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Cell maintain

a Balance
RUDY
SMA ABBS SURAKARTA

Section Objectives
Explain how the processes of
diffusion, passive transport, and
active transport occur and why
they are important to cells.
Predict the effect of a hypotonic,
hypertonic, or isotonic solution on
a cell.

Lipidbilayersareselectivelypermeable

Decreasing
permeabilit
y

Size polarity ions

ThePermeabilityoftheLipidBilayer
Hydrophobic molecules
Are lipid soluble and can pass through the membrane
rapidly

Polar molecules
Do not cross membrane rapidly

Ions
Do not cross the membrane at all

Transportprocesses
Solutes : dissolved ions and small organic
molecules,
i.e., Na+,K+, H+, Ca++, Cl,- ,sugars,
amino acids, nucleotides
Three transport processes:
a. Simple diffusion directly through
Require
membrane
Carrier b. Facilitated diffusion
protein

c. Active transport requires energy

Osmosis:DiffusionofWater
Diffusion is the movement of particles
from an area of higher concentration to
an area of lower concentration.
In a cell, water always moves to reach an
equal concentration on both sides of the
membrane.

Osmosis:DiffusionofWater
The diffusion of water across a
selectively permeable membrane is
called osmosis.
Regulating the water flow through the
plasma membrane is an important factor
in maintaining homeostasis within a cell.

Whatcontrols
osmosis?
Unequal distribution of particles, called a
concentration gradient, is one factor that
controls osmosis.
During osmosis, water diffuses across a
selectively permeable membrane. Notice
that the number of sugar molecules did not
change on each side of the membrane, but
the number of water molecules on either
side of the membrane did change.

Osmosis:DiffusionofWater
Most cells whether in multicellular or
unicellular organisms, are subject to
osmosis because they are surrounded by
water solutions.

Cellsinanisotonicsolution

Isotonic Solution
In an isotonic solution, the
concentration of dissolved
substances in the solution is the
same as the concentration of
dissolved substances inside the
cell.

Cellsinahypotonicsolution
In the hypotonic solution, the
concentration of dissolved substances
is lower in the solution outside the cell
than the concentration inside the cell.
Therefore, there is more water outside
the cell than inside.

Cellsinahypertonicsolution
In a hypertonic solution, the
concentration of dissolved substances
outside the cell is higher than the
concentration inside the cell.
Cells in a hypertonic solution
experience osmosis that causes water
to flow out.

PassiveTransport
When a cell uses no energy to move particles
across a membrane passive transport occurs
Particles go DOWN their concentration gradient.
Diffusion & osmosis are passive transport.

Plasma
membrane

Concentrationgradient

PassiveTransportbyproteins
Passive transport of materials across the
membrane using transport proteins is called
facilitated diffusion.

Plasma
membra
ne

Channel
proteins
Concentrati
ongradient

PassiveTransportbyproteins
Some transport proteins, called channel proteins,
form channels that allow specific molecules to
flow through.

ActiveTransport
active transport :Movement of materials
through a membrane against a concentration
gradient and requires energy from the cell.
Cellularenergy

Plasma
membrane

Carrier
proteins

Cellular
energy

Concentration
gradient

Howactivetransportoccurs
a transport protein called a carrier protein first
binds with a particle of the substance to be
transported.
Each type of carrier protein has a shape that fits
a specific molecule or ion.

TransportofLargeParticles
Endocytosis is a process by which a cell surrounds and takes in
material from its environment.
The material is engulfed and enclosed by a portion of the cells
plasma membrane.
resulting vacuole with its contents moves to the inside of the cell

Exocytosis is the expulsion or secretion of materials from a cell.

Endocytosis

Exocytose

Cell maintain its


balance through the
membrane transport
activities