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Greco-Roman Society

Standard: Examine the political,


philosophical, and cultural interaction
of Classical Mediterranean societies
from 700 BCE to 400 CE.
Essential Question: How did
Classical Mediterranean societies
interact politically, philosophical, and
culturally from 700 BCE to 400 CE?

Rome
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Greece

Origins of Rome
Element: Compare the origins and
structure of the Greek polis, the
Roman Republic, and the Roman
Empire.
Vocabulary: Roman Republic

Geography
located on the
Italian Peninsula
can sail all over
the
Mediterranean
Sea

Geography
fertile coastal
plains
Good land for
farming
able to trade by
sea

Greek Origins
In those days the countryside there was
wild and empty. The story goes that when
the waters receded, the basket in which
the twins had been abandoned was left on
dry land. A she-wolf, on her way from the
hills round about to drink, came across the
howling infants. She gave them her teats
to suck, and was so gentle with them that
the kings shepherd found her licking them
with her tongue

Virgils Aeneid
sponsored by Augustus
Aeneas, the refugee from Troy
ancestor of the people who became
Romans

Augustus liked to trace his ancestry


back to Iulus, son of Aeneas and
supposed ancestor of the Iulii - the
Julian family

Emergence

Indo-European peoples
moved into Italy
about 1500 to 1000 B.C.
spoke Latin
lived as herders and farmers on
Romes hills

Emergence
after 800 B.C., other people,
including the Greeks and Etruscans,
settled in Italy
early Rome was ruled by kings,
some of whom were Etruscan

Greek Influence
Government
Architecture
religion

Etruscan Rule
Established a
monarchy
Ruled over early
Romans
Cruel to the
Romans
Early Etruscan Home

The Repbulic
Describe:
509 B.C. overthrew the last Etruscan
king
established a republic
the leader is not a king
certain citizens have the right to vote

The Republic
The Threat:
Enemies surrounded Rome
long period of continuous warfare
267 B.C. controlled almost all of Italy
defeated the Greeks and remaining
Etruscan states

The Republic
Roman Confederation:
some people had full Roman
citizenship
other groups were allies who
controlled their local affairs but gave
soldiers to Rome
could become Roman citizens

The Republic
Impact:
many of the conquered peoples felt
invested in Romes success

The Republics Military


divided into smaller
groups called legions
Soldiers called
legionaries
Because of the
strength of the
military, Rome began
to expand

Mediterranean Dominance
Carthage:
a strong power in the Mediterranean
founded around 800 B.C.
coast of North Africa
large trading empire in the western
Mediterranean

Mediterranean Dominance
Hannibal:
Carthages greatest
general
Almost destroyed
Rome during the
Second Punic War

Punic Wars

Description:
three wars fought between Rome and Carthage
the victories of Hannibal during second Punic War
almost destroyed Rome
Rome created new armies and a navy

Punic Wars
Result:
Rome defeated Hannibals forces
Spain became a Roman province
Rome controlled the western
Mediterranean
completely destroyed Carthage in 146
B.C.

Roman Expansion
second century B.C. conquered
Macedonia and Greece
133 B.C. Pergamum became Romes
first province in Asia
Rome gained and maintained control
of the Mediterranean Sea

Structure of Rome
View of Kings:
distrusted kingship because of their
experience with Etruscan kings
built a different form of government
early Rome divided into two groups, the
patricians and the plebeians

Structure of Rome
Patricians:
large landowners
formed Romes ruling class
citizens and could vote
could be elected to public office

Structure of Rome
Dictator

300 men

Majority of
Population

Could rule up
to 6 months in
times of war

Structure of Rome
Consuls

1
2
300 men

Majority of
Population

Preside over
senate,
generals, 1 yr
term

Structure of Rome
1
2
Senate

300 men
Majority of
Population

Served for
life, most
powerful
body

Structure of Rome
Dictator
Consuls
Senate
Patricians

1
2
300 men
Majority of
Population

The Senate
1.
2.
3.
4.

