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GRANULOCYTES

Rhonna Cristelle Callanta Aquino

Granulocyte..
A polymorphonuclear white blood cell with granule-

containing cytoplasm.

Granulocytes consist of neutrophils,


eosinophils, and basophils, which
are produced in the bone marrow by a
common stem cell subsystem.

Bone marrow.
Bone marrow hematopoietic activity
divided into two pools: stem cell pool
(containing undifferentiated stem cells)
and bone marrow pool (containing cells
that are proliferating and maturing) with
eventual release of mature cells into
peripheral blood.

Granulocytes and platelets also


exist in two pools: functional cells
in the circulatory system, and those
that exist in storage form( marginal).

Proliferating pool comprises cells of the bone marrow

capable of division and includes myeloblasts,


progranulocytes, and myelocytes.
Maturation pool neutrophils of the bone marrow that do
not divide and include metamyelocyte bands, and
segmented granulocytes
Marginal neutrophilic pool neutrophils in the small
blood vessels that marginate along the wallas and move
at a slower rate than the other blood cells
Circulating neutrophilic pool cells in the larger blood
vessels moving in the main or axial stream of blood.

NEUTROPHIL

Neutrophils
Most common peripheral WBCs in

companion animals
Irregular, segmented nucleus with coarse
clumped chromatin staining dark purple.
Horse neutrophils show more segmentation
than dog neutrophils
Cytoplasm is pale pink with faint granulation
Phagocytic and bactericidal properties, with
an average life span of 10 hours

Inflammation is usually indicated

NEUTROPHILIA with increased bands


Increased may also be due to

stress,exercise,glucocorticoids us, or leukemia


Neutropenia may be due to decreased

survival of cells, reduced or ineffective


production,or sequestration
Avian neutrophil is called a HETEROPHIL

EOSINOPHIL
Eosinophils function in parasite killing

and also contain enzymes that


modulate products of mast cells
released in response to antigen-IgE
receptor mast cell detonation in allergic
disease.
Eosinophilia is primarily induced by
allergic inflammatory responses and

Nuclear structure similar to neutrophils but not

as coarsely clumped chromatin


Distinctive red to purple-staining cytoplasmic
granules that vary in size and shape among
species
Dog: size and shape vary
Cat: eosinophil granules tend to be rod shaped, small

and numerous
Horse: intense orange-red and large granules
Cattle, sheep and pig: stain intense pink and are
round
Increased is noted in allergic or hypersensitive

reactions
Mast cells often present

BASOPHIL
Basophil: are rare finding in

peripheral blood
As with mast cells, involved

with hypersensitivity
reactions

NEUTROPHILIA
Neutrophilia (also called neutrophil
leukocytosis or occasionally neutrocytosis) is l
eukocytosis of neutrophils, that is, a high number
of neutrophil granulocytes in the blood.
LEUKOPENIA decrease in the total number of

circulating leukocytes
Infection
Viral
Bacterial
Rickettsial
Protozoan
Bone marrow abnormalities

Means of Evaluating the White Cells


Determination of the white blood cell count (WCC) will

give an appreciation of the total number of leukocytes.


This can then be subdivided into the percentage and
absolute count for each of the varying types of
leukocytes.
The total number and proportion of leukocytes that

comprise the white blood cell count will then aid in


identifying a possible underlying disease process.
It is important to note that interpretation should mainly

be based on the absolute cell numbers in preference to


using the relative percentages of each cell type
(differential).

The white blood cell count (WCC) is a measurement of

the number of leukocytes in a litre of blood.


White cell differential is the proportion of each cell type

expressed as a percentage. This is obtained from a


combination of examination of a blood film and automated
analysers counts. It is important to note that even with
sophisticated analysers, the differential may be inaccurate
and miss important morphological changes such as a leftshift. Hence a blood smear examination remains a
strongly recommended component of a complete blood
count.

Absolute counts are derived from the percentage of each

cell type of the total white cell count.


Morphological assessment of each cell line is achieved

through examination of the blood smear, and remains a


vital part of interpretation. This may provide evidence of a
left-shift and toxic change in the neutrophils, consistent
with release of immature cells from the marrow. Allow
assessment of lymphocyte morphology, especially
important when interpreting the significance of an
elevation in numbers

Neutrophils and lymphocytes are the most

numerous and well-studied leukocytes in


the blood. Hence it is the pattern of change
in these cell types that forms the basis of
interpretation of the leukogram in general.
However, a good understanding of
neutrophils will aid significantly, both in
understanding the patterns, but also when
interpreting any less common changes.

LEUKOCYTOSIS
Leukocytosis an increase above the accepted

normal range of total leukocytes per microliter


. As a rule, only one type of cell is responsible for the

elevation, but there may be a simultaneous increase in


several cell types.
absolute increases in the neutrophil count are so much more

frequent than are increases in the other leukocytic types that the
general term, leukocytosis, implies neuthophilia unless a
qualifying term is used, such as eosinophilic leukocytosis.

The degree of leukocytosis depends upon

several factors:
Cause
Severity of the infection
Resistance of the animal
Localization of the inflammatory response
Modification by therapy

PHYSIOLOGIC LEUKOCYTOSIS
Physiologic leukocytosis refers to a total

leukocyte count above the normal, without the


association of any known disease process. It is
usually associated with conditions that result in a
release of epinephrine, with the immediate
mobilization of neutrophils that have migrated in
small blood vessels and are flushed into the
larger vessels with the increased blood flow. As a
rule, all cell types participate in the increase, but
there is a tendency toward a neutrophilia without
a shift to the left.

Strenuous exercise
Convulsive seizures
Excitement, fear, apprehension, or pain
Digestion
Pregnancy

PATHOLOGICAL LEUKOCYTOSIS
Infection localized or generalized
Intoxication
Tissue necrosis from any cause

infarction, burns, gangrene, neoplasms


Acute hemorrhage
Neoplasia (including leukemia)

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