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ERICSON D.

DIMAUNAHAN

ECE

Real

Number

s

Rationa

l

Integer

s

3/4

-1/3

1/2

...,-4 , -3,

-2, -1

Whole

Natural

0 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,

8, 9,...

Irration

al

2

3

10

3/8

5/6

7/2

1. Commutative

Property a b b a

ab b a

2. Associative

(a b) c a (b c )

Property

(a b) c a (b c)

3. Distributive

Property

a(b c) ab ac

(a b)c ac bc

4. Additive Identity

Propertya 0 a

5. Multiplicative

Identity Property

a 1 a

6. Additive Inverse

Property

a (a) 0

7. Multiplicative

Inverse Property

1

a a

a

Properties of Equality:

1. Reflexive

Property a a

2. Symmetric

Property

If a=b, then b=a

3. Transitive

Property

If a=b and b=c, then a=c

Sequence

A sequence of numbers is a set of

numbers in a definite or specific order

and formed according to a definite rule.

The numbers of the sequence are called

terms.

terms

in the sequence whose

general

term is (2n-1).

A. 16

B. 8

C. 31

D. 15

4

terms of

the sequence

whose general term is given by

3n 2.

A. 100

B. 89

C. 98

D. 112

sequence whose sum of n

terms is given by (2n+3 5).

A. 258

B. 218

C. 128

D. 158

Progression

each term is obtained from the

preceding term in the same way.

Arithmetic Progression

- is a sequence in which there is a

common difference d between any

two consecutive terms.

an am (n m)d

n

n

A (2a1 (n 1)d ) (a1 an )

2

2

4, 7, 10 ...

A. 88

B. 91

C. 75

D. 90

positive odd integers.

A.

10,000

B. 9,899

C. 5,000

D. 8,910

Geometric Progression

- is a sequence in which there is a

common ratio of each term to its

preceding term.

( nm)

n

m

g g r

g1 (r 1)

G

(r 1)

n

The

fourth

term

of

a

Geometric Progression is 189 and

the sixth term is 1701, the 8th

term is:

A. 5103

B.

1240029

C. 45927

D. 15309

terms

of

the

geometric

progression 2,4,8,16,.

A. 1203

B. 2046

C. 1225

D. 1825

means between 3 and 729. Find

the fourth term of the geometric

progression.

A. 42

B. 27

C. 81

D. 108

from a

height of 50 ft. and is

observed to rebound 2/3 of the

distance it falls. How far will the

ball travel before coming to rest if

the ball continues to fall in this

manner?

A. 420

C. 343

B. 271

D. 250

Harmonic Progression

- a sequence of terms in which each term

is the reciprocal of the corresponding term

of a series in arithmetic progression.

Harmonic Mean

2a1a3

HM

a1 a3

harmonic progression if the

first

and the third terms are

1/2 and

1/6 respectively?

A. 1/20

C. 1/4

B. 1/12

D. 1/22

Principles

Analysis)

of

Counting

(Combinatorial

If a first event can be performed in n1

different ways and a second event can be

performed in n2 different ways

n1 n2 n3 ways

entrance doors. In how many

ways can a person enter and

leave: a. by any door

b. by different door

A. 66, 45

C. 64, 56

B. 68, 46

D. 70, 50

boys and 2 girls sit in a row if

the girls are to sit together?

A. 48 ways

ways

C. 120

B. 24 ways

D. 144

numbers less than 4000 can be

formed from the digits

2,3,5,6,7

and 9 if each digit

must be used only once?

A. 120

C. 20

B. 40

D. 80

Permutation

I.

PERMUTATION- W/ ORDER

n!

P ( n, r )

n r !

p ( n, n ) n !

PERMUTATION W/ THINGS ALIKE

n!

P

q !r !...

B. CYCLICAL PERMUTATION

P n 1 ! in a plane

n 1 !

P

in a space

2

Combination

n!

C (n, r )

r ! n r !

C (n, n) 1

TOTAL COMBINATION

- Combination of n different things taken

1,2,3n at a time:

C 2 1

n

Example:

Find the number of combinations of 4 objects, A, B,

C, D, taken 3 at a time.

