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Energy Conservation

in Marine Systems
Dr. Arwa W. Hussein
Lec. 5


Fuel Savings:

Waste Heat Recovering (WHR)

Air Cavity System (ACS)

Twin propeller

Interceptor transom plate

3- 8%

Bulb and stem modifications

3- 7%

Stabiliser fin box modifications

Rudder head box and design modifications

Shaft line modifications

2- 4%

New propeller blades

1- 4%


Total savings between:



2- 5%

2- 5%

Waste Heat Recovering

Why waste heat


About 50% of the fuel input energy is

not being put to productive use.
Recovering part of the wasted energy
provides the vessel with:

lower fuel consumption

lower emissions

Why waste heat



with Heat
Heat Balance RTA96C
Engine ISO conditions,
100% load

Engine efficiency improvement with heat recovery =

Why waste heat recovery?

The application of a waste heat recovery system is
The operator profits from a lower annual fuel bill.
The operator contributes to lower emissions, such as
CO2, NOX and SOX
The operator benefits from being more competitive in
the freight market.

How is wasted energy

Using exhaust gas energy to generate steam to operate a
steam turbine.

Steam turbine drives a generator.

Generator feeds into the main switchboard.

WHR System Benefits

- lower fuel consumption
- flexible utilization of generator
- low thermal load on ME less
maintenance for 2 stroke
- extended time between
overhauls of aux.engines
- Shaft motor power can be
weighted against lower installed
ME power
- Auxiliary engines can be used
to propel the ship in case of

- improved ship design by 10%
less bunker capacity (larger
cargo space)
- lower installed diesel power
- less cylinders for more
flexibility in engine room
length (shaft motor is installed
in the shaft tunnel)

- lower fuel consumption
- lower concentration of SOx
and NOx
- lower CO2 emissions

In this lecture, we will discuss about five main types of

waste energy utilization systems which are fitted on ships
and which use the lost energy from the machinery systems
to perform other productive work, increasing the overall
efficiency of the ship as a whole.


Turbocharger is a type of super charging equipment which
gives excess fresh air to the engine cylinder during
Turbocharger consists of a blower and a turbine assembly
mounted on two ends of a shaft. The hot waste exhaust gases
from the engine cylinder are directed on the turbine, which
rotates the latter.
The rotation enables the mounted blower to suck excess air
from the atmosphere and supply it to combustion chamber via
cooler. As the quantity of air is increased, the amount of fuel
injection can be increased, which in turn will increase the


Economizer is a type of boiler which is installed in the exhaust
passage of the main engine and where the exhaust heat
energy is utilized to generate steam from fresh water.
The exhaust of all cylinders is sent to the turbocharger, where
some heat enthalpy is utilized to supply fresh air as discussed
above. After passing through turbocharger, the hot exhaust
gas with temperature above 300 deg C is passed over stacks
of tubes wherein heated water is passed through a forced

3)Steam Turbine Generator

3)Steam Turbine Generator
Steam generation on ships is done using boilers and
economizers which are provided in all ships. Generally the
excess steam is dumped in to a dumping condenser, which is
technically a waste storage for steam and energy. This excess
steam can be utilized to generate energy when supplied to a
turbine generator.
The steam is supplied at a pressure to a high speed turbine
which is connected to an alternator shaft. The shaft thus
rotates and after achieving a rated rpm, electrical power is

4)Fresh Water

4)Fresh Water
As the name suggests, the fresh water generator generates
drinking water from sea water.
The fresh water generator works on the principle that
Maintaining a low pressure, water can be boiled at low
temperatures say 50 degree Celsius
This low temperature is provided by the jacket cooling water
of the main engine in which a portion of Jacket Cooling Water
(JCW) is diverted to Fresh Water Generator (FWG) to
produce fresh water

5)Shaft Generator

5)Shaft Generator
Shaft generator is yet another machinery system where an
alternator is connected over the shaft of the main engine.
When the main engine is brought to its sea going speed, the
shaft generator connected to the main bus bars of the switch
board, supplies power to the ship.
This reduces the use of extra fuel in auxiliary generators as
they are turned off when the shaft generator is working.

Air Cavity System:

Fuel savings of up to 15%

Air Cavity System:

Air Cavity System:

Air Cavity System Midship Section