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Digital

Communications
INTRODUCTION

Practical information
Course material
Course Text Book:
Digital Communications: Fundamentals and
Applications by Bernard Sklar,Prentice Hall, latest
edition
Additional Reference Books:
Digital Communications, by Ian A. Glover and Peter
M. Grant, Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2004, 2nd edition,
Communication Systems. 3rd Edition, Simon Haykins
Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems.
B.P. Lathi, 3rd Ed

Objective of the course


Learning fundamental issues in designing a digital communication system
and understanding the description of essential DC concepts:
Utilized Techniques for the purpose are tracing the signal from
Signal source through Transmitter, channel, reciever and finally to information sink
Signal transformation is organised according to nine major steps
Formatting and Source coding
Base band and Band pass signalling
Equalization and Channel coding
Multiplexing and Multiple access
Spreading, encryption and Synchronization....

More emphasis would be on System Design goals and


Trade-offs between various parameters (SNR, Pb and BW expenditure)
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Course Contents

Chapter 1

introduces the overall DCS and the basic signal transformations

Some basic ideas of random variables and the additive white Gaussian
noise (AWGN) model are reviewed.

the relationship between PSD, autocorrelation and the basics of signal transmission
through linear systems are established.

Chapter-2

covers the signal processing step such as formatting, in order to make the
information signal compatible with a digital system

Chapter 3

emphasizes baseband signaling

detection of signals in Gaussian noise and

receiver optimization

Chapter 4

deals with bandpass signaling and

associated modulation and demodulation/detection techniques.

General Coverage

Channel codinga cost effective way of providing variety of system performance


trade-offs.

Linear block codes, Convolutional codes and Reed-Solomon codes etc

Spread spectrum techniques and their application in areas such as multiple


access, ranging, and interference rejection. This technology is important for both
military and commercial applications.

Course Schedule
14-16 lectures
4-6 Quizes
2-4 Home assignments
1 Mid Term Exam
Practical Work
Final Exam

Score/Grading
Marks division
Mid Term Exam

20%

Assignment

10%

Quizes

10%

Practical

20%

Lab & Project


Final Examination

40%

Expectations/Objectives
This end
Deliver the concepts of digital communications
Make You Understand about different blocks of digital
communication
What
Why
When
How
Eventually forming a prototype system
Running a Simulation to observe the Performance of System
Other side
Getting through this course (majority)
Getting Good Grade
Learn something new

Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to


Learn the fundamental concepts of a digital telecommunication system.
Characterize sampling and quantization of analog signals to generate pulse
modulation.
Analyze baseband transmission of digital signals.
Study the geometric representation of signals.
Describe the architecture of common digital communication systems.
Determine the bit error rate (BER) of basic modulation formats when operating in
white Gausian Noise environments.
Determine the advantages of error correcting codes on the performance of digital
communication systems.
Design digital communication systems to operate in noisy environments and to
achieve basic system specifications on Bandwidth usage, data rate, and error
rate performance.
Understand basic concepts of source & Channel Coding.
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Communication ?
Communication is a process by which information is exchanged
between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or
behavior and could be (Voice, Video or Data)
Communication systems are reliable and economical, efficient means
of communications could be
Public switched telephone network (PSTN), mobile telephone
communication (GSM, 3G, 4G...), broadcast radio or television and
navigation systems.

DC systems are attractive because of


evergrowing demand for Data comm
Digital txn offers data processing and flexibilities that are not
available with ACS
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Why Digital Communication?

