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Chain Surveying

SURVEYING
It is the technique, profession, and
science of accurately determining
the terrestrial or three-dimensional
position of points and the
distances and angles between

Types of Surveying

ON Compass
THE Surveying
BASIS
Theodolites
OF

Chain Surveying
Plane Table
Surveying

INSTRUMENTS

Photographic
Surveying

Modern
Surveying

Topic of Presentation

CHAIN
SURVEYING

What is done in Chain


Surveying?
In Chain Surveying, only linear
measurements are made i.e. no angular
measurements are made. Triangle is the only
figure that can be plotted with only
measurement of sides to enclose an area.
Hence, in chain survey area to be plotted
should be covered with a network of triangles.
Therefore, chain surveying is also known as
Triangulation. Chain survey is the simplest
method of surveying. In this survey only
measurements are taken in the field, and the
rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. are
done in the office. This is most suitable

Suitable cases
Area to be surveyed

is comparatively
small.
Ground is fairly
level.
Area is open.
Details to be filled
up are simple and
less.

Non-Suitable
cases

Area to be surveyed

is large.
Ground is quite

uneven.
Area is crowded.
Details to be shown
are too many.

Requirements for a Chain


Survey
Chain
Measuring tape
Ranging rod
Arrows
Cross Staf
Pegs
Field book
Plumb bob

Chain
A chain is a unit of length; it measures
66 feet or 22 yards or 100 links.
There are 10 chains in a furlong, and 80
chains in one statute mile.
An acre is the area of 10 square chains
(that is, an area of one chain by one
furlong).
The chain has been used for several
centuries in Britain and in some other
countries influenced by British practice.
The ends of the chain are provided with
handles for dragging the chain on the

The length of the chain is measured from

the outside of one handle to the outside of


another handle.
Following are the various types of chain in
common use:
Metric Chains
Gunters Chains
Engineers Chains
Etc.

METRIC CHAINS
Metric chains are made in lengths 20m and

30m. Tallies are fixed at every five-meter


length and brass rings are provided at
every meter length except where tallies are
attached.

GUNTERS CHAIN
One of the first chains used in the U.S. was

the Gunters chain.


The Gunters chain was a series of links
attached to a handle which included an
adjustment for wear.
The chain was 22 yards (66 ft) long.

MEASURING TAPE
A tape measure or
measuring tape is a
flexible form of ruler. It
consists of a ribbon of
cloth, plastic, fiber
glass, or metal strip
with linearmeasurement
markings. It is a
common measuring
tool. Its flexibility
allows for a measure of
great length to be

The following are the various types of tapes


Cloth tape
Metallic tape
Steel tape
Invar tape
Among the above, metallic tapes are
widely used in surveying. A metallic tape is
made of varnished strip of waterproof line
interwoven with small brass, copper or
bronze wires. These are light in weight and
flexible and are made 2m, 5m 10m, 20m,
30m, and 50m.

RANGING ROD
Ranging rods are used to range some

intermediate points in the survey line .


The length of the ranging rod is either 2m
or 3m.
They are shod at bottom with a heavy iron
point.
Ranging rods are divided into equal parts
0.2m long and they are painted alternately
black and white or red and white or red,
white and black.
When they are at considerable distance,
red and white or white and yellow flags

ARROWS
Arrows are made of good quality hardened

steel wire of 4 mm diameter.


The arrows are made 400 mm in length,
are pointed at one and the other end is
bent into a loop or circle

CROSS STAFF
The simplest instrument used for setting

out a right angle.

OFFSET RODS
The ofset rod is used for measuring the of

set of short lengths.


It is similar to a ranging rod and is usually
of 3m lengths.

PEGS

These are rods made from hard timber and

tapered at one end, generally 25mm or


30mm square and 150mm long wooden
pegs are used to mark the position of the
station on.

PLUMB BOB
While chaining along sloping ground, a

plumb bob is required to transfer the points


to the ground.

Technique of unfolding and


folding of a metric chain.
UNFOLDING:
Remove the strap of the folded chain and
take both the handles in the left hand and
hold the remaining portion of the chain in
the right hand.
Holding both the handles in the left hand,
throw the remaining portion o f the chain in
the forward direction on the ground.
Now the follower stands at the starting
station by holding one handle and directs
the leader to move forward by holding the
other handle until the chain is fully
stretched.

FOLDING:
Bring the two handles together on the
ground by pulling the chain at the center.
Commencing from the center two pairs of
links are taken at a time with the right hand
and placed alternatively in both directions
in the left hand.
When the chain is completely folded the
two brass handles will appear at the top.
Now tie the chain with leather strap.

Methods of Measuring
distance
INDIRECT
MEASUREMENT
It involves methods
such as tachometry,
electromagnetic
distance
measurement, and
trigonometric
leveling.
Tachometry uses a
theodolite fitted
with a stadia
diaphragm or a

DIRECT
MEASUREMENT
Counting of paces:
Passometer
Pedometer
Use of wheel-based
instruments:
Perambulator
Odometer
Speedometer

Technical terms used


STATION- It is a point of importance at the

beginning or at the end of a survey line.


MAIN STATION- These are the stations at

the beginning or at the end of lines forming


main skeleton.
SUBSIDIARY OR TIE STATIONS- These are

the stations selected on main lines to run


auxiliary/secondary lines for the purpose of
locating interior details.

BASE LINE- It is the most important line and

is the longest line. Main framework of


survey lines are built on it.
DETAIL LINE- If the important objects are

far away from the main lines, the ofset


readings are too large, which results into
inaccuracies and time-consuming in the
field work. In such cases the secondary
lines are run by selecting stations on main
lines.
CHECK LINES- These are the lines

connecting main station to a subsidiary


station on the opposite side or connecting

Selection of Stations
A station selected should be visible from at

least two more stations.


If possible should have one or two base
lines which run on level ground and
through the middle of the area.
Main frame should have as few lines as
possible.
All triangles should be well-conditioned.
Each triangle should have at least one
check line.
Subsidiary stations should be selected such
that ofsets to main objects from subsidiary

Avoid obstacles to ranging and chaining.


As far as possible survey lines should be on

the level ground.


Sides of the larger triangles pass as close

to boundary lines as possible. They should


be almost parallel to the boundary.
Trespassing and frequent crossing of the

roads should be avoided.

Ofsets
Lateral measurements to chain line for

locating ground features are known as


Ofsets.
There are two types of ofsets used in chain
surveying viz. PERPENDICULAR OFFSET and
OBLIQUE OFFSET.
In case of perpendicular ofset, foot of the
perpendicular on chain line is found from
the object and the surveyor notes down
ofset distance and the chainage of foot of
the perpendicular.
In case of oblique ofset, the distance of the
object from two convenient points on the
chain lines are measured and noted down.

Setting out Perpendicular


Ofsets
Perpendicular ofsets may

be set by
Swinging
Using cross stafs
Using optical square
Using prism square

Perpendicular ofset by
Swinging
The leader takes the end of the tape and

holds it on the object.


The follower swings the tape on the chain
line and finds the shortest distance of the
object from the chain line.
Since the perpendicular distance is the
shortest distance of a point from a line, it is
noted as the perpendicular distance.
The follower reads the corresponding
chainage and the ofset length.
The recorder records it in the field book.

Prism Square
It works on the principle as the optical

square.
In this case, a prism with angle between
reflecting surfaces of 45 degrees is used as
shown.

Errors
Incorrect length of chain.
Incorrect ranging.
Loose chain.
Temperature change.
Variation in pull.
Errors in slope measurements.
Incorrect marking.
Personal mistakes.
Cumulative errors.
Compensating errors.

Field Work
Reconnaissance- Reconnaissance of the

area to be surveyed has to be undertaken


first. This identifies key features of the area
the survey are to be located and
determines the kind of equipment needed
to be carried to complete the survey.
Equipment- Generally the following
equipment will be required. A chain with at
least 10 arrows, a metallic or steel tape, a
dozen of ranging rods, an ofset rod, pegs,
a plumb bob, etc.
Marking stations- Survey stations should
be marked on the ground as per the plan
prepared.

Plotting a Chain Survey (Office


work)
After carrying field work next step in
surveying is plotting to get plan of the area
surveyed. It is carried out by the surveyor
himself or the assistance of the draftsmen
may be obtained.
Steps involved in plotting are as follows:
SCALE: Depending upon the are in the
field and area of drawing sheet scale is
decided. Normally, it is decided before the
commencement of survey itself

ORIENTATION: Skeleton of the network of

triangles should be drawn to a scale on a


tracing sheet and the orientation of the plan
on drawing sheet be decided. After the
orientation is decided using the skeleton
diagram on tracing sheet base line and
stations are pricked.
DRAWING NETWORK OF TRIANGLES: First

base line is drawn to the scale. By intersection


other stations are fixed and main triangles are
drawn. The network of triangles is checked
using check lines.

PLOTTING OFFSETS: Any one of the

following methods may be used


Mark points along chain line and draw
perpendicular with set square. If oblique
ofsets are taken, arcs are drawn from the
respective positions on chain line and the
position of the objects fixed up.
Main scale and ofset scale may be
used. Main scale is kept along direction of
chain line and ofset scale gives the
perpendiculars to it.
OTHER DETAILS: If readings are taken to
only one or two faces of buildings, using
overall dimension outline of the building
may be completed. Graphical scale should

Conventional Colours
Roads- Burnt Sienna/Brown.
Buildings- Light Grey.
Compound wall- Indigo.
Water- Borders edged with

Prussian blue.
Trees- Green.

Conventional Symbols
Chain line
Triangulation
station
Traverse station
Building
Shed with open side
Shed with closed side

Temple, Mosque, Church


Path
Unfenced road
Fenced road
Railway line: Single
Railway line: Double
Road bridge

Level crossing
Road and railway
Boundary without pillar
Boundary with pillar
Township on table
boundary
River
Pond
Electric line
Tree

Orchard
Woods
Grass
Cutting
Embankment
North line

Traversing with chain and


tape only
Though triangulation is the basic principle

of chain surveying, it is possible to go for


traversing using only chain and tape.
Traversing is the survey which is
conducted along desired lines by
measuring the length and the direction of
survey lines.
CLOSED TRAVERSE- When the lines form a
circuit which starts from a line and after
covering an area ends at starting point.
OPEN TRAVERSE- If the starting point of
survey and ending point are diferent.
Closed traverse- lakes and building