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Unit-4

Gating and Risering

Gating System:

The term gating system refers to all


passageways through which the molten metal passes to enter the mould
cavity.

Components
a. Pouring basin
b. Sprue/Down runner
c. Runner
d. Gates
e. Risers

Gating system

Purpose of Gating system


To minimize turbulence to avoid trapping gases
into the mold
To get enough metal into the mold cavity before
the metal starts to solidify
To establish proper temperature gradients to attain
directional solidification and to avoid shrinkage
Incorporates a system for trapping the non-metallic
inclusions
To avoid erosion of mould and core
To maximize the casting yield

Factors for proper gating function

Rate of pouring
Fluidity of metal
Size and type of gates
Size and type of sprue/runner
Type of pouring equipment

Types of Gating system


Classified based on Gating Ratio IA : SA: RA
a) Pressurized Gating
: IA is < than
SA and RA
b) Non Pressurized Gating : IA is > than SA
and RA

(a)

(b)

S.N. Pressurized gating systems

Unpressurized gating systems

1.

Gating ratio may be


order of 3: 2: 1

of the Gating ratio may be of the order of


1: 3: 2

2.

Air aspiration effect is minimum Air aspiration effect is more

3.

Volume flow of liquid from Volume flow of liquid from every


every ingate is almost equal.
ingate is different.

4.

They are smaller in volume for


a given flow rate of metal.
Therefore the casting yield is
higher.

5.

Velocity
is
high,
severe Velocity is low and turbulence is
turbulence may occur at corners. reduced.

They are larger in volume because


they involve large runners and gates
as compared to pressurized system
and thus the cast yield is reduced.

Types of gating system based on


pouring

Bottom pouring gating system

Improvised Design

DESIGN OF GATING SYSTEM


To fill the mould cavity without breaking the flow
of liquid metal and without using very high
pouring temperatures.
To avoid erosion of mould cavity.
To minimize turbulence and dross formation.
To prevent aspiration of air or mould gases in the
liquid metal stream.
To obtain favourable temperature gradients to
promote directional solidification.

Defects occurring due to improper design of gating system

Oxidation of metal
Cold shuts
Mould erosion
Shrinkages
Porosity
Misruns
Penetration of liquid metal into mould walls.

Type of Flow of molten metal


Laminar Flow
Re <2000, Low
velocity
Transitional Flow
Re 2000 4000,
Medium Velocity
Turbulent flow
Re>4000, high
velocity

Design principle for


Metal flow rate and velocity calculations

Using the convention that the head is measured relative to the Efflux
point, then
h3 = 0. Assuming that the system is operating in normal conditions
of 1 atmosphere P1=P3.
Finally the assumption is always made that the pouring basin
remains full so that at point 1, v1 = 0 in / sec. Therefore Bernoullis
Law reduces for points 1 and 3 to:
Pouring Time to fill the mould cavity = v/Q
Where v= Volume of mould cavity
Q = Volume flow rate

Problems
1. The sprue leading into the runner of a certain mold has a length =
175 mm. The cross-sectional area at the base of the sprue is 400
mm2. The mold cavity has a volume = 0.001 m3. Determine (a) the
velocity of the molten metal flowing through the base of the
downsprue, (b) the volume rate of flow, and (c) the time required
to fill the mold cavity.
Solution:
(a) Velocity V = (2 x 9815 x 175)0.5
= (3,435,096)0.5 = 1853 mm/s
(b) Volume flow rate Q = VA
= 1853 x 400 = 741,200 mm3/s
(c) Time to fill cavity TMF = v/Q
= 1,000,000/741,200 = 1.35 s

A mold has a downsprue of length = 6.0 in. The cross-sectional


area at the bottom of the sprue is 0.5 in2. The sprue leads into
a horizontal runner which feeds the mold cavity, whose volume
= 75 in3.
2.
Determine (a) the velocity of the molten metal flowing through
the base of the downsprue, (b) the volume rate of flow, and (c)
the time required to fill the mold cavity.
Solution:
(a) Velocity V = (2 x 32.2 x 12 x 6.0)0.5 = (4636.8)0.5 = 68.1
in/sec
(b) Volume flow rate Q = VA = 68.1 x 0.5 = 34.05 in3/sec
(c) Time to fill cavity TMF = v/Q = 75.0/34.05 = 2.2 sec.

