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Department of Electrical Engineering
UET, Peshawar.
Semester: III


ressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

e speak of pressure only when we deal with a gas or a liquid.

he counterpart of pressure in solids is normal stress, which is force acting

erpendicular to the surface per unit area.

nce pressure is defined as force per unit area, it has the unit of newtons per square
eter (N/m2), which is called a pascal (Pa). That is,
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 bar = 105 N/m = 105 Pa

Atmospheric pressure

tmospheric pressure is the pressure on a body due to the weight of air on that body per unit area of that body.
bsolute pressure is the sum of atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure.

auge pressure is the pressure displayed by a gauge or instrumentrelative to atmospheric pressure.

t is positive i.e. greater than atmospheric pressure it is called positive pressure or simply gauge pressure.
t is less than the atmospheric pressure, it is called negative or vacuum pressure or vacuum.
bsolute zero pressure would mean perfect vacuum or complete absence of molecules.
h the gauge pressure and vacuum tell how much pressure is greater than or less than the atmospheric pressure respectivel

mospheric pressure, therefore,decreases exponentiallywith increasing height and increases exponentiallywith decreasing
heightfrom a certain chosen reference surface.
Atmospheric pressure is measured by a Hg barometer.
The standardvalues of atmospheric pressure are
1 atm =760 mm Hg = 101.325 Kpa

Pressure: A normal force
exerted by a fluid per unit area

68 kg

136 kg


0.23 kgf/cm2

0.46 kgf/cm2

P=68/300=0.23 kgf/cm2

The normal stress (or pressure) on

the feet of a chubby person is much
greater than on the feet of a slim

Absolute pressure: The actual pressure at a given position. It is

measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure).
Gage pressure: The difference between the absolute pressure and
the local atmospheric pressure. Most pressure-measuring devices are
calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere, and so they indicate gage
Vacuum pressures: Pressures below atmospheric pressure.
this text,
pressure P
will denote

Pascals law: The pressure applied

to a confined fluid increases the
pressure throughout by the same

The area ratio A2/A1 is

called the ideal
mechanical advantage
of the hydraulic lift.

Lifting of a large
weight by a small
force by the
application of
Pascals law.

The measure of degree of hotness or coolness of a body is called

The average kinetic energy of all the molecules of a body/system is know

as temperature.
Temperature is a measure of the molecular activity of a substance. The
greater the movement
of molecules, the higher the temperature.
It is a relative measure of how "hot" or "cold" a substance is and can be
used to predict the direction of heat transfer.

Adiabatic wall (resists heat flow)

OR which will be sufficiently strong to
resists the stress developed because
of imbalance of properties b/w system
A and system B.
e.g wood,asbestos

System c
Xc Yc

It is a thermodynamic property that
determines that whether or not a
system is in thermal equilibrium with
other system.

Temperature Scales

he two temperature scales normally employed for measurement purposes are the Fahrenheit (F)
nd Celsius (C) scales.
These scales are based on a specification of the number of increments
between the freezing point and boiling point of water at standard atmospheric pressure.
The Celsius scale has 100 units between these points, and the Fahrenheit scale has 180 units.

he freezing point of water was selected as the zero point of the Celsius scale. The coldest
emperature achievable with a mixture of ice and salt water was selected as the zero point of the
ahrenheit scale. The temperature at which water boils was set at 100 on the Celsius scale and
12 on the Fahrenheit scale.
The relationship between the scales is represented by the followingequations:
F = 32 + (9/5)
C = (F - 32.0) (5/9)

17-2 Temperature and

Temperature is generally measured using
either the Fahrenheit or the Celsius scale.
The freezing point of water is 0C, or 32F;
the boiling point of water is 100C, or

ergy the ability to do work. All energy is relative! Energy-in-transit is

Three kinds of energy:

(1) potential - energy due to relative position,

(2) kinetic - energy due to relative velocity,
) internal - the sum of all potential and kinetic energies of constituent par
toms, molecules, etc.] of a system.

Two kinds of energy-in-transit:

) heat energy transferred between system and surroundings because of

mperature difference, or gradient.
) work - energy transferred between system and surroundings because of
essure difference, or gradient.