Device Challenges
Analog and RF Components
A/D Converters
Size, Power, Cost
Multiple Antennas
Multiradio Coexistance

BT

Cellular

FM/XM
GPS
DVB-H

Apps
WLAN
Processor

These challenges may


someday be completely
solved by a
software-defined radio

A/D

Media
Wimax
Processor

A/D
A/D
A/D

DSP

Design Challenges
Hardware Design
Precise components
Small, lightweight, low power
Cheap
High frequency operation
System Design
Converting and transferring information
High data rates
Robust to noise and interference
Supports many users
Network Design
Connectivity and high speed
Energy and delay constraints

Advantages of Digital Systems


Error detection/correction
Better encryption algorithms: Can not be done in analog communication
More reliable data processing
Easily reproducible designs
Reduced cost
Easier data multiplexing
Facilitate data compression

Disadvantages
Heavy signal processing
Synchronization is crucial
Larger transmission Bandwidth
Non-graceful degradation

Goals in Communication System Design

To maximize transmission rate, R

To maximize system utilization, U


To minimize bit error rate, Pe
To minimize required systems bandwidth, W
To minimize system complexity, Cx
To minimize required power, Eb/No

U
Pe

cx Eb/No

DCS vs ACS
During a finite interval of time DCS sends a waveform from a finite set of all
avail possible waveforms
Objective of DCS is
Not to reproduce a transmitted waveform with precision at Reciever,
but
To determine which of the waveform from finite set of waveforms was
transmitted by the transmitter (that is done by DSP techniques)

Systems performance is measured by Pb

The error performance of DCS suffers primarily from two degradation types
loss in signal-to-noise ratio,
distortion resulting in an irreducible bit-error probability.
ACS sends waveform from infinite variety of waveforms with infinite
resolution

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Communication?
Main purpose of communication is to transfer information from a source to a
recipient via a channel or medium
Block
diagram
of communication system
Copper
Wire
To extract the sent information, from the received
Wireline Telephone Channels
signal, inspite of noise
Microwave Radio
Antenna,
Amplifier,
Demodulator,
Oscillator,
Converts
the information
provided
by Person,
the Power
Speaker
Fibre Optic Channels source, according to the channel.
TV
amplifier
Water, Air,
Vacuum ofTransducer,
Generator
informationAmplifier, Modulator,
Fax
AnalogOscillator,
or Digital Power amplifier, Antenna`
Satellite Channels

Source

Transmitter

Channel
Noise

Receiver

Recepient
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Communication Systems
Types of Info
Voice, data, video, music, email etc.
Types of communication systems
Radio and TV Broadcasting
Telephone Networks
Cellular Phones
Computer Networks (LANS, WANS, INTERNET)
Satellite Systems

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Example of a (digital) comm system


Cellular wireless communication systems (WLAN, WSN)

BS

Base Station (BS)

UE

UE

UE
User Equipment (UE)

Lecture 1

Analog and Digital Signals

Analog signals
Value varies continuously

x(t)
t

Digital signals
Value limited to a finite set

x(t)
t

Binary signals
Has at most 2 values
Used to represent bit values
Bit time T needed to send 1 bit
Data rate R=1/T bits per second

x(t)

1
0

1
0 0

1
0

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Advantages of Digital over Analog Transmission


Digital signals can be perfectly regenerated at intervals over long
distances
While in analog signals the noise is also amplified

Regenerative Repeaters
Removal of signal redundancy
Cheaper to implement

All signals (e.g. data, TV, Telephone) can be represented in the same way (a bit is
a bit...) using ADCs

Why to convert analog signals to Digital?


Different Processing i.e.(DSP) techniques can be applied to the digital
data e.g.
Data compression can be achieved
Error correction techniques can be implemented
Equalization is performed at the receiving end
Security can be implemented
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Information Representation
Communication
system
converts
information
into
electrical,
electromagnetic/optical signals appropriate for the transmission medium.
Analog Systems
Characterized by data whose value varies over a continuous
range
Environmental effects (Temperature, Atmospheric pressure etc)
convert analog message into signals that can propagate through
channel.
Analog signals converted into bits by sampling and quantizing (A/D
conversion)
Digital Systems
convert bits (digits, symbols) into signals
Computers naturally generate information as characters/bits

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Digital and Analog


Digital Message:
Constructed with a finite number of Symbols.
Printed Languages
26 Letters
10 Numbers
Space and Punctuation Marks etc
Human Speech
made up of finite vocabulary
Binary and M-ary messages

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Digital Communication System


Important Features Of DCS
Transmitter sends a waveform from a finite set of possible waveforms
during a finite amount of time
Channel distorts, attenuates the transmitted signal and adds noise to
it.
From the noisy signal received, Receiver decides as to which of the
waveform was transmitted from aval set of waveforms.
Pb is an important criteria for measuring the systems performance

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WHY DIGITAL COMMUNICATION?