Romes law-making body


Patricians only
three hundred
served for life

Centuriate Assembly

most important peoples assembly


elected the consuls
passed laws
organized by classes based on
wealth
wealthiest citizens were the majority

Plebeians
common people
the less wealthy landholders,
craftspeople, merchants, and small
farmers
gained some political power

considered citizens and could vote


included the right to elect their own
officials, called tribunes
tribunes could veto, or block, laws that
they felt harmed plebeians

Structure of Rome
1
2
300 men
Tribunes
Majority of
Population

Representatives
for the
plebeians

Structure of Rome
1
2
300 men
Tribunes
Plebeians

Majority of
Population

Structure of Rome
1
2
300 men
Tribunes
Plebeians
Slaves

Majority of
Population

No
power

Structure of Rome
Impact:
By 287 B.C., all male Roman citizens
were supposedly equal under the law
few wealthy patrician and plebeian
families formed a new senatorial ruling
class
dominated political office

Julius Caesar
Description:
Civil War breaks out
in the Republic
First Triumvirate
formed in 60 BC
Government run by
three men who
shared power
Julius Caesar,
Crassus & Pompay

Julius Caesar
Description:
Julius Caesar is elected
consul in 59 BC
grants himself governor
of Gaul from 58 50 BC
wins decisive battles
securing Roman borders
in the North
Caesar seen as a
military hero
Veni, vidi, vici = I
came, I saw, I conquered

Civil War
As Caesar became more powerful the
Triumvirate falls apart
Senate demands that Caesar return
to Rome w/out his army
under the influence of a competitive
Pompay

Civil War

Civil war ensues


Caesar marched to Rome in 49 BC and Pompay fled
civil war will last a few years
Caesar wins

Caesar hailed as dictator for life in 45 B.C.

Ides of March
many feared Caesar would assume title of
king & set up a dynasty
60 members of Senate plot to kill him
Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius
March 15, 44 BC Caesar is stabbed 23 times
that result in death in the senate chamber
Rome plunges into another civil war

Julius Caesar
Impact:
Caesars Reformation:
Granted citizenship to people of
provinces
Expanded Senate
Aided poor by creating jobs (public
works)
Started colonies for people without land

Augustus Caesar

Description:
Real name Octavian
Grand Nephew of Julius Caesar
the Second Triumvirate formed 43 BC
Caesars supporters banded together to
eliminate assassins
Octavian, Mark Antony & Lepidus
took back control of Republic

Civil War
Octavian forced Lepidus into
retirement
Octavian and Mark Antony then
become rivals

Civil War
Mark Antony meets Queen Cleopatra
of Egypt while leading troops in a
campaign in Anatolia
Followed her back to Egypt
Octavian accuses Antony of trying to
rule Rome out of Egypt

Another civil war breaks out

Civil War

Battle of Actium 31 BC
Octavian defeats the combined forces of
Antony and Cleopatra at this naval battle
Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide

Austus Caesar
Impact:
Octavian becomes unchallenged ruler
500-year old republic comes to an end
Octavian changes his name to
Augustus (exalted one) and becomes
Romes first emperor in 31 BC
Augustus laid the foundation for the
period called the Pax Romana

Augustus Caesar

Pax Romana
200 years of Roman peace and
prosperity
Established by efficient government
Stabilized frontier
Development of splendid governmental
buildings
Civil Service (plebeians and former
slaves)

Roman Culture
Element: Analyze the contributions of
Hellenistic and Roman culture;
include law, gender, and science.
Vocabulary: Roman culture

Roman Culture
Impact:
Most important contribution to
society

Twelve Tables
451 B.C.
Ancient Romes
law code
written down and
placed in public
everyone would
know the law
The Law of the Twelve Tables

Roman Law
the Law of Nations:
code of law developed later
considered as natural law, or universal
law based on reason

Basic Principles:
1. People equal
under law
2. right to a trial
3. innocent until
proven guilty

