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FREQUENCY CONTROL

DURING BLACK START


OPERATIONS
The Isochronous Governor Control
Generator and QSE Remote
Constant Frequency Control
Sydney Niemeyer: NRG Energy
1

Introduction
Frequency Control During Black Start
Operations is intended to provide basic
dos and donts of frequency control during
system recovery following a Black out.
Review of Isochronous Governor Control
of a Resource and Constant Frequency
Control of an Island is included.

Objectives
At the completion of this course of
instruction you will:
Identify the importance of understanding
the amount of Primary Frequency Control
available during Black Start and Island
grid operations.
Identify the amount of Primary Frequency
Control available on an Island grid.
3

Objectives
Continued:
Identify the effects of cold load pick-up
Identify the importance of one
Isochronous Governor Control Resource
per island.
Identify the importance of having one
QSE on Constant Frequency Control per
island.
4

Definitions

Area Control Error (ACE): The


instantaneous difference between a
Balancing Authoritys net actual and
scheduled interchange, taking into account
the effects of Frequency Bias, correction for
meter error, and Automatic Time Error
Correction (ATEC), if operating in the ATEC
mode. ATEC is only applicable to Balancing
Authorities in the Western Interconnection.
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Definitions

Area Control Error (ACE): Continued.


Since ERCOT is not synchronously connected to
any other Balancing Authority the net actual and
scheduled interchange values are always zero.
ERCOT does not correct for meter error in the
measurement of actual interchange.
ERCOT does not utilize ATEC.
QSEs on Constant Frequency Control (Flat
Frequency Control) implement the ACE
calculation exactly as ERCOT.
6

Definitions

Automatic Generation Control (AGC):


Equipment that automatically adjusts
generation in a Balancing Authority Area
from a central location to maintain the
Balancing Authoritys interchange
schedule plus Frequency Bias. AGC may
also accommodate automatic inadvertent
payback and time error correction.

Definitions
Black Start Resource A generating unit(s) and
its associated set of equipment which has the
ability to be started without support from the
System or is designed to remain energized
without connection to the remainder of the
System, with the ability to energize a bus,
meeting the Transmission Operators restoration
plan needs for real and reactive power
capability, frequency and voltage control, and
that has been included in the Transmission
Operators restoration plan.
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Definitions
Frequency Bias: A value, usually expressed in
megawatts per 0.1 Hertz (MW/0.1 Hz),
associated with a Balancing Authority Area that
approximates the Balancing Authority Areas
response to Interconnection frequency error.
Frequency Bias Setting: A value, usually
expressed in MW/0.1 Hz, set into a Balancing
Authority ACE algorithm that allows the
Balancing Authority to contribute its frequency
response to the Interconnection.
9

Definitions
Frequency Bias Setting: (approved by NERC,
not approved by FERC) A number, either fixed or
variable, usually expressed in MW/0.1 Hz,
included in a Balancing Authoritys Area Control
Error equation to account for the Balancing
Authoritys inverse Frequency Response
contribution to the Interconnection, and
discourage response withdrawal through
secondary control systems.

10

Definitions
Droop governor: a governor that changes
the electricity generated proportionally to
the change in electrical frequency. The
slope of this change represents the ratio
of electricity generated change to the
frequency change.

100% electricity change for a 5% change in


frequency is 5% droop.
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Definitions
Isochronous governor: 1) a governor that
maintains the same speed in the
mechanism controlled regardless of the
load. 2) The frequency of the electricity
generated is Flat or constant and there is
zero generator droop.
RTU Remote Terminal Unit

12

Content
The Black Start Generator and Frequency
Control
The next Start Generator and Frequency
Control
Sources of Primary Frequency Control
Sources of Load Dampening
Island Frequency Control
13

Black Start Resource


Must operate with Isochronous governor in
service.
As electrical load is connected to the
Black Start resource the governor
responds to control the prime mover to
maintain frequency to the frequency
reference of the governor, 60 Hz.

14

Isochronous Governor Controller

Turbine actual speed = 3600 rpm


2 pole generator = 60.00 Hz

Comparator
Device

Increase Prime
Mover if
frequency is low,
Decrease Prime
Mover if
frequency is high.

Reference input equal to


60.00 Hz

15

Isochronous Generator Controls


to Target Frequency
Load must remain within generators
capability.
The Isochronous Governor Controller
does the rest.
60
57

63
Generator
Frequency
Hz

16

The Grid
Black
Start

Black
Start

17

Next
Start

Busses cleared
except for Black
Start plant.