Thermodynamic concept of energy

Energy in
al energy)


Energy in


Point Function: They depend on the

state only, and not on how a system
reaches that state. All properties are
point functions.
Process A: V2- V1= 3 m3
Process B: V2- V1= 3 m

Path function: Their

magnitudes depend
on the path
followed during a
process as well as
the end states.
Work (W), heat (Q)
are path functions.
Process A: WA= 10

Reversible Process

reversibleprocess for a system is defined as a process that, once having taken place, can be
versed, and in so doing leaves no change in either the system or surroundings. In other words
e system and surroundings are returned to their original condition before the process took place.
reality, there are no truly reversible processes; however, for analysis purposes, one uses
versible to make the analysis simpler, and to determine maximum theoretical efficiencies.
erefore, the reversible process is an appropriate starting point on which to base engineering
udy and calculation.
hough the reversible process can be approximated, it can never be matched by real processes.
ne way to make real processes approximate reversible process is to carry out the process in a
ries of small or infinitesimal steps. For example, heat transfer may be considered reversible
t occurs due to a small temperature difference between the system and its surroundings.

r example, transferring heat across a temperature difference of 0.00001 F "appears" to be more

versible than for transferring heat across a temperature difference of 100 F. Therefore, by
oling or heating the system in a number of infinitesamally small steps, we can approximate a
versible process. Although not practical for real processes, this method is beneficial for
ermodynamic studies since the rate at which processes occur is not important.

Irreversible Process

n irreversible process is a process that cannot return both the system and the
surroundings to their original conditions. That is, the system and the surrounding
would not return to their original conditions if the process was reversed.

r example, an automobile engine does not give back the fuel it took to drive up a h
as it coasts back down the hill.

ere are many factors that make a process irreversible. Four of the most common
causes of irreversibility are friction, unrestrained expansion of a fluid, heat transf
through a finite temperature difference, and mixing of two different substances.
These factors are present in real, irreversible processes and prevent these
processes from being reversible.


Work is defined as the product of a force and the distance moved in the direction of force.

en a boundary of a closed system moves in the direction of the force acting on it, then the surroundings d
workon the system. When the boundary is moved outwards the work is done by the system on its
The units of works are N m or Joule.

ork is a form of energy, but it is energy in transit. Work is not a property of a system. Work is a process do
by or on a system, but a system contains no work.

Work is done by the system when it is used to turn a turbine and thereby generate electricity in
turbine-generator. Work is done on the system when a pump is used to move the working fluid
rom one location to another. A positive value for work indicates that work is done by the
ystem on its surroundings; a negative value indicates that work is done on the system by its

Work Done byAn Expanding Gas

The system expands slowly enough to
maintain thermodynamic equilibrium.

dW Fdy PAdy
Increase in volume, dV

dW PdV
+dV Positive
Work (Work is
done by the gas)
-dV Negative Work (Work is
done on the gas)

AHistorical Convention
+dV Positive Work (Work is
done by the gas)

Energy leaves the system

and goes to the environment.

-dV Negative Work (Work is

done on the gas)

Energy enters the system

from the environment.

Total Work Done

dW PdV


To evaluate the integral, we must know

how the pressure depends (functionally)
on the volume.

Pressure as a Function of Volume



Work is the area under

the curve of a PV-diagram.
Work depends on the path
taken in PV space.
The precise path serves to
describe the kind of
process that took place.

Different Thermodynamic Paths

The work done depends on the initial and final

states and the path taken between these states.

Work done by a Gas

When a gas expands, it does work on its environment

Consider a piston with cross-sectional area A

filled with gas. For a small displacement dx,
the work done by the gas is:

dWby = F dx = pA dx = p (A dx)= p dV
We generally assume quasi-static processes (slow
enough that p and T are well defined at all times):
This is just the area under the p-V curve


Wby p dV



Note that the amount of work needed to take the system from one
state to another is not unique! It depends on the path taken.

Heat is a form of energy which flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower
temperature, virtue of temperature difference between the bodies.

Heat, like work, is energy in transit. The transfer of energy as heat, however, occurs at the
molecular level as a result of a temperature difference. The symbol Q is used to denote hea

A positive value for heat indicates that heat is added to the system by its

surroundings. This is in contrast to work that is positive when energy is transferred from the
system and negative when transferred to the system.

For example, when a body A at a certain temperature, say 20 C is brought into contact with
body B at a higher temperature, say 21C, then there will be a transfer of heat from B to A
until the temperature of A and B are equal. When the temperature of A is the same as the
temperature of B no heat transfer takes place between the bodies, and they are said to be i
thermal equilibrium.

What is Heat?
Up to mid-1800s heat was considered a substance -- a
caloric fluid that could be stored in an object and
transferred between objects.
A more recent and still common misconception is that
heat is the quantity of thermal energy in an object.
system from a thermal reservoir
The term Heat (Q) is properly
used to describe
in transit, thermal energy transferred into or out of a
(like cash transfers into and out of your bank account)

Q is not a state function --- the heat depends on the

process, not just on the initial and final states of the system
Sign of Q :
Q > 0 system gains thermal energy
Q < 0 system loses thermal energy

1st Law of Thermodynamics


positiveQ:heat added tosystem

positiveW :workdoneby system
statement of energy conservation for a thermodynamic
internal energy U is a state variable
W, Q process dependent

The First Law of Thermodynamics

-- Heat and work are forms of energy transfer
and energy is conserved.

change in
total internal energy

work done
U = heat
to system
on the system

State Function

Process Functions


U = Q - Wby