Slavery
Description:
relied on slavery
large numbers of war captives were
brought to Italy as slaves
Greeks were prized as tutors,
musicians, doctors, and artists

Slavery
Expectations of Slaves:
work in shops, made crafts, and
performed household tasks (cleaning
and gardening)
built roads and public buildings
farmed large estates of the wealthy

Slavery
Conditions for slaves:
pitiful
it was cheaper to work slaves to death
and replace them than to care for
them

Slavery
Slave Revolt:
the gladiator Spartacus
73 B.C. Seventy thousand slaves
joined Spartacus
defeated several Roman armies
before being defeated in 71 B.C.
Spartacus was killed and thousands of
his followers were crucified

Daily Life in the city of


Rome
Description:
the largest population of any city in
the empire
overcrowded and noisy
wagons and carts were banned from
the streets during the day to ease the
congestion

Daily Life in the city of


Rome
Gap between rich and poor
rich lived in comfortable villas
poor lived in apartment blocks called
insulae

Daily Life in the city of


Rome

Insulae:
six stories tall
poorly constructed and often collapsed
fires were a constant threat
high rents forced entire families to live in one
room
did not have any plumbing or central heating
uncomfortable conditions caused many Romans
to spend most of their time outdoors in the
street

Daily Life in the city of


Rome
Entertainment:
poor received free grain from the emperor
Grand public spectacles entertained the
people
part of religious festivals
featured horse and chariot races at the
Circus Maximus
dramatic performances in theaters
very popular gladiatorial shows

Roman Culture
Literature:
most distinguished poet of the Augustan
Age was Virgil
wrote his epic poem the Aeneid in honor
of Augustus
character Aeneas displays the virtues of
the ideal Romanduty, piety, and loyalty
Aeneas started the city on its divine
mission to rule the world

Roman Culture
Art:
enjoyed Greek art
Greek statues adorned their cities and
homes
Reproductions became popular
Roman sculptors added realistic, even
unpleasant, features to the idealized
Greek forms

Roman Culture
Architecture:
excelled in architecture
continued to use Greek styles
(colonnades and rectangular buildings)
created forms based on curved lines:
the dome, arch, and vault
first people to use concrete on a
massive scale

Roman Culture
Engineering:
first-class engineers
built enduring roads, bridges, and
aqueducts
built 50,000 miles of roads throughout
the empire
many aqueducts supplied one million
people with water

Christianity
Element: Describe polytheism in the
Greek and Roman world and the
origins and diffusion of Christianity in
the Roman world.
Vocabulary: polytheism, christianity

Origins
Judaea:
A.D. 6
covered the lands of the ancient
kingdom of Judah
a Roman province
under direction of a procurator
Unrest was common even among
factions of Jews

Jesus
Description:
a Jew
began to preach in
the midst of the
conflict

Jesus
Teachings:
inner transformation was more
important than adhering to laws or
rituals
Individuals should follow the Golden Rule
and treat others as they would like to be
treated
People should love God and love each
other, treating all as neighbors

Jesus
Events:
Judaean authorities turned Jesus over to the
Romans
feared he might cause people to revolt against
Rome
the procurator, Pontius Pilate, ordered Jesus
crucified
followers of Jesus believed he overcame death
believed Jesus was the Messiah, the longexpected savior of Israel

Jesus
Impact:
virtues that became the basis of
medieval Western civilization: humility,
charity, and love of others

Key Figures
Simon Peter:
a prominent figure
in early Christianity

Key Figures
Simon Peter:
Peter and the other disciples taught
Jesus was the Savior and Son of God
Jesus come to Earth to save all people
Jesus death had made up for peoples
sins and made salvation possible
Individuals had only to accept Christ
(the anointed one) as their Savior to
be saved

Key Figures
Paul of Tarsus:
followed Jesus
command to preach
the gospel to both
Jews and non-Jews
(Gentiles)
founded many
Christian communities
in Asia Minor and
along the Aegean Sea

