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The Life of Karl

Jaspers

Karl Theodor Jaspers


(bornFeb.23,1883,Oldenburg,Ger.diedFeb.
26,1969,Basel,Switz.)Germanphilosopher,one
ofthemostimportantExistentialistsinGermany,
whoapproachedthesubjectfrommansdirect
concernwithhisownexistence.Inhislaterwork,
asareactiontothedisruptionsofNazirulein
GermanyandWorldWarII,hesearchedfora
newunityofthinkingthathecalledworld
philosophy.

Afterbeingtrainedinandpracticingpsychiatry,Jaspers
turnedtophilosophicalinquiryandattemptedtodiscoveran
innovativephilosophicalsystem.Hewasoftenviewedasa
majorexponentofexistentialisminGermany,thoughhedid
notacceptthislabel.
JasperswastheoldestofthethreechildrenofKarlWilhelm
JaspersandHenrietteTantzen.Hisancestorsonbothsides
werepeasants,merchants,andpastorswhohadlivedin
northernGermanyforgenerations.Hisfather,alawyer,wasa
highconstableofthedistrictandeventuallyadirectorofa
bank.
DuringmostoftheNaziperiodJaspers,whosewifewas
JewishandwhorefusedtomakeanyconcessionstotheNazi
authorities,waspreventedfromteaching.In1948heaccepted
aprofessorshipinphilosophyatBasel,Switzerland.

Karl Jaspers Philosophy

Philosophy of Existence

MostcommentatorsassociateJasperswiththephilosophy
ofExistentialism,inpartbecausehedrawslargelyuponthe
existentialistrootsofNietzscheandKierkegaard,andinpart
becausethethemeofindividualfreedompermeateshiswork.
InPhilosophy(3vols,1932),Jaspersgavehisviewofthehistory
ofphilosophyandintroducedhismajorthemes.Beginningwith
modernscienceandempiricism,Jasperspointsoutthataswe
questionreality,weconfrontbordersthatanempirical(or
scientific)methodsimplycannottranscend.Atthispoint,the
individualfacesachoice:sinkintodespairandresignation,or
takealeapoffaithtowardwhatJasperscallsTranscendence.In
makingthisleap,individualsconfronttheirownlimitless
freedom,whichJasperscallsExistenz,andcanfinallyexperience
authenticexistence.

Philosophy of Existence

Jaspersphilosophyplacesthepersons
temporalexistenceinthefaceofthe
transcendentGod,anabsoluteimperative.
Transcendencerelatestousthroughlimitsituation(Grenzsituation).Inthefaceof
sickness,unemployment,guiltordeath,we
areattheendofourline.Atthelimit,one
comestogriefandbecomesawareofthe
phenomenonofonesexistence.

Philosophy of Existence
Onceinvolvedinlimit-situations,alonely
individualhastogothroughthisalone.
Meaning,thedecisionthatonemakesas
howtofacethesesituationsarehisorher
ownandonlyhisorherown.One
possibilitytoguideapersontothelimitsof
whatscientificthinkingcandoandthenlet
himorherconfrontthedarknessstretching
outfromthere.

AUTHENTIC
EXISTENCE

AnExistentialistexpressionmeaninga
wayoflifewhichassertsone'sown
individualityandfreedom.Itisasecular
equivalentofsalvation.
(www.philosophy-dictionary.org/Authentic_existenc e)

Alwaysrequiredaleapoffaith.

FreedomandGod

Authentic
existence is
freedom and
God:

Freedom alone opens


the door to humanitys
being; what he decides
to be rather than being
what circumstances
choose to make him.

In freedom, the person


becomes aware of God
as never before.
Freedom reveals itself
as a gift from
somewhere beyond
itself.

Freedom without God


only leads to a persons
searching for a
substitute to God closer
to oneself. Usually, he
himself tries to be God.

Jaspers asked that human


beings be loyal to their own
faiths without impugning the
faith of others. If openness of
communication is to preserve,
then we must become
concerned with the historically
different without becoming
untrue to our own historicity.

The life of
Gabriel Marcel

Gabriel Marcel

Gabriel Honor Marcel (7December18898


October1973)wasaFrenchphilosopher,
playwright,musiccriticandleadingChristian
existentialist.Theauthorofoveradozenbooks
andatleastthirtyplays,Marcel'sworkfocusedon
themodernindividual'sstruggleina
technologicallydehumanizingsociety.Though
oftenregardedasthefirstFrenchexistentialist,he
dissociatedhimselffromfiguressuchasJean-Paul
Sartre,preferringtheterm'Philosophyof
Existence'todefinehisownthought.TheMystery
ofBeingisawell-knowntwo-volumework
authoredbyMarcel.

Marcel was born in and died in Paris. His mother Laure


Meyer died when he was young and he was brought up by
his aunt and father, Henry Marcel. When he was eight he
moved to Stockholm for a year where his father was
Minister Plenipotentiary.
Marcel completed his DES thesis (diplme d'tudes
suprieures (fr), roughly equivalent to an MA thesis) and
obtained the agrgation in philosophy from the Sorbonne
in 1910, at the unusually young age of 20. During the First
World War he worked as head of the Information Service,
organised by the Red Cross to convey news of injured
soldiers to their families.He taught in secondary schools,
was a drama critic for various literary journals, and worked
as an editor for Plon, the major French Catholic publisher.
Marcel was the son of an agnostic, and was himself an
atheist until his conversion to Catholicism in 1929. Marcel
was opposed to anti-Semitism and supported reaching out

MARCEL's
Phenomenolo
gical Method

PRIMARY REFLECTION
looksattheworldoratanyobjectasa
problem,detachedfromtheselfand
fragment.
foundationofscientificknowledge
datalieinthepublicdomainandare
equallyavailabletoanyqualified
observer

PRIMARY REFLECTION
concrete,individual,heuristicandopen
concernednotwithobjectbutwith
presences
recapturestheunityoforiginal
experience
doesnotgoagainstthedateofprimary
reflectionbutgoesbeyonditbyrefusing
toacceptthedataofprimaryreflectionas
final.

Absolute thou

Beyondonesexperience,beyondthecircle
offellowhumanbeings,oneturnsto
Absolute thou, the unobjectifiable
Transcendent Thou.
Whenapersonlovesandexperiencesthe
inevitabledeficienciesofhumanlove,heor
sheseestheglimpseofanabsoluteI-thou
relationshipbetweenthetotalityofones
being.Thus,inthissense,philosophyleads
toadoration.

I-Thou Relationship in Gabriel


Marcel: An existentialist
analysis

I-thou relationship:lifeisamysteryandnotaproblem;itis
neveranexistensialpuzzletohumanmind.
Inotherwords,toliveameaningfulandauthenticexistence,
onemustestablishalovingandmutual(reciprocal)
relationshipwithotherhumanbeings,whichmustrespecta
qualifiedtreatmentoftheotheras(thouthanit)genuineand
asonewhohasapersonalright,sacrednessanddignitythat
mustbekeptrespectfully.
I-Thou relationship therefore,isatotalcommitmenttothe
otherwhichinvolvesintersubjectivity,fidelity,disponibility,
faith,hopeandlove.

Thank you and Mabuhay!


Presentedby:
(Group5)
Abilay,MarkGilbert
Biuag,VinzEdward
Escueta,AlyssaMae
Miranda,Jasmine
Nonisa,Diana
Olorvida,Rebecca
Santos,MariaAnnaVictoria
Ureta,Nicole