Easy to regenerate the distorted signal


Regenerative repeaters along the transmission path can detect a digital signal
and retransmit a new, clean (noise free) signal

These repeaters prevent the accumulation of noise along the path, which is
not possible with analog communication systems

Fig illustrates an ideal digital pulse propagating along txn line, shape of pulse is affected by
a. Non ideal freq transfer fn of txn line and circuits that causes distorting effect
b. Interference and unwanted electrical noise also distorts the waveform
Both these mechanisms cause the pulse shape to degrade as a function of line length
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WHY DIGITAL COMMUNICATION?

Hardware flexibility
Digital hardware implementation is flexible and permits the use of microprocessors,
digital switching and VLSI ccts etc
Shorter design and production cycle

low cost
Use of LSI and VLSI ccts in the design of components and systems have resulted in
lower cost

Easier and more efficient to multiplex several digital signals


Digital multiplexing techniques (Time & Code Division Multiple Access) are easier to
implement than FDMA (in case of analog systems).

Can combine different types of signals (i.e. data, voice, text, etc)
Data communication in computers is digital in nature whereas voice communication
between people is analog in nature
Two types of communication is difficult to combine over the same medium in the analog
domain.
Using digital techniques, it is possible to combine both format for transmission through a
common medium

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WHY DIGITAL COMMUNICATION?

Immunity to distortion and interference


DC sigs are more immune to channel noise and distortion because large disturbance is
required to change the cct operating pt from one state to other, so
DC being two-state signal representation/operation facilitates signal regeneration, thus
preventing noise and other disturbances from accumulating in transmission.
ACS are not two state sigs due to which even with small disturbance can take infinite
variety of wave-shapes.
Once ACS is distorted, its distortion can not be removed with amplification

Different types of digital signals (data, voice, video) can be identically treated.( a bit is
represented as a bit)

For convenient switching, digital messages can be handled in groups called packets.

Encryption and Privacy techniques are easier to implement

Easy to mix signals and data using digital techniques.(Combining of digital signals using
TDM is simpler than combining of analog signals using FDM).

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WHY DIGITAL COMMUNICATION?


Disadvantages
Requires reliable synchronization
Signal processing intensive i.e A/D conversion is req at high rate
Non-graceful degradation
When SNR drops below certain threshold, the quality of service can change
suddenly from very good to poor, whereas ACS degrade more gracefully

In general req larger Bandwidth

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General structure of a communication system

Noise

SOURCE

Source

Info.

Received
Transmitted
Received
info.
signal
signal
Transmitter
Receiver
Channel
User

Transmitter
Formatter

Source
encoder

Channel
encoder

Modulator

Receiver
Formatter

Source
decoder

Channel
decoder

Demodulator
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Main Points

Communication systems
communication channels

Different types of systems convey different types of information

Design challenges include hardware, system, and network issues

Communication systems recreate transmitted information at receiver


with high fidelity

Focus would be on the design and performance of analog and digital


communication systems

send

information

electronically

over

An Overview of a Digital System

Information Source and Input Transducer


Output Transducer
Channel
Source Encoder
Source Decoder
Channel Encoder
Channel Decoder
Digital Modulator
Digital Demodulator

Information Source and Sink

Information Source and Input Transducer:


The source of information can be analog or digital,

Analog: audio or video signal,

Digital: like teletype signal.