Black
Start
Next
Start

Black
Start

18

Next
Start

Black
Start
Next
Start

Black
Start

Second Black Start


unit running. Two
islands.

19

Next
Start

Preparing to Start
the Next Start units.

Black
Start
Next
Start

Black
Start

20

Next
Start

Next Start units on


in the two islands.

Black
Start
Next
Start

Black
Start

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Island 2
300 MW Capacity
90 MW Output

10 MW
Island 1

20 MW Capacity
8 MW Output
Black
Start 1
10 MW
Next
Start 2
400 MW Capacity
12 MW Output

Next
Start D
15 MW
House
Load

5 MW
Black
Start A
60 MW Capacity
30 MW Output
Island 2:
360 MW Capacity
120 MW Load

100 MW

Island 1:
420 MW Capacity
20 MW Load
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Island 1
Next Start 2 generator is operating near
minimum load.
Unit is typically less stable.
Risk of over-heating steam turbine from too
little steam flow.
Minimum flow is 2% to 5% of nameplate
depending on manufacturer.

Increase Island load if possible.


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Island 2
Should start next generator to balance load
on generators. Increases reserves.
Consider minimum operating conditions on
each generator added to the island.
Operating above minimum load on
generator provides ability to place controls
in AUTO at plant.
Improves Primary Frequency Response
delivery.
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Island 2
300 MW Capacity
70 MW Output

10 MW

Next
Start D
15 MW
House
Load

15 MW
Black
Start A
60 MW Capacity
30 MW Output
Island 2:
760 MW Capacity
170 MW Load

400 MW Capacity
70 MW Output

Island 1

20 MW Capacity
8 MW Output
Black
Start 1
10 MW
Next
Start 2
400 MW Capacity
12 MW Output

Island 2: Now with 3


generators on line. Prepare
for Constant Frequency
Control.

100 MW 40 MW

Island 1:
420 MW Capacity
20 MW Load
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Island Remote Constant


Frequency Control
QSE should have MW telemetry from each
generator connected.
QSE must have frequency telemetry from the
island.
At least one generator must be capable of
remote dispatch (AGC).
Black Start generator must be switched to
droop governor control from isochronous
control.
26

Preparation for Constant


Frequency Mode
QSE of the Island generators will not be
following ERCOT Base Points.
QSE will calculate Base Points for each
controllable generator.
QSE will calculate Island Area Control Error
(ACE) using Constant Frequency (Flat
Frequency) mode.
Verify that Scheduled Frequency is set to 60.00
Hz.
27

Determine Island Frequency


Response
To calculate ACE of the island, the
Frequency Response of the island must
be estimated.
ACE = (HzActual HzScheduled ) * -10 * Bias
Where Bias is the estimated Frequency
Response of the island, a negative number.
Determine MW capacity of all generators
connected to the island that have a working
droop governor.
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Determine Island Bias


Sum the island MW generation capacity.
Divide the capacity by 30.
The result is the estimated frequency
response of the island in MW/0.1 Hz.
Capacity of frequency responsive
generators = 760 MW.
760 MW/30 = 25.3 MW/0.1 Hz.
Bias setting should be -25 MW/0.1 Hz.
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Bias Setting and Load


Dampening
Synchronously connected loads provide
some frequency response to the island.
Synchronous AC motors on fans, pumps etc.
Florescent lighting.

Under normal conditions on the ERCOT


grid, the frequency response of load on the
grid can be estimated by multiplying the
load (MW) by 0.00245 to get its MW/0.1 Hz
contribution.
30

Bias Setting and Load


Dampening Continued
For a 30,000 MW load the frequency response
provided by load dampening would be 30,000 *
0.00245 = 73.5 MW/0.1 Hz.
During very cold weather with ERCOT load above
42,000 MW, the multiplier will reduce to 0.0015 since
resistive heating load is not frequency responsive.