3. Molten metal can be poured into the pouring cup of a sand mold at a
steady rate of 1000 cm3/s. The molten metal overflows the pouring
cup and flows into the downsprue. The cross section of the sprue is
circular, with a diameter at the top = 3.4 cm. If the sprue is 25 cm
long, determine the proper diameter at its base so as to maintain the
same volume flow rate.
Solution:
Velocity at base v = (2gh)0.5 = (2 x 981 x 25)0.5 = 221.5 cm/s
Assuming volumetric continuity,
area at base A = (1000 cm3 /s)/(221.5 cm/s)
= 4.51 cm2
Area of sprue A = D2/4
D2 = 4A/ = 4(4.51)/ = 5.74 cm2
D= 2.39 cm

4. The flow rate of liquid metal into the downsprue of a mold =


1 liter/sec.
The cross-sectional area at the top of the sprue = 800 mm 2,
and its length
= 175 mm. What area should be used at the base of the
sprue to avoid
aspiration of the molten metal?
Solution:
Flow rate Q = 1.0 litres/s = 1,000,000 mm 3/s
Velocity v = (2 x 9815 x 175)0.5 = 1854 mm/s
Area at base A = 1,000,000/1854 = 540 mm 2

Maximum allowable gate thickness to


avoid a hot spot at the junction with the
casting.

Riser
To prevent cavities/voids due to shrinkage
To provide molten metal to the casting as
it solidifies

R > t C
where t R and t C is the Solidification time
for Riser and Casting according to
Chvonirovs Rule

Solidification Time
Solidification takes time
Total solidification time TST = time required for
casting to solidify after pouring
TST depends on size and shape of casting by
relationship known as Chvorinov's Rule
Is a function of the volume of the casting and its
surface area

Volume

Time C
Surface Area

Where
C constant (mold material, metal property, temperature)
n 2

Volume and Surface area of various


shape of castings

EXAMPLE
5 cm

10 cm
15 cm

A
cylindrical
riser
with
dimensions of D=h must be
designed.
Previous
observations
show
tcasting=1.6
min.
for
casting.
Determine
dimension of riser.
triser=2 min.
2

Soln:

t Cm (V A) n

Vr

D h

D3

2 2 6 2
D
D
4
4
Vr
4 D3 D

2
Ar 6 4 D
6

Ar Dh
Vc 15 10 5 750cm3

Ac 2(15 10 15 5 10 5) 550cm 2
1.6 Cm (750 550) 2

Cm 0.86 min cm 2

2 0.86( D 6) 2

D 9.15cm

h 9.15cm

2. A cylindrical riser is to be designed for a sand casting mold.

The length of the cylinder is to be 1.25 times its diameter. The


casting is a plate, each side = 10 in and thickness = 0.75 in. If the
metal is cast iron, and the mold constant = 16.0 min/in2 in
Chvorinov's rule, determine the dimensions of the riser so that it
will take 30% longer for the riser to solidify.
Solution:
Casting:
Casting volume V = tL2 = 0.75(10.0)2 = 75 in3
Casting area A = 2L2 + 4Lt = 2(10.0)2 + 4(10.0)(0.75) = 230.0 in2
V/A = 75/230 = 0.3261
Casting TTS = 16(0.3261)2 = 1.70 min
Riser:
Riser TTS = 1.30(1.70) = 2.21 min
Riser volume V = D2H/4 = 0.25D2(1.25D) = 0.3125D3
Riser area A = 2D2/4 + DH = 0.5D2 + 1.25D2 = 1.75D2
V/A = 0.3125D3/1.75D2 = 0.1786D
Riser TTS = 16.0(0.1786D)2 = 16.0(0.03189)D2 = 0.5102D2 = 2.21 min
D2 = 2.21/0.5102 = 4.3316
D = (4.3316)0.5 = 2.081 in
H = 1.25(2.081) = 2.602 in.