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# ASSIGNMENT =1

BEHAVIOUR OF SOUND

SUBMITTED BY
CHITRA RANA
5 TH SEM

What is a
A wave is a repeating disturbance that transfers energy
wave?
through matter
or space.

## When an object vibrates it causes the particles

around it to move.
These particles bump into particles close to them,
transferring energy possessed. This continues until
they run out of energy.

Longitudin
al Waves

Waves transfer
energy without
transferring
matter.

Transvers

## Therefore sound can be defined as

A form of energy caused by vibrations. This
energy is transferred due to pressure through
longitudinal waves.

## In a longitudinal wave the matter in the wave

moves back and forth parallel to the direction of
wave.vacuum.
Sound doesnt travelthe
through

## Sound can be reflected, refracted,

and absorbed and also shows
evidence
of interference
Reflection of sound
is also be knownand
as echo.
diffraction.
Reverberation of sound is the repeated multiple
reflection of sound in any enclosed space.
Reverberation occurs when the echo produced is
as same/strong as the sound produced by the
source.
Refraction of
sound occurs
when the wave
travels from one
medium to
another.

Compressions
The close together part of the wave.
Rarefactions
The spread-out parts of a wave.

## Amplitude is the maximum distance the particles in a wave

vibrate from their mean positions. Amplitude controls the
volume and intensity of sound.

## The amplitude of a longitudinal wave

is determined by the closeness of the
longitudinal waves. The closer the
longitudinal waves and the farther the
rarefaction lines.
Spring A has greater amplitude than Spring B.

Wave Speed

Wavelength

Time period
Wavelength () is the distance from the center of one
compression to the center of the next compression
Time period (t) is the time it takes for one full wavelength to pass a certain
point.
Frequency (f) is waves per second
Wave Speed (s) the distance covered by a complete wave
in a given time.

SPEED OF SOUND

## 344 m/s in air at 20C

Speed of Sound depends on:
Type of medium
travels better through liquids and solids
cant travel through a vacuum
Temperature of medium
travels faster at higher temperatures.

Doppler Effect
Doppler Effect
change in wave frequency caused by
a moving wave source.
moving
toward you pitch sounds
higher.
moving away
from you pitch sounds

Interference

## Waves interfere in one of two ways: Constructive

Interference and Destructive Interference.

## The frequency of sound

Frequency of a sound wave is
heard as pitch.
highness or lowness of a sound

Low
frequency
= Low
pitch =
Free Powerpoint Templates
Long

High
frequency
= High
pitch =
Short

Fox horn

## Healthy humans can hear from 20 Hz

Ultrasound
- sound
to 20,000
Hz waves with frequencies above the normal
human range of hearing.
Ultrasonic sounds have frequencies greater than 20000 Hz.
Infrasound - sounds with frequencies below the
normal human range of hearing.
Infrasonic sounds have frequencies lower than 20Hz.

## Some animals can hear sounds with frequencies greater

than 20000 Hz.
a) Dogs (up to 35,000 Hz)
b)

## Bats (over 100,000 Hz

c)

Medical diagnosis.

ses of sound

Medical Imaging

## a. Acoustics the study of sound.

b. SONAR Sound Navigation and ranging
(echolocation).
c. Ultrasound imaging.

Different sounds
that you hear
include
(A) noise
(B) pure tones
(C) musical notes
or beats.
A - can be considered as noise as it has no
pattern.
B can be considered as a pure tone as energy is
transferred in a single pattern of the wave.
C - musical notes or beats as it has a pattern of

## Beats are variations of

loudness (amplitude) and pitch
(frequencies) caused by
interference of two sounds that
slightly
differ.
Beats differ
depending on the
pattern of amplitude, pitch and
caused by interference of different
waves.

How do musical
instruments create
sound?

Clarinet

## It depends on the type of

instrument. There are
four types.
Woodwind. String.
Percussion. Brass.
Flute
Oboe

Piccolo

Bassoon

Woodwinds
Instruments
Woodwinds make
music by blowing on
the top of the
instrument or on a

String Instruments
Some of the simpler instruments are the
string instruments. String instruments
make sound with vibrating strings, and
the pitch is modified by the thickness,
tension, and length of the string.
Cello
Harp

Guitar
Violin
Electric
Guitar

Percussion Instruments
Drum

## Percussion instruments make

music by striking, shaking or
scraping them.

Piano

Tambourine

Xylophone
Cymbals

Maracas

BRASS INSTRUMENTS
Brass instruments make music by buzzing lips
while blowing.

Trombone
Trumpet

Tuba