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What makes a sentence?

Sentences have two


parts
SUBJECT
Noun or Pronoun
Answers: Who or what?

PREDICATE
Verb
Answers: What about it?

Type 1:
Draw a picture that depicts an
independent person and a
dependent person.
OR
List five differences between an
independent person and a
dependent person.

Grammar Lesson:
Independent and Dependent
Clauses.

Clause:
a group of words with a
subject and a predicate.

Unless it rains today


Clause example #1

Although his zipper broke


Clause example #2

When the teacher fainted


Clause example #3

Wait a minute
Did you notice that each of those clauses
left you hanging?
Did you find yourself saying, Yes, go
on?
Thats the natural reaction because none
of those clauses expresses a complete
thought.
They were all dependent clauses!

Dependent Clauses
A clause that expresses an incomplete
or partial thought.
It is not a complete sentence; it cant
stand on its own.
Why?
It depends on another group of words to
express a complete thought.

We are going on a picnic

unless it rains today.

Although his zipper broke,


he wore the pants anyway.

When the teacher fainted,


I called Mrs. Scheibe.

All of those added groups of


words can stand on their own
We are going on a picnic.
I called Mrs. Scheibe.
He wore them anyway.

These are independent


clauses!

Independent Clauses
A clause that expresses a complete
thought; it can stand on its own.
Does NOT depend on another group of
words to express a complete thought
(hence the name independent).

What part is a dependent clause


and an independent clause?
1. The Trojans were winning the war until
Achilles returned to battle.

The Trojans were winning the war until Achilles


returned to battle.

2. When Sojourner Truth spoke, her powerful


words moved everyone in the audience.

When Sojourner Truth spoke, her powerful words


moved everyone in the audience.

Conjunctions review

A conjunction joins words or word


groups.

There are 7 coordinating


conjunctions:
For
And
Remember these
Nor
conjunctions with the
But
acronym: FANBOYS.
Or
Yet
So

Simple Sentence
-an independent clause
Examples:
Leslie will sing in the talent show.
Joe camped with his Boy Scout troop.
Aaron draws very well.

Simple Sentence
A simple sentence may contain a compound
subject, a compound predicate, or both.

Examples:

Leslie and Mark will sing in the talent show.


Joe camped and hiked with his Boy Scout
troop.
Aaron and Susan draw and paint very well.

Compound Sentence
-two or more independent clauses
-may be joined by a comma and coordinating
conjunction

Examples:
Leslie will sing in the talent show, and we expect her
to win first place.
Joe camped with his Boy Scout troop, but they had to
come home early.
Aaron draws very well, so he was selected to enter
the poster contest.

Compound Sentence
-two or more independent clauses
-may be joined by a semicolon ( ; )

Examples:
Leslie will sing in the talent show; we expect her
to win first place.
Joe camped with his Boy Scout troop; he loves
the outdoors.
Aaron draws very well; he was selected to enter
the poster contest.

Sentence combining

Combine two simple sentences that are related to make


a compound sentence. Add a conjunction between
them, and replace the period of the first sentence with a
comma.

Peter plays tennis. He sings in the choir.


Peter plays tennis, and he sings in the choir.

Katie practiced her spelling words for an hour. She got 100% on her test.
Katie practiced her spelling words for an hour, so she got 100% on her test.
Wendy ran to catch the train. She got there too late.
Wendy ran to catch the train, but she got there too late.
Stores in town were decorated. The holiday season was coming quickly.
Stores in town were decorated, for the holiday season was coming quickly.
It rained hard last night. They still held the soccer game in the morning.
It rained hard last night, but they still held the soccer game in the morning.

A Sophisticated Compound
Sentence
-two or more independent clauses
-may be joined by a semicolon( ; ), conjunctive
adverb, and comma
Common Conjunctive Adverbs
Also

incidentally

next

Anyway

indeed nonetheless

Besides

instead

otherwise

Consequently

likewise

Finally meanwhile

then

Furthermore moreover
However

still

therefore

nevertheless thus

Proper Punctuation:
How do you punctuate this compound sentence
correctly?
WRONG: We should leave early otherwise we
will miss the start of the movie.
CORRECT: We should leave early; otherwise,
we will miss the start of the movie.
adverb

conjunctive

A Sophisticated Compound
Sentence
-two or more independent clauses
-may be joined by a semicolon( ; ), conjunctive
adverb, and comma
Examples:
Leslie will sing in the talent show; furthermore, we expect
her to win first place.
Joe camped with his Boy Scout troop; consequently, he
loves the outdoors.
Aaron draws very well; therefore, he was selected to enter
the poster contest.

Sentence combining
Practice Sheet

Day 2

Go over Practice Sheet


Review:
Clause
Independent clause
Dependent clause
Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Coordinating Conjunctions
Conjunctive adverbs

Proper Punctuation:
How do you punctuate this compound sentence
correctly?
WRONG: We should leave early otherwise we
will miss the start of the movie.
CORRECT: We should leave early; otherwise,
we will miss the start of the movie.
adverb

conjunctive

Lets add on
Dependent Clauses often
begin with words like if,
whether, since, when, etc. These
are called subordinating
conjunctions.
conjunctions
What does the prefix sub- mean?

Common Subordinating
Conjunctions:

A Subordinating
Conjunction
might be located in between the clauses
it joins:
I gasped when I saw the headline.
IC
DC

might be located at the beginning of a


sentence:
When I saw the headline, I gasped.
DC
IC

Comma Rule:
Subordinating conjunction +
dependent clause at the beginning
of a sentence = comma before the
independent clause.
Ex: When I saw the headline, I gasped.
DC

IC

Find the dependent and


independent clause. Decide if a
comma is needed.
1. While some scientists map the human
genome others map the genes of worms.
2. After they had worked for about eight years
scientists had sequenced 99 percent of a
worms genes.
3. Scientists can learn much from this particular
worm because it shares many genes with
humans.

Where would you put a comma?

1. While some scientists map the human genome others


map the genes of worms.

2. After they had worked for about eight years scientists


had sequenced 99 percent of a worms genes.
3. Scientists can learn much from this particular worm
because it shares many genes with humans.
(No comma needed
because the dependent clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence.)

Based on your Persuasive


Writing
Subordinating Conjunction + Dependent
Clause + comma + Independent Clause

Independent Clause + because +


Dependent Clause (no comma needed)

New: Complex sentences


Independent clause + Dependent clause(s) =

A complex sentence!!
Subordinating Conjunction + Dependent
Clause + comma + Independent Clause =
A complex sentence
Independent Clause + because +
Dependent Clause (no comma needed) =
A complex sentence

IC Complex sentences DC
We will go on the roller coaster while they ride
the log flume.

After you eat your cotton candy, we can meet


by the carousel, which will be our last ride.

Complex Sentences
Use these clauses to create three complex
sentences.
1.although they made me dizzy
2.the freefall is her favorite one
3.when I finally screamed

Compound-Complex
sentences
2 or more Independent clauses
+ Dependent clause(s)
_____________________________

A compound-complex sentence!!

IC Compound-Complex DC
Sentences
We will go on the roller coaster while they ride
the log flume, and mom will sit and watch.

If you look to your left, you can see the


carousel, and you will hear its pipe organ.

Compound-Complex
sentences
Practice sheet