ABC:

ABD:

ACD:

BCD:

be made out of the letters

PERCDC?

A. 720

C. 360

B. 120

D. 320

people be seated in a round

table with 6 seats?

A. 120

C. 110

B. 150

D. 90

points, no three of which are

collinear, be connected to form

a triangle?

A. 720

C. 144

B. 540

D. 816

0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9, find the

number

of

4

digit

combination.

A. 210

C. 120

B. 126

D. 162

invite one or more of your five

friends in a party?

A. 32

C. 31

B. 15

D 25

will hire 7 men and 4 women. In

how many ways can the

company choose from 9 men

and 6 women who qualified for

the position?

A. 540

C. 720

B. 120

D. 28

What is Ratio?

The ratio of two numbers a and b may be written

as:

a to b,

a:b

or

a/b

Where:

a is called the antecedent

b is called the consequent

What is Proportion?

A proportion is a statement of equality between

two ratios

b and c are called means

d is called the fourthproportional to a,b,and c

Variation

1

y k inverse var iation

x

x

y k combined var iation

z

is divided into two parts whose

lengths have the ratio 2:3. Find

the larger part.

A. 12

C. 18

B. 15

D. 21

to -2 and 4.

A. 4

C. -8

B. 6

D. -4

directly as the product of x and

y and inversely as the

square of z , and that w = 4,

when x = 2 , y = 6 and z = 3.

Find the

value of w when

x = 1 , y = 4 and z = 2 .

A. 2

C. 4

B. 3

D. 5

as his son now. Six years

ago

he was 7 times as old as

his son during that time. Find

their present ages.

A. 8,41

B. 12,48

C. 10,40

D. 12,45

Kevins ages is 18. In three

years Kim will be twice as old as

Kevin. What are their ages now?

A. 6,12

5,13

B. 4,14

8,10

C.

D.

Mixture Problem

TECHNIQUE:

% ( A) %( B) %( A B)

% in A

% in B

A

B

% in A + B

is implied

Ex. Pure water is 0% salt

solution and 15 liters of 35%

salt solution are poured into a

drum originally containing 30

liters of 10 % salt solution. What

is the percent concentration in

the mixture?

A. 19.54 %

11.4%

B. 15.3%

C.

D. 5%

must be removed from a 50

lb of 3 % salt solution so that

the remaining solution will be 5

% salt?

A. 10 lb

C. 15

B. 30 lb

D. 20

lb

lb

Example

The speed of the plane is 120 mi/hr in a

calm. With the wind it can cover a

certain distance in 4 hours, but against

the wind it can cover only 3/5 of that

distance in the same time. Find the

velocity of the wind.

A. 10 mi/hr C. 20 mi/hr

B. 30 mi/hr D.40mi/hr

Example

The boat travels downstream in 2/3 of the time as

it does going upstream. If the velocity of the river

current is 8 kph, determine the velocity of the

boat in still water.

A. 20 KPH

B. 40 KPH

C. 15 KPH

D. 30 KPH

Example

Pedro and Juan run at constant speeds

along a circular track 1,350 m in

circumference. If they run in opposite

directions, they meet every 3 minutes,

while running in the same direction they

are

together

every

27

minutes.

Determine the speed of Pedro.

A. 250 m/min.

B. 180 m/min.

C. 150 m/min.

D. 230 m/min.

CLOCK PROBLEMS

Principle

Let,

hand

Note: x/12

hand for every x minutes traveled by the

Hands of the clock together = 0 minutes difference

minute hand.

hands perpendicular to each other = 15 minutes difference

hands opposite to each other = 30 minutes difference

Example

What time after 3 oclock will the

hands of the clock be together for

the first time?

A. 3:16.36

B. 3:14.32

C. 3:12.30

D. 3:17.37

Problem:

What time after 2 oclock will the

hands of the clock extend in opposite

directions for the first time?

A. 2:43.64

B. 2:43.46

C. 2:34.64

D. 2:34.46

Example

At what time after 12 oclock will the

hour hand and the minute hands of a

clock form an angle of 120 degrees for

the first time?

