos(1) i sin( 1))

2(0.5403 0.8415i )

1.0806 1.6829i

1.0806

i
re
r (cos i sin )
cf

1.6829

## State & prove DE MOIVERs theorem.

Statement:
For all real values of n,
cosn +i sinn is a value of (cosn +i sin)n.

Proof:
Case 1: If n is a positive integer, by actual multiplication
we have,
(cos1+ i sin1) (cos2 + i sin2)
= cos 1 cos 2+ i sin 1 cos 2 + i sin 2 cos 1 sin 1 sin 2
= cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 + i (sin 1 cos 2 + cos 1 sin 2)
= cos (1 + 2) + i sin (1 + 2)
Similarly,
( cos 1 + i sin 1) (cos 2 + i sin 2) (cos 3 + i sin 3)
= { cos (1 + 2) + i sin (1+ 2)} (cos 3 + i sin 3)
= cos (1 + 2 + 3) + i sin(1+ 2 + 3)

## Proceeding as above, we can write

( cos 1 + i sin 1)(cos 2 + i sin 2)(cos 3 + i sin 3)(cos n+ i sin n)
=cos(1 + 2 ++ n) + i sin (1 + 2 ++ n) (i)
Putting 1= 2== n= in (i), we have
(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n

## Case2 : When n is a negative integer, let n = -m, where m is a

positive integer. Then
1
(cos i sin ) (cos i sin )
(cos i sin ) m
1

cos m i sin m
cos m i sin m

## (cos m i sin m )(cos m sin m )

cos m i sin m

cos 2 m i 2 sin 2 m
cos m i sin m

cos 2 m sin 2 m
cos m i sin m
cos m i sin(m)
cos( m) i sin( m)
cos n i sin n
n

## Case 3: When n is a fraction, positive or negative

Let n = p/q, where q is a positive integer and p is a positive or negative
integer according as n is positive negative but q 0.
Then
(cos / q i sin / q) q cos q. / q i sin q. / q
cos i sin

## Taking qth root of both sides,

we have cos /q + i sin /q is one of the roots of (cos +i sin )1/q

## i.e. cos /q + i sin /q is one the values of (cos +i sin )1/q

Raising both quantities to the power p, we have (cos /q + i sin /q)p
is one of the values of (cos +i sin )p/q
i.e.

p
p
cos i sin
q
q

## Prove the identities:

(a)cos5 = 16 cos5 - 20cos3 + 5cos
(b) sin5/sin = 16 cos4 -12 cos2 +1

THANK YOU