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Brain computer interface (BCI)

By
Ravitej Kattula
And
Harsha Puttagunta

Introduction
The idea of interfacing minds with machines is a big dream of
humans
A brain computer interface (BCI) is a direct communication path way
between a brain and a machine sometimes called a mind machine
interface.
Brain computer interface is a collaboration in which brain accepts and
controls a mechanical device as a natural part of its representation of
the body.
It does so by using electrodes to detect signals in the brain which are
sent to a computer.
The computer then translates these electric signals into data which is
used to control a device linked to a computer

Human BCI

Invasive

Neurosurgery

Partial Invasive

Electrocorticography
(ECoG)

Non-Invasive

MEG & MRI

Invasive BCI
Invasive BCIs are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain by
neurosurgery
As the rest is grey matter, invasive devices produce the highest quality signals
of BCI devices
But are prone to scar tissue build up, causing the signal to become weaker or
even lost as body reacts to a foreign object in the brain

Contd.

FIG A:-shows an exemplary subdural electrode grid used to receive the brain
waves
FIG B:-Shows the exposed cortical surface of a human patient with epilepsy,
before placement of the subdural electrode grid.
FIG C:-shows the placement of the subdural electrode grid over the cortical
surface shown in FIG B.
FIG D:-It is an X-ray image of the skull of human patient of figs B and C, showing
the placement of the subdural electrode grid after surgical closure of the scalp

Partial invasive BCI


It is another brain signal reading process which is applied to the
inside of the skull but outside the grey matter.
Electrocorticography (ECoG) is the best examples of partial invasive
BCI.

Electrocorticography (ECoG):Most recently ECoG has proven to be a useful tool in detecting input
signals for BCIs unlike EEG, ECoG can detect high frequency gamma
wave activity.
ECoG signal have been used for 2D movement control at a level of
performance to that achieved with invasive BCIs.
Although this approach has not been tested in patients with motor
impairments it can be applied more safely than invasive electrodes
and produces greater information content than EEG systems.
Contd.

A BCI computer having software configured to analyse the ECoG


signals can determine the intent of the user

Figure :- showing Electrocorticograph.

Non-Invasive BCI
It is the most useful neuro signal imaging method which is applied to
the outside of the skull, just applied on the scalp.
The techniques used in non- invasive BCI are electroencephalography
(EEG) and magneto encephalography (MEG).

Electroencephalograph(EEG):An electroencephalograph (EEG) is a test that measures and record


electrical activity of a brain, special sensors (Electrodes) are attached to
the subjects head and hooked by wires to a computer
EEG is considered a safe and non-invasive modality, but has low spatial
resolution and a poor signal to noise ratio due to signal attenuation at the
skull.
The ability to separate individual finger movements, limbs movements
and two dimensional controls have not previously achieved utilising EEG
which is especially useful as a basis for providing multiple dimensions of
external device control.
Contd.

Figure:- Electrodes for sensing Brain waves

Figure:- Block diagram of Electroencephalograph, BCI.

MEG and MRI:Magneto encephalography(MEG) andfunctional


magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have both been
used successfully as non-invasive BCIs.
fMRI measurements of hemodynamic responses in
real time have also been used to control robot arms
with a seven-second delay between thought and
movement

Figure:- Showing input , output and mean


patterns

Latest advancements in BCI


Synthetic Telepathy
RecoveriX
Auditory BCI -Charstreamer paradigm

Synthetic Telepathy

ECoG signals discriminate between


imagined and spoken words

Connecting the Brains


The future under trials

Recoverix
Stroke Recovery
Exoskeleton with EEG based tools to evaluate motor signals
Paired Active Simulation- systems activities are paired with the
users movement imagery
Evaluation of the imagery tasks required for therapy

Auditory BCI: Charstreamer Paradigm


Different from conventional event related
potentials
The paradigm is following the concept of
what you see is what you get
The stimuli of Char Streamer comprise 30
spoken sounds of letters and actions
divided into three groups
The letters which were contained in one
group were read out by the same voice
and from the same direction

CONCLUSION
It is an advancing technology promising paradigm
shift in areas like machines control, human
enhancement, virtual reality and etc. Several
potential applications of BCI hold promise for
rehabilitation and improving performance, such as
treating emotional disorders(like depression,
anxiety), easing chronic pain and overcoming
movement disabilities.

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