Key Figures
Impact:
word spread that Jesus had overcome
death
result: people converted
example: 60 days after Jesus
crucifixion, Jerusalem alone had ten
thousand converts

Diffusion
Teachings:
teachings were passed down orally
some were preserved in writing by
Jesus disciples and followers
Between A.D. 40 and 100, these
writings became the basis of the
written Gospels (the good news)

Diffusion
Gospels:
tell of Jesus life and teachings
form the basis of the New Testament
the second part of the Christian Bible
A.D. 100 Christian churches
throughout empire

Diffusion
View of Christianity in the Beginning:
Christianity seen as harmful to the
public order
act of treason = Christians would not
worship the Roman gods
believed in one God only and would
not worship false gods or the emperors
for fear of endangering their salvation

Diffusion
Nero:
Roman persecution of Christians
began A.D. 5468
blamed Christians for the fire that
destroyed much of Rome
subjected Christians to cruel deaths

Impact
Structure:
strengthened by Roman persecution
forced it to become organized
control of bishops over Christian
communities
the clergy (church leaders) were
distinct from the laity (everyday
church members)

Impact
Structure (continued):
attracted many followers
more personal than the Roman religion
offered eternal life and salvation
gave people a sense of belonging to a
community
appealed to every class and especially
the poor and powerless

Impact
Roman Reformers:
Christianity prospered in the fourth century
Constantine:
first Christian emperor
AD 313 Edict of Milan proclaimed official
toleration of Christianity
Theodosius the Great:
Rome adopted Christianity as their official
religion

Collapse of the Roman


Empire
Element: Analyze the factors that
led to the collapse of the Western
Roman Empire.
Vocabulary: Collapse of the Western
Roman Empire

The Decline
Factors:
A.D. 180 the death of Marcus Aurelius
long period of civil wars
political disorder
economic decline

The Decline
Late Roman Empire:
end of the third and the beginning of
the fourth centuries
emperors Diocletian and Constantine
a new governmental structure
a rigid economic and social system
a new religion, Christianity

The Decline
Diocletian:
ruled from 284 to 305
believed empire was too large
divided the empire into four sections,
each with its own ruler
Diocletians military power gave him
ultimate authority over the other three
rulers

The Decline

Constantine:
ruled from 306 to 337
extended many of Diocletians policies
by 324 was the sole ruler
built a new capital city in the east on the site of
Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus
Constantinople: became the center of the Eastern
Roman Empire and one of the worlds greatest cities
filled his New Rome with a forum, large palaces,
and an amphitheater

Impact (1)
expanded bureaucracy, more money
needed
enlarged the army to five hundred
thousand troops
expansion of the civil service and the
military drained the treasury
the lack of population growth meant
that the tax base could not be
increased

Impact (2)
emperors issued edicts forcing
people to stay in their assigned jobs
policies based on control and
coercion
Empire continued for another
hundred plus years

Common Causes for the


Collapse
1. Barbarian Invasion
2. Decline in Morals and Values
3. Environmental and Public Health
Problems
4. Excessive Military Spending to
Defend the Empire
5. Inferior Technology

Common Causes for the


Collapse
6. Inflation
7. Political Corruption
8. Rise in Christianity
9. Unemployment
10.Urban Decay

Fall of Western Rome (1)


divided into two parts
had two capitals, Rome in the west and
Constantinople in the east
second half of the fourth century, Huns from
Asia moved into eastern Europe and put
pressure on the German Visigoths
Visigoths moved south, crossing the Danube
River into Roman territory
Initially Roman allies, the Visigoths revolted
and defeated a Roman army in 378

Fall of Western Rome (2)


More Germans crossed into Roman lands
410 the Visigoths sacked the city of Rome
455 another group called the Vandals also
sacked the city
476 the western emperor, Romulus Augustus,
was deposed by the Germanic head of the
army
the end of the Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire,
continued to thrive

Roman Empire
Western Rome: collapses and
begins the Dark Ages of Europe
Eastern Rome: will continue on and
will be known as the Byzantine
Empire