During early stages of building an island,


the load dampening contribution will be
very small and can be ignored.
31

Know Your Generator Control


System
Some QSE Generator Control Systems
require the Bias value to be entered as a
positive number. It is converted to a
negative value within the ACE calculation.
It is simple to determine if you have Bias set
correctly.
If frequency is below target, the ACE value should cause
generation to increase output.
If frequency is above target, the ACE value should cause
generator to decrease output.
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Bias Setting Lower Better


Initially set Bias lower than calculated until
several load pickups have been observed.
Cold Load Pickup will initially appear as 10
times the load increase but will decrease
with time. It is better to under control (raise
generation slowly) to avoid frequency
oscillations as the cold load pickup will
decay with time and aid frequency recovery
to normal.
33

Cold Load Pick-up


When adding load remember that cold
load pickup is 10 times the steady state
load and takes up to 30 minutes to decay.
1 MW pick up looks like 10 MW and will
cause frequency to drop to 59.96 from 60
Hz with an island Bias of 25 MW/0.1 Hz.
3 MW pick up looks like 30 MW and will
cause frequency to drop to 59.88 Hz.
34

Frequency Control in Constant


Frequency Mode
Will NOT be similar to having the Black
Start Generator on Isochronous control.
Frequency movement will be much greater.
Frequency recovery to schedule will be
dependent on the ramp rate of the
generator(s) on AGC.
Sustained Primary Frequency Response from
all generators connected is critical for stable
frequency control.
35

Keep Operating Margin


The QSE should closely monitor operating
margins on all the AGC generators.
If Up or Down margin gets low, manually
adjust non-AGC generators to give AGC
generators more room to operate.
When moving other generation, consider
the ramp rate of the AGC generators to
avoid excessive ramping demands.
36

Prepare for Tying Islands


Together
Synchronize smaller island to the larger
island. (Smaller in MW load.)
Before synchronization, determine MW
capacity of incoming island that will not be
on Constant Frequency Control.
Calculate new Bias Setting of combined
area by adding capacity of frequency
responsive generators to existing island.
37

Bias Setting For Two Islands


Connected
Existing Island on Constant Frequency Mode
capacity: 1260 MW.
Incoming Island on Isochronous governor
control by the Black Start generator.
Capacity 420 MW.
Combined capacity: 1680 MW.
Bias Setting: 1680/30 = -56 MW/0.1 Hz.
Be sure to include only generation capacity that
is frequency responsive.
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10 MW
300 MW Capacity
70 MW Output
Next
Start D
15 MW
House
Load
Island 2

15 MW
Black
Start A
60 MW Capacity
30 MW Output
Island 2:
1260 MW Capacity
260 MW Load

Island 1
Sync Point
400 MW Capacity
70 MW Output
500 MW Capacity
90 MW Output

20 MW Capacity
8 MW Output
Black
Start 1
10 MW
Next
Start 2
400 MW Capacity
12 MW Output

Preparing to synchronize
Island 1 to Island 2.

100 MW

130 MW

Island 1:
420 MW Capacity
20 MW Load
39

Synchronizing Two Islands


In the smaller island, take the Isochronous
Black Start generator out of Isochronous
governor control and place it in droop mode.
At Sync point, observe island voltages and
match appropriately.
Observe Sync scope and adjust generation
in smaller island to achieve a slightly fast
rotation of the scope. Close the breaker at
the proper phase alignment.
40

Connecting Two Islands When Both


are on Constant Frequency
The process is the same as the isochronous
generator.
Take the smaller MW load island (incoming
generation) off Constant Frequency mode.
Field operator at Sync location should have
contact with QSE of the incoming island to direct
generation up or down to achieve proper
synchronization.

Only one QSE remains on Constant


Frequency mode after synchronization.
41

10 MW
300 MW Capacity
70 MW Output
Next
Start D
15 MW
House
Load

15 MW

1 Island
Sync Point
400 MW Capacity
70 MW Output
500 MW Capacity
90 MW Output

20 MW Capacity
8 MW Output
Black
Start 1
10 MW
Next
Start 2
400 MW Capacity
12 MW Output

Synchronized

Black
Start A
60 MW Capacity
30 MW Output
100 MW

130 MW

Island:
1680 MW Capacity
280 MW Load
Bias Setting: -56 MW/0.1 Hz
42

After Connecting Islands


QSE that remains on Constant Frequency
mode adjusts Bias Setting to account for the
additional frequency responsive generation.
Communicates through ERCOT for
adjustments in generation operated by the
other QSE.
Close additional tie lines to strengthen
island connections.
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10 MW
300 MW Capacity
70 MW Output

1 Island

Next
Start D
15 MW
House
Load

15 MW

400 MW Capacity
70 MW Output
500 MW Capacity
90 MW Output

20 MW Capacity
8 MW Output
Black
Start 1
10 MW
Next
Start 2
400 MW Capacity
12 MW Output

Synchronized

Black
Start A
60 MW Capacity
30 MW Output
100 MW

130 MW

Island:
1680 MW Capacity
280 MW Load
Bias Setting: -56 MW/0.1 Hz
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One Generator on Isochronous Governor Control per Island or


One QSE on Constant Frequency Control per Island

ONLY ONE BOSS


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Two Isochronous Governor


Controls Active on One Island
Each generator will control to a slightly
different frequency.
The generator controlling to the higher
frequency will increase output.
The generator controlling to the lower
frequency will decrease output.

