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It is a branch of psychology devoted to
organizations and the workplace.
"Industrial-organizational psychologists
contribute to an organization's success by
improving the performance and well-being
of its people. An I-O psychologist
researches and identifies how behaviors
and attitudes can be improved through
hiring practices, training programs, and
feedback systems.

Job Selection & Placement

Selection is a process of gathering
information for the purposes of evaluating
and deciding who should be employed or
hired for the short and Long-term
interests of the individual and the
organisation.In other words it is the
process of getting the best of most
qualified candidates from the pool of job
seekers adjudged to have potential for job

Importance of selection and

To fairly and without any element of
discrimination evaluate job applicants in view of
individual differences and capabilities .
To employ qualified and competent hands that
can meet the job requirement of the
To place job applicants in the best interest of
the organization and the individual.
To help in human resources manpower planning
purposes in organization.
To reduce recruitment cost that may arise as a
result of poor selection and placement

Steps taken in Job selection

Decision Making

Pre-employment testing is a common form
of screening. Aptitude tests can provide
valuable information regarding applicants
personality traits, practical skills,
intellectual ability and more. Conducting a
psychometric test could have avoided the
situation as the employer would have
become aware of particular personality
traits of the applicant prior to placement.

An application for employment, job
application, or application form (often
simply called an application) is a form or
collection of forms that an individual
seeking employment, called an applicant,
must fill out as part of the process of
informing an employer of the applicant's
availability and desire to be employed, and
persuading the employer to offer the
applicant employment.

The interviewing process is a good method
of filtering best talent matching with
required job, and used by almost all
companies across the globe. A structured
interview that reflects the positions needs
and company requirements commonly
provides added value to the employer, and
also plays an important role in the process
of establishing good interpersonal
communication links.

Types of Interview
Behavioral Interviews
Exit Interview
Lunch and Dinner Interviews
Group Interviews
Interviewing in a Public Place
Second Interviews
Telephone Interviews
Video Interviews

Job Interview Tips

Practice for interview
Prepare answers
Do remember to keep Watch
Get Ready in proper dress
Be On time
Stay Calm
Show What You Know
Follow Up

Example of Interview questions

1. Tell me about yourself:
2. Why did you leave your last job?
3. What experience do you have in this field?
4. Do you consider yourself successful?
5. What do co-workers say about you?
6. What do you know about this organization?
7. What have you done to improve your
knowledge in the last year?
8. Are you applying for other jobs?
9. want to work for this organization?
10. Do you know anyone who works for us?

11. What kind of salary do you need

12. Are you a team player?
13. How long would you expect to work for us
if hired?
14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did
you feel about that?
15. What is your philosophy towards work?
16. If you had enough money to retire right
now, would you?
17. Have you ever been asked to leave a
18. Explain how you would be an asset to this
19. Why should we hire you?
20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made

Decision Making
State The Problem
Identify Alternatives
Evaluate The Alternatives
Make A Decision
Implement Your Decision

Performance appraisal
planning systematic description of
employee strength and weaknesses
The manager assessing should avoid
biasness and tactless criticism
remunerating staff means timely
training and developing staff.
meeting legislative requirements.

Job satisfaction
Decentralized decision making. An
organizational model where authority
extents through out the organization.
Centralized decision making is when
authority rests in hands of few top
Job satisfaction also depends on type
of supervisor and nature of work.

Environment plays an important role
in job satisfaction. All businesses
must ensure their workplace whether this is a factory, office or
shop - meets minimum health and
safety standards.

Facilities for customers and employees

Meeting legal obligations to provide toilet, food,
rest, storage and other facilities for workers and
Smoking policies, drugs and alcohol abuse
Identifying and dealing with problems caused by
smoking, drugs and alcohol
Protect employees and the environment
from air pollution
Understanding the effects of air pollution and
what your business can do to reduce them
Dealing with noise and noise pollution
When and why noise can be hazardous or antisocial, and meeting your legal duties to prevent
harm and nuisance
Manage harmful substances safely
Dealing with chemicals, hazardous, dangerous or
toxic materials or substance

Some other points

carrying out a risk assessment
providing clean toilets and sanitation
of communication
meeting firetypes
ensuring employees use IT
equipment safely
reporting accidents or dangerous
incidents in the workplace to the
relevant authorities

Factors improving efficiency

Physical factors(rest breaks,
boredom, physical health, working
conditions,pay,saftey issues)
Psychological factors (stress, lack of
communication, supervisor behavior,
security at job, personality type,)

Accidents and its control

An accident at work is defined as
an external, sudden, unexpected,
unintended, and violent event,
during the execution of work or
arising out of it, which causes
damage to the health of or loss of
the life of the employee (the

Workplace safety is a category of management responsibility

in places of employment.

