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ALGEBRA

ERICSON D.
DIMAUNAHAN
ECE

Real
Number
s

Rationa
l
Integer
s
3/4
-1/3

1/2

...,-4 , -3,
-2, -1

Whole

Natural
0 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9,...

Irration
al
2

3
10

3/8
5/6
7/2

BASIC RULES OF ALGEBRA

Properties of Real Numbers


1. Commutative
Property a b b a
ab b a

2. Associative
(a b) c a (b c )
Property
(a b) c a (b c)

3. Distributive
Property
a(b c) ab ac
(a b)c ac bc

4. Additive Identity
Propertya 0 a

5. Multiplicative
Identity Property
a 1 a

6. Additive Inverse
Property
a (a) 0

7. Multiplicative
Inverse Property
1
a a
a

Properties of Equality:
1. Reflexive
Property a a
2. Symmetric
Property
If a=b, then b=a
3. Transitive
Property
If a=b and b=c, then a=c

Sequence
A sequence of numbers is a set of
numbers in a definite or specific order
and formed according to a definite rule.
The numbers of the sequence are called
terms.

Find the sum of the first 5


terms
in the sequence whose
general
term is (2n-1).
A. 16
B. 8
C. 31
D. 15

Determine the sum of the first


4
terms of
the sequence
whose general term is given by
3n 2.
A. 100
B. 89
C. 98
D. 112

Determine the 5th term of the


sequence whose sum of n
terms is given by (2n+3 5).
A. 258
B. 218
C. 128
D. 158

Progression

A sequence of values in which


each term is obtained from the
preceding term in the same way.

Arithmetic Progression
- is a sequence in which there is a
common difference d between any
two consecutive terms.

an am (n m)d
n
n
A (2a1 (n 1)d ) (a1 an )
2
2

Find the 30th term of the A. P.


4, 7, 10 ...
A. 88
B. 91
C. 75
D. 90

Find the sum of the first 100


positive odd integers.
A.
10,000
B. 9,899
C. 5,000
D. 8,910

Geometric Progression
- is a sequence in which there is a
common ratio of each term to its
preceding term.
( nm)
n
m

g g r

g1 (r 1)
G
(r 1)
n

The
fourth
term
of
a
Geometric Progression is 189 and
the sixth term is 1701, the 8th
term is:
A. 5103
B.
1240029
C. 45927
D. 15309

Find the sum of the first 10


terms
of
the
geometric
progression 2,4,8,16,.
A. 1203
B. 2046
C. 1225
D. 1825

There are 4 geometric


means between 3 and 729. Find
the fourth term of the geometric
progression.
A. 42
B. 27
C. 81
D. 108

A rubber ball is made to fall


from a
height of 50 ft. and is
observed to rebound 2/3 of the
distance it falls. How far will the
ball travel before coming to rest if
the ball continues to fall in this
manner?

A. 420

C. 343

B. 271

D. 250

Harmonic Progression
- a sequence of terms in which each term
is the reciprocal of the corresponding term
of a series in arithmetic progression.

Harmonic Mean

2a1a3
HM
a1 a3

What is the 11th term of the


harmonic progression if the
first
and the third terms are
1/2 and
1/6 respectively?
A. 1/20

C. 1/4

B. 1/12

D. 1/22

Principles
Analysis)

of

Counting

(Combinatorial

Basic Counting Principles


If a first event can be performed in n1
different ways and a second event can be
performed in n2 different ways
n1 n2 n3 ways

A department store has 8


entrance doors. In how many
ways can a person enter and
leave: a. by any door
b. by different door
A. 66, 45

C. 64, 56

B. 68, 46

D. 70, 50

In how many ways can 3


boys and 2 girls sit in a row if
the girls are to sit together?
A. 48 ways
ways

C. 120

B. 24 ways

D. 144

How many 4 - digit


numbers less than 4000 can be
formed from the digits
2,3,5,6,7
and 9 if each digit
must be used only once?
A. 120
C. 20
B. 40
D. 80

Permutation
I.

PERMUTATION- W/ ORDER

n!
P ( n, r )
n r !
p ( n, n ) n !
PERMUTATION W/ THINGS ALIKE

n!
P
q !r !...

B. CYCLICAL PERMUTATION

P n 1 ! in a plane

n 1 !

