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AUTO CLUTCH FOR

AUTOMOBILE

Clutches

Allow disengagement and reengagement of


input and out put shafts

Can withstand differences in shaft speeds for a


limited period

Power transfer is on the basis of the friction


force
Virtually all vehicle clutches are spring-loaded
friction disks.

Clutches

The power that can be transmitted


through the clutch is therefore limited

The calculation of the power limit is not


precise as it must be based on an
assumption about the behavior of the two
surfaces

Two valid assumptions may be made ...

Clutch

Vehicle drive-train.

Desired Features

Force required separate the drive


must be low
Reasonable Coefficient of friction
Rubbing surface must be hard
Adequate mass and surface to
transfer and absorb heat generated
High temperature withstand
material

Types of Clutches

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Plate type & Cone Clutch


Single Plate & Multi Plate
Dry & Wet Clutch
As per clutch operating mechanism
Rod linkage
Cable linkage
Hydraulic
Vacuum

Types of Clutches
Multi Plate spring type
Multi Plate Diaphragm type
Multi Plate Hydraulically operated
automatic Clutches
Centrifugal Clutch
a. Semi-centrifugal Clutch
b. Fully automatic centrifugal Clutch

Spring Loaded Dry Clutch

Constant Pressure

Assume that the pressure is evenly


distributed across the surface

The surfaces must be flat

Applies to new clutches

Mathematically: p = constant

Constant Pressure

Constant Wear Rate

Assume that the worn surfaces


behave in such a manner so as to
keep the wear rate consistent
across the surface
pressure and wear rate:
Wear rate p.v
Mathematically: p.r = constant

Constant Wear Rate

Clutches
Since the load is distributed across the disk consider an
annular element at
radius r with thickness dr on a friction plate with inner
radius ri and outer radius ro.

Clutches

Cone Clutches

Cone Clutches

Heat Generation at Clutch

Heat generation, Q, is,

Q Ts N s t s
30

where,
Ts
is
the
average
torque
transmitted during slippage, Ns is the
average speed difference between the
pressure plate and disk, and ts is the slip
duration.

Heat Generation at Clutch

The temperature rise of the clutch can be


estimated as,

Q
0
mc C p

where, mc is the mass of the heat


absorbing parts of the clutch, and Cp is the
specific heat of the heat absorbing pats of
the clutch.

Automatic Clutch

The main components of an automatic


clutch are the converter housing case, oil
pan and the extension housing.
The converter housing encloses the
torque converter and may be integral
with the case or seperately bolted to the
case.
The case contains the epicyclic gear train
while the extension housing encloses the
output shaft.

Automatic clutch

The oil pan is bolted to the case.


The entire clutch unit is attached to the
engine block by means of bolts through
holes in the converter housing flange.

Borg Warner Automatic clutch

It is a combination of the torque


converter and epicyclic gear train.
The turbine of the torque converter
drives the ring gear of the first gear
train through a free wheel.
The drive to the ring gear of the
second gear train is then taken from
the planet carrier of the first train so
that the two act in series.

This
arrangement
gives
three
forward and one reverse speeds.
For direct gear, clutch A is engaged.
The second gear is obtained by
engaging Clutch B and applying
brake BS.
The application of both brakes BS
and BF gives the first i.e the lower
most gear.
For reverse gear only brake BR is
applied.

The selection of the particular gear


and application of corresponding
clutch
and
brake
is
done
hydraulically.
The hydraulic pressure is regulated
by two factors
1) Car speed that controls oil pressure
on one side of the shift valve and
2) The throttle opening controlled by
the driver through accelerator pedal,
which controls oil pressure on other
side of a the shift valve.

conclusion

We have studied about auto clutch


and also studied the importance and
utility.

In Major Project we are going to


design a small system for testing
purpose.