To ensure the safety and health of workers, managers establish a

focus on safety that can include elements such as:
management leadership and commitment
employee engagement
safety programs, policies, and plans
safety processes, procedures, and practices
safety goals and objectives
safety inspections for workplace hazards
safety program audits
safety tracking & metrics
hazard identification and control
safety committees to promote employee involvement
safety education and training
safety communications to maintain a high level of awareness on

Things you should do for your safety

Take responsibility for your own health and safety
Try and avoid wearing loose clothing or jewellery if operating
In conjunction with your employer ensure that you get all of the
correct training that you need to safely complete your job
Take sufficient steps to avoid putting other people, as well as yourself
at risk by what you do or don't do whilst working
Keep long hair tied back and out of the way
Inform your employer if you have injured yourself or have something
that might prevent you from doing your job properly
Detail any injuries, illnesses or strains that you might have incurred to
your employer as soon as they happen
Do not interfere with anything that has been provided for your health
and safety
Refrain from misusing the equipment in the correct manor
Inform your employer if you are required to take any medication that
could prevent you from doing your job correctly -

Managers cannot overlook employee
morale when evaluating a team's
success or productivity. Although it is
often difficult to measure and takes
several data points to gauge its
impact, when morale is low, you feel
it. Unfortunately, low morale is
contagious and can spread like a
cancerous cell through a team or

Top Three tips, managers can use on a daily basis

to make sure they're contributing to high morale:
Notice when your people do something
well and tell them about it.
Listening cultivates respect. Do not just
talk at employees; listen to their ideas,
concerns, and opinions.
Show more appreciation. Appreciation is
the biggest motivator for employees.
Managers who do not express appreciation
sow the seeds of discontent and

Types of communication
Star communication . Low morale
Chain communication. job satisfaction
Circle communication. High morale

Ten ways of improving Morale

Let employees express their feelings about the difficulties and
changes that are going on. Telling them they need to move on and
get over it will only foster anger and resentment, or result in
employees becoming disengaged.
Don't focus all your efforts on getting buy-in to the changes you
seek. People need to know you understand their perspective and
their feelings before they will listen to your exhortations.
Support constructive criticism. Make it safe for employees to
express dissent or criticism without being labeled as not being a
team player. Ignoring this will create a workforce that learns not to
Give employees many opportunities to solve problems and take
constructive action, the strongest antidote to fear and feeling
Establish and communicate clear short-term goals to build
confidence and a sense of purpose.

Improve your communication, giving details about what is

going on each step of the way. When people feel vulnerable,
their tolerance for ambiguity decreases.
When talking about your vision and challenges, use stories and
analogies, rather than PowerPoint slides filled with statistics
and facts. Great leaders are masters at inspiring people through
compelling stories.
Make sure you are wired into the voice of your internal
customers through employee advisory groups, presidents'
breakfasts, team meetings, and focus groups. You will get
valuable feedback to form effective strategies for executing
and communicating changes.
When asking for employee input and ideas, clearly define the
parameters of their input.
Celebrate victories and examples of excellence during difficult
times; it is important especially then for employees to feel like

Advertising is a form of communication that
typically attempts to persuade potential
customers to purchase or to consume more of
a particular brand of product or service.

Types of Advertisements
Print Advertising: newspapers, magazines, local
entertainment guides, etc.
Online Advertising: pay per click, search engines, banners,
flash movies, etc.
Media Advertising: radio, television, Internet radio, etc.
Outdoor Advertising: billboards, sporting events, etc.
Mobile Advertising: print on car, billboard towed by truck,
billboard on bus, etc.

Quality of an advertisement
Message must attract and hold
Message clear and meaningful.
It must be remembered.

The main objectives of advertising are:

Increasing the usage of a certain

product and hence acquiring more
Creating new customers and
increasing brand recognition.
To obtain feedback from customers
regarding a certain product.
To indicate introduction of new
products or replacement of old ones.