A. 12:21.818

B. 12:18.818

C. 12:22.818

D. 12:24.818

Example

What time between 2 and 3 oclock will

the angle between the hands of the

clock be bisected by the line

connecting the center of the clock

and the 3 oclock mark?

A. 2: 18 6/13

B. 2: 17 3/7

C. 2: 15 5/12

D. 2: 18 7/11

COIN PROBLEMS

Coin Problems

Coin Value

Coin Denomination

1 cent

Penny

5 cent

Nickel

10 cent

Dime

25 cent

Quarter

Example

Eve open her coin purse and found pennies, nickels

and dimes with a total value of $2.85 .If there are

twice as many pennies as there are nickels and

dimes combined, how many pennies, dimes, and

nickels are there if she has a collection of 90

coins?

A. P=50, N=20, D=20

B. P=60, N=15, D=15

D=20

D. P=40, N=30,

NUMBER/ DIGIT

PROBLEMS

Basis of Analysis

For 2-digit number:

F 10u t reversed number

Where:

F 10uu 10t h reversed number

u=units digit

t=tens digit

h=hundreds digit

Example

A number is divided into two parts such

that when the greater part is divided by

the smaller, the quotient is 3 and the

remainder is 5. Find the smaller number

if the sum of the two numbers is 37.

A. 8

B. 12

C. 32

D. 16

Example

The sum of the digits of a certain two

digit number is 10.If the digits are

reversed, a new number is formed

which is one less than twice the original

number. Find the original number.

A. 19

B. 37

C. 82

D. 64

Diophantine Equations

A system of linear equations in which

the number of equations is less than

the number of unknowns.

Example

A man bought 20 chicken for P200.00.

The cocks cost P30.00 each, hens

P15.00 each, and chicks P5.00 each.

How many cocks did he buy?

A. 2

B. 13

C. 5

D. 4

Venn Diagram

Example

A class of 40 students took examination

in Electronics and Communications. If

30 passed in Electronics, 36 passed in

Communication and 2 failed in both

subjects, how many students passed in

both subjects?

A. 28

B. 30

C. 26

D. 32

Probability

Numerical measure of the likelihood of an event to occur.

Expressed Mathematically as,

Where:

h

P

hf

f is the number of failures

Two or more events are mutually

exclusive if they cannot occur

simultaneously.

The probability that two or more

mutually exclusive events to happen

is the sum of their individual

P

...P

1

2

3

n

probability.

-With common outcome

PAorB PA PB P(AandB)

Conditional Probability

Independent Events

Two events are independent if the

occurrence of one has no effect on the

occurrence of the other.

Conditional Probability

Dependent Events

Two events are dependent if the

occurrence of one affect the

occurrence of the other.

P(AandB) P(A) P(B / A)

Binomial Probability

Repeated trials probability

The probability that the event can

happen exactly r times in n trials

P nCr pr qn r

Where:

p is the probability of success

q is the probability of failure

n is the no. of trials

Example

Roll a pair of dice one time. What is

the probability of getting a sum of 9?

A. 1/36

B. 1/12

C. 1/9

D. 2/9

Example

One card is drawn from a standard

deck of 52 playing cards. What is the

probability that the card drawn is

either a heart or a face card?

A. 0.532

B. 0.352

C. 0.423

D. 0.279

Example

A bag contains 3 white balls and 5

black balls. If two balls are drawn in

succession without replacement,

what is the probability that both balls

are black?

A. 5/28

B. 5/32

C. 5/16

D. 5/14

Example

A box contains 4 black balls and 6

white balls. What is the probability of

getting one black ball and one white

ball in two consecutive draws without

replacement from the box?

0.24

B. 0.27

C. 0.53

D. 0.04

Example

A manufacturer has determined that a

certain machine averages one faulty

unit for every 1000 it produces. What is

the probability that an order of 200

units will have one or more faulty units?

A. 0.8190

B. 0.7315

C. 0.1814

D. 0.4617

END...

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