In digital communication the signal produced by source is converted


to digital signal that consists of 1s and 0s.

Output Transducer:
The signal is in desired format (analog or digital) at the output

Channel

Channel:
The communication channel is the physical medium that is used for
transmitting signals from transmitter to receiver
Wireless channels: Wireless Systems
Wired Channels: Telephony
Channel discrimination is on the basis of their property and
characteristics, like AWGN channel etc.

Source Encoder and Decoder

Source Encoder
In DC, signal is converted from source into digital signal but should
be represented by as few binary digits as possible.
In such a way this efficient representation of the source output
results in little or no redundancy. This sequence of binary digits is
called information sequence.
Source Encoding or Data Compression: the process of efficiently
converting the output of analog or digital source into a sequence of
binary digits is known as source encoding.

Source Decoder
At the end, if an analog signal is desired then source decoder tries to
decode the sequence from knowledge of the encoding algorithm,
that results in the approximate replica of input at the transmitter end.

Channel Encoder and Decoder

Channel Encoder:
Information sequence is passed through channel encoder.
Purpose of channel encoder is to introduce, in controlled manner,
some redundancy in the binary information sequence that can be
used at the receiver to overcome the effects of noise and interference
encountered in transmission on the signal through the channel.
e.g. take k bits of the information sequence and map that k bits to
unique n bit sequence called code word.
The amount of redundancy introduced is measured by the ratio n/k.
Reciprocal of this ratio (k/n) is known as code rate.

Channel Decoder:
Channel decoder attempts to reconstruct the original information
sequence from
knowledge of code used by the channel encoder and
redundancy contained in the received data.

Digital Modulator and Demodulator

Digital Modulator:
The binary sequence is passed to digital modulator which in turns
convert the sequence into electric signals to be transmitted on
channel.
The digital modulator maps the binary sequences into signal wave
forms , for example if we represent 1 by sin x and 0 by cos x then we
will transmit sin x for 1 and cos x for 0.

Digital Demodulator:
The digital demodulator processes
Channel corrupted transmitted waveform and reduces the waveform to sequence
of numbers that represent estimates of the transmitted data symbols.

Main Points

Source coding algorithm plays an important role in higher code rate

Channel encoder introduces redundancy in data

Modulation scheme plays an important role in deciding data rate and


immunity of signal towards errors introduced by the channel

Channel can introduce many types of errors due to thermal noise etc.

Demodulator and decoder should provide Low Bit Error Rate (BER).

Block Diagram of a Digital System

Step Wise

Layering of Source Coding

Source coding includes

Sampling

Quantization

Symbols to bits

Compression

Decoding includes

Decompression

Bits to symbols

Symbols to sequence of numbers

Sequence to waveform (Reconstruction)

Layering of Channel Coding

Channel Coding is divided into

Discrete encoder\Decoder
Used to correct channel Errors
Modulation\Demodulation
Used to map bits to waveform for transmission

Upper Blocks denote the signal txn from source to Transmitter

Lower Blocks denote the signal txn from Reciever to sink


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Salients of Block diagram


Transmitter consists of freq up-converter to RF, a high power amplifier and an antenna.
Rxr consists of an antenna, Low noise amp (LNA) and Freq down converter.
Freq down conversion is performed in the front end of Rxr or demodulator
Modulation is the process by which message symbols or channel symbols ( when channel coding is
used)

are converted to waveforms that are compatible with txn channel.