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Isochronous Governor Controller


Small conversion errors can
exist at several locations.
1. Resolution of actual frequency, turbine speed.
Turbine actual speed = 3600 rpm
2 pole generator = 60.00 Hz
Comparator

Increase
Prime Mover if
frequency low,
Decrease
Prime Mover if
frequency
3. Resolution of
high.
the comparator
circuitry/logic.

Device

Reference input equal to


60.00 Hz

2. Resolution of reference frequency, is it an


analog signal or digital.

47

Gen A operating at 20
MW output and on
Isochronous Control.
Controlling to 60.008 Hz
Gen B switched to
Isochronous Control and
controlling to 60.002 Hz.
Gen B operating at 15
MW output and on Droop
Control.

48

Why Only One QSE on Constant


Frequency Mode
Just like having two Isochronous governor
control generators active on the same island,
Constant Frequency mode will generally
result in undesired actions.
The problem is that neither control system will
measure the exact same value for the
frequency.
Neither control system will measure the exact
same value for the frequency reference.
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QSE Constant Frequency


Mode
QSE A on
Constant
Frequency
Control

Island ACE = (HzActual 60.00) * -10 * Bias


Island
Frequency

RTU

Gen 2 MW
and/or
AGC
Telemetry

Bias

RTU

Gen 1
MW, Hz &
AGC
Telemetry

ACE

Target
Frequency
60.00 Hz

50

QSE AGC Control Loop

QSEs AGC
Generator

Potential
Transformer

Converts 13.8 KV
to 120 VAC

Frequency
Transducer

Converts 120 VAC


to madc or vdc

RTU

Converts Digital Count


to Engineering Units
(Hz) and sends
Control Signals to
AGC Generator based
on ACE.

1
2

Converts madc or vdc


to a Digital Count and
3
transmits to QSE when
requested.

QSE
Generation
Control
System
Data Request
Data Reply
Generator
Control
51

Summary
The Isochronous Governor Controlled
generator will manage frequency of the
island.
Dont ask it to do more than it is
capable of doing.
One Isochronous generator per island.
One Constant Frequency QSE per island.
Consider Generator minimum operating
level before connecting to the island.
52

References
NERC Glossary:
http://www.nerc.com/pa/Stand/Glossary
%20of%20Terms/Glossary_of_Terms.pdf2

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Questions

?
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1. Initially during the first energization of an island


grid, frequency control in Real Time will be
managed by the ___________________.
a)
b)
c)
d)

ERCOT Load Frequency Control (LFC) system.


QSE on Constant Frequency Control.
Resource on Isochronous Governor Control.
Resource on Droop Governor Control.

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2. When a QSE initially begins controlling the island


grid and places its Control System on Constant
Frequency Control, they should set their Bias in
their ACE equation to ________.
a) 699 MW/0.1 Hz, the present ERCOT Bias setting.
b) 698 MW/0.1 Hz, 1% of ERCOT Forecast Peak Load.
c) Total MW Capacity of the island being controlled
divided by 30.
d) Sum of the frequency responsive MW Capacity of
the island being controlled divided by 30.

56

3. Cold load pick up will initially appear as _____


times the load increase but will decrease with
time.
a)
b)
c)
d)

5
7
9
10

57

4. Before a QSE places its Control System on


Constant Frequency Control and begins
controlling island frequency it must have
_____________________.
a) ERCOT Frequency and ability to control one
Resource connected to the island on AGC.
b) QSE Control System frequency and ability to
control one Resource connected to the island on
AGC.
c) Frequency of the island and ability to control one
Resource connected to the island on AGC.
d) Resource on Isochronous Governor Control and
one Resource on AGC, frequency input not
needed.
58

5. When synchronizing two islands where both


islands have one Resource on Isochronous
Governor Control, what is the correct procedure
in synchronizing the two islands?
a)

Take both units off Isochronous Governor Control after


synchronization to maintain stability, and leave the largest
Island on Isochronous Governor Control.
b) Take the unit in the smallest Island off Isochronous
Governor Control and place in droop prior to
synchronization and leave the largest Island on
Isochronous Governor Control.
c) Take the unit in the largest Island off Isochronous Governor
Control and place in droop prior to synchronization and
leave the smallest Island on Isochronous Governor Control.
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