P
in a space
2

Combination

COMBINATION- W/O ORDER

n!
C (n, r )
r ! n r !
C (n, n) 1

TOTAL COMBINATION
- Combination of n different things taken
1,2,3n at a time:

C nC1 nC2 ... nCn


C 2 1
n

Example:
Find the number of combinations of 4 objects, A, B,
C, D, taken 3 at a time.
ABC:

ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA

ABD:

ABD, ADB, BAD, BDA, DAB, DBA

ACD:

ACD, ADC, CAD, CDA, DAC, DCA

BCD:

BCD, BDC, CBD, CDB, DBC, DCB

How many permutations can


be made out of the letters
PERCDC?
A. 720
C. 360
B. 120
D. 320

In how many ways can 6


people be seated in a round
table with 6 seats?
A. 120

C. 110

B. 150

D. 90

In how many ways can 18


points, no three of which are
collinear, be connected to form
a triangle?
A. 720
C. 144

B. 540
D. 816

From the given digits


0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9, find the
number
of
4
digit
combination.
A. 210

C. 120

B. 126

D. 162

In how many ways can you


invite one or more of your five
friends in a party?
A. 32

C. 31

B. 15

D 25

A semi conductor company


will hire 7 men and 4 women. In
how many ways can the
company choose from 9 men
and 6 women who qualified for
the position?
A. 540

C. 720

B. 120

D. 28

Ratio, Proportion, and Variation


What is Ratio?
The ratio of two numbers a and b may be written
as:

a to b,

a:b

or

a/b

Where:
a is called the antecedent
b is called the consequent

What is Proportion?
A proportion is a statement of equality between
two ratios

a and d are called extremes


b and c are called means
d is called the fourthproportional to a,b,and c

Variation

y kx direct var iation


1
y k inverse var iation
x

y kxz jo int var iation

x
y k combined var iation
z

A line segment 30 cm long


is divided into two parts whose
lengths have the ratio 2:3. Find
the larger part.
A. 12

C. 18

B. 15

D. 21

Find the third proportional


to -2 and 4.
A. 4

C. -8

B. 6

D. -4

Given that w varies


directly as the product of x and
y and inversely as the
square of z , and that w = 4,
when x = 2 , y = 6 and z = 3.
Find the
value of w when
x = 1 , y = 4 and z = 2 .
A. 2

C. 4

B. 3

D. 5

A father is four times as old


as his son now. Six years
ago
he was 7 times as old as
his son during that time. Find
their present ages.
A. 8,41
B. 12,48

C. 10,40
D. 12,45

The sum of Kims and


Kevins ages is 18. In three
years Kim will be twice as old as
Kevin. What are their ages now?

A. 6,12
5,13
B. 4,14
8,10

C.
D.

Mixture Problem
TECHNIQUE:

% ( A) %( B) %( A B)

% in A

% in B

A
B

% in A + B

Note: Be extra careful in choosing the percentage when it


is implied
Ex. Pure water is 0% salt

Ten liters of 25% salt


solution and 15 liters of 35%
salt solution are poured into a
drum originally containing 30
liters of 10 % salt solution. What
is the percent concentration in
the mixture?
A. 19.54 %
11.4%
B. 15.3%

C.
D. 5%

How many pounds of water


must be removed from a 50
lb of 3 % salt solution so that
the remaining solution will be 5
% salt?
A. 10 lb

C. 15

B. 30 lb

D. 20

lb
lb

Example
The speed of the plane is 120 mi/hr in a
calm. With the wind it can cover a
certain distance in 4 hours, but against
the wind it can cover only 3/5 of that
distance in the same time. Find the
velocity of the wind.
A. 10 mi/hr C. 20 mi/hr
B. 30 mi/hr D.40mi/hr

Example
The boat travels downstream in 2/3 of the time as
it does going upstream. If the velocity of the river
current is 8 kph, determine the velocity of the
boat in still water.
A. 20 KPH
B. 40 KPH

C. 15 KPH
D. 30 KPH

Example
Pedro and Juan run at constant speeds
along a circular track 1,350 m in
circumference. If they run in opposite
directions, they meet every 3 minutes,
while running in the same direction they
are
together
every
27
minutes.
Determine the speed of Pedro.
A. 250 m/min.
B. 180 m/min.

C. 150 m/min.
D. 230 m/min.

CLOCK PROBLEMS

Principle

Let,

x = no. of minute spaces traveled by the minute


hand

Note: x/12

= no. of minute spaces traveled by the hour


hand for every x minutes traveled by the
Hands of the clock together = 0 minutes difference
minute hand.
hands perpendicular to each other = 15 minutes difference
hands opposite to each other = 30 minutes difference

Example
What time after 3 oclock will the
hands of the clock be together for
the first time?

A. 3:16.36
B. 3:14.32

C. 3:12.30
D. 3:17.37

Problem:
What time after 2 oclock will the
hands of the clock extend in opposite
directions for the first time?
A. 2:43.64
B. 2:43.46
C. 2:34.64
D. 2:34.46

Example
At what time after 12 oclock will the
hour hand and the minute hands of a
clock form an angle of 120 degrees for
the first time?
A. 12:21.818
B. 12:18.818

C. 12:22.818
D. 12:24.818

Example
What time between 2 and 3 oclock will
the angle between the hands of the
clock be bisected by the line
connecting the center of the clock
and the 3 oclock mark?
A. 2: 18 6/13
B. 2: 17 3/7

C. 2: 15 5/12
D. 2: 18 7/11

COIN PROBLEMS

Coin Problems
Coin Value

Coin Denomination

1 cent

Penny

5 cent

Nickel

10 cent

Dime

25 cent