Pulse modulation is essential step because each symbol to be transmitted must be


transformed from binary representation to Base-band waveform. The Pulse modulation
waveform includes filtering for minimizing the transmission Bandwidth.
This filtering is referred to as Pulse shaping, which is used to contain txn Bandwidh within
some desired spectral region
Pulse modulation is applied to binary symbols, the resulting binary waveform is called pulsecode-modulation (PCM) waveform. In Telephone application, these waveforms are called line
codes

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When Pulse modulation is applied to non binary symbols, the resulting wave form is
called M-ary Pulse modulation waveform e.g. PAM waveform
After Pulse modulation, each message symbol or channel symbol takes the form of
Base-band waveform i.e.
For RF, txn medium does not support propagation of pulse-like waveforms. Bandpass wave-forms are required, for which Band-pass modulation is used.
In Band-pass modulation, Base-band is converted to higher freq by a carrier.
The signal propagating over channel is impacted by channel characteristics,
described in the form of channel impulse response hc(t).
During txn, signal is distorted by AWGN, and received signal is termed as corrupted
version of transmitted signal si(t).
The received signal r(t) can be expressed as:
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At receiving end, Rxr front end/demodulator provides freq down-conversion for each rxd
Band-pass waveform r(t)

The demodulator restores r(t) to optimally shaped Baseband waveform z(t) for detection.

There are several filters associated with Receiver and demodulator


filtering to remove unwanted high freq terms
filtering for pulse shaping.

Equalization used in or after demodulator can also be described as filtering option to


reverse any degrading effects caused by channel impairments, so is essential when impulse
response of channel is so poor that the received signal is badly distorted.

Equalization is needed to compensate for any signal distortion caused by non ideal x-ics of
channel impulse response hc(t).

Finally Sampling is used to transform the shaped pulse z(t) to z(T), and detection step
transforms z(T) to an estimate of the channel symbol

~
symbol mi (if there is no channel coding)

~
u
i

or an estimate of the message

Demodulation is recovery of wave-form (Baseband pulse) and Detection is decision-making


regarding digital meaning of that waveform

Basic signal processing functions can be classified into following


nine groups

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Formatting
is used for digitizing only. So a system would use either Source coding or formatting, because
source coding includes the process of digitizing also.
Source coding
can be applied to analog or digital sigs, produces A/D conversion and removes redundant info.
is used for compression in addition to digitization of the source info, therefore is considered as
special case of formatting.
Advantage of source coding is to reduce the amount of required resources (e.g. Band-width)
Base-band signaling consists of binary sigs called PCM waveforms or line codes, non-binary
category of waveforms called M-ary pulse modulation is also used.
Band-Pass signaling is partitioned into coherent and non-coherent blocks
Demodulation i.e. recovery of waveforms is achieved with the help of reference waveform. when
phase info is used as ref for detection, the process is called Coherent detection while non
coherent detection is the process where phase info is not used as reference.

Channel coding is used to reduce the PB at the cost of txn BW or decoder complexity, it
deals with techniques used to enhance digital signals so that they are less vulnerable to
impairments such as noise, fading and jamming. Channel coding is partitioned into two blocks
such as waveform coding and structured sequences.
Waveform coding involves use of new waveforms for improved detection performance over
that of original waveforms.
Structured sequences involve the use of redundant bits to determine the error that
occurred due to noise on the channel. e.g. ARQ (aut repeat request) is one of the
techniques that recognizes the error and asks the user to retransmit. FEC (fwd error
correction) is another tech that has the capability of auto correcting the error. (block,
convolutional and turbo coding etc)
Multiplexing and Multiple-access combine signals having diff characteristics or originating
from diff sources, so that they can share comm source (e.g. spectrum, time, space etc).
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Encryption (Data Encryption Stds, ZIP codes etc)


Main objective of Encryption/decryption is to provide comm privacy and authentication to
prevent unauthorized users from extracting/understanding and injecting the false/spurious
signals into the channel.
Freq spreading (Technique is used for multiple-access)
is transformation that is developed for military communication to achieve interference
protection and privacy.
can produce signal that is relatively not vulnerable to interference (both intentional and
natural),
is used to enhance the privacy of the communicators, so sigs can be spread in time and
freq or both.
Freq spreading techs are used to share the Bandwidth limited resource in commercial cellular
telephony

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Amplitude Modulation

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Frequency Modulation

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Comparison

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