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Fiber

A natural or synthetic
filament that can be
spun into yarn.
Fabric
A cloth made by
weaving, knitting, or
felting fibers.

Natural Fibers
Fibers derived from plants or
animals:
Linen
Cotton
Silk
Silk
Bamboo
Wool
Hemp
Cashmere

Synthetic Fibers
Fibers created by extruding fiber
forming materials through spinnerets
into the air forming a filament:
Polyester
Nylon
Acrylic

Metallic
Spandex

Synthetic fibers are also referred to as man-made


or manufactured fibers. They are most commonly
made from petroleum-based products.

Main fabric types Woven fabric


Knit fabric
Non-woven fabric

Woven Fabric
Woven fabrics are composed of two sets of
yarns, the warp and the weft.
Cloth is created by weaving the warp and the
weft over and under one another. The manner in
which the warp and weft are woven over and
under one another determines the weave of the
fabric.
There are five basic weaves: Plain, Basket, Twill,
Satin, Jacquard
Woven fabric only stretches on the bias unless it
is made from elastic fibers.
Woven fabric frays unless hemmed or treated
with pinking shears.

Knit Fabric
A fabric made
interlocking loops of
one or more yarns
together by hand
with knitting needles
or by machine.
Examples of knitted fabrics:

Tricot
Jersey Knit
Double Knit
Stockinette
Balbriggan
Rib Knit

Schematic diagram of
a knit fabric.

Non-woven
Made when fibres are pressed together using heat &
moisture

Plain Weave
Plain weave is a
simple over-under
pattern. It can be
identified by its
checkered
appearance.
Examples of plain weave
fabrics:
Poplin
Organza
Chiffon
Taffeta
Grosgrain

Plain Weave.

Basket Weave
Basket Weave is a
variation of plain weave.
It is a simple over-under
pattern created with an
equal number of warp
and weft yarns woven as
a group. The image
shown is a 2 x 2 basket
weave. Basket weave
fabrics, like plain weave
fabrics, also have a
checkered appearance.

Basket Weave.

Twill Weave
A twill weave can be
identified by its diagonal
lines. The diagonal rib
created by the stair-step
of the twill weave is
called a wale.
Examples of twill weave fabrics:
Denim
Chino
Herringbone
Houndstooth
Drill
Gabardine
Serge
Tweed

3/1 twill,

Satin Weave
Satin weave is characterized by
long floats of warp yarn. The warp
yarn goes over four weft yarns
before being woven under a single
weft yarn. There is a simple 4 over,
1 under pattern. This pattern
creates long floats of warp yarn
that create a soft hand and lightreflecting sheen.
Satin fabric is made from long
filament fibers in either polyester
or silk. When a satin weave is used
on a fiber with a short staple, such
as cotton, it is referred to as
sateen.

Satin weave.

Jacquard Weaving
Jacquard weaving is done on a
specialized loom called a
Jacquard loom. The jacquard
loom simplifies the process of
weaving complicated textile
patterns with its punch card
system.

Silk brocade fabric,