Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

# Lecture: 58

## PROPORTIONAL CONTROL FOR SET

POINT CHANGE (SERVO PROBLEM)
CHANGE (REGULATORY PROBLEM)

Assumptions

## To reduce the symbols 1/wC is replaced by A.

It is assumed that the valve does not have dynamic
lag,

Further Kv = 1.

m = 0

i.e.

## Introducing these assumptions leads to the

simplified block diagram of fig-1 (e)

## Figure 1 (e): Block Diagram of Temperature Control System.

Aim
To

obtain the
OVERALL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
for changes in set point and load
when proportional control is
used.

## Proportional Control for Set-Point

Change (Servo Problem)

given as

be:

(1)

## Proportional Control for Set-Point

Change (Servo Problem)

(2)

Where

## Proportional Control for Set-Point

Change (Servo Problem)

## According to this result, the response of the tank

temperature to change in set point is first order.
Time constant for the control system, 1 , is less than
that of stirred tank itself .
This means that one of the effects of feedback control
system is to speed up the response.
The response of the system to a unit step change in
set point TR is shown in figure 2.
For this case of a unit-step change in set-point, T
approach A1 = KcA / (1+KcA), a fraction of unity.
The desired change is, of course, 1.
Thus, the ultimate value of the temperature T()
does not match the desired change.
This discrepancy is called offset and is defined as:
(3)

Set Point

## Figure 2: Unit Step Response for Set Point Change (P Control).

Change (Regulatory Problem)

## The same control system shown in Fig-1(e) is to

be considered.
This time the set point remains fixed; that is, TR
= 0.
We are interested in the response of the system
to change in the inlet stream temperature, i.e.,
(4)

Change (Regulatory Problem)

## This may be rearranged in the form of firstorder lag, thus:

(5)

Where

Change (Regulatory Problem)

## The response of the tank temperature to change in load

(like previous case) is first order.
The over all time constant for the control system, 1 ,is
same as for set point change.
The response of the system to a unit step change in
inlet temp. Ti is shown in figure 3.
It may be seen that T approaches 1/ (1+KcA).
In this case, the major advantage of control is in
reduction of offset. From eq(3), the offset becomes:
..(6)

## As for the case of step change in set point, the

offset is reduced as controller gain Kc is
increased.