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Lecture: 58

PROPORTIONAL CONTROL FOR SET


POINT CHANGE (SERVO PROBLEM)
PROPORTIONAL CONTROL FOR LOAD
CHANGE (REGULATORY PROBLEM)

Control System of Heated Stirred Tank

Figure 1 (a): Temperature Control System.

Control System of Heated Stirred Tank

Figure 1 (b): Temperature Control System.

Control System of Heated Stirred Tank

Figure 1 (c): Temperature Control System.

Control System of Heated Stirred Tank

Figure 1 (d): Block Diagram of Temperature Control System.

Assumptions

To reduce the symbols 1/wC is replaced by A.


It is assumed that the valve does not have dynamic
lag,

For which the transfer function G1 = Kv (constant)


Further Kv = 1.

No any dynamic lag in measuring element

m = 0

i.e.

So the transfer function simply represented by 1

Introducing these assumptions leads to the


simplified block diagram of fig-1 (e)

Control System of Heated Stirred Tank

Figure 1 (e): Block Diagram of Temperature Control System.

Aim
To

obtain the
OVERALL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
for changes in set point and load
when proportional control is
used.

Proportional Control for Set-Point


Change (Servo Problem)

The Transfer Function of Proportional Control is


given as

Gc = K (already seen in previous lectures)

The overall transfer function in figure 1(e) will


be:

(1)

Proportional Control for Set-Point


Change (Servo Problem)

This may be rearranged in the form of firstorder lag to give:


(2)

Where

Proportional Control for Set-Point


Change (Servo Problem)

According to this result, the response of the tank


temperature to change in set point is first order.
Time constant for the control system, 1 , is less than
that of stirred tank itself .
This means that one of the effects of feedback control
system is to speed up the response.
The response of the system to a unit step change in
set point TR is shown in figure 2.
For this case of a unit-step change in set-point, T
approach A1 = KcA / (1+KcA), a fraction of unity.
The desired change is, of course, 1.
Thus, the ultimate value of the temperature T()
does not match the desired change.
This discrepancy is called offset and is defined as:
(3)

Step Response for a Unit-Step Change in


Set Point

Figure 2: Unit Step Response for Set Point Change (P Control).

Proportional Control for Load


Change (Regulatory Problem)

The same control system shown in Fig-1(e) is to


be considered.
This time the set point remains fixed; that is, TR
= 0.
We are interested in the response of the system
to change in the inlet stream temperature, i.e.,
to a load change.
(4)

Proportional Control for Load


Change (Regulatory Problem)

This may be rearranged in the form of firstorder lag, thus:

(5)

Where

Proportional Control for Load


Change (Regulatory Problem)

The response of the tank temperature to change in load


(like previous case) is first order.
The over all time constant for the control system, 1 ,is
same as for set point change.
The response of the system to a unit step change in
inlet temp. Ti is shown in figure 3.
It may be seen that T approaches 1/ (1+KcA).
In this case, the major advantage of control is in
reduction of offset. From eq(3), the offset becomes:
..(6)

As for the case of step change in set point, the


offset is reduced as controller gain Kc is
increased.

Unit Step Response for Load Change

Figure 3: Unit Step Response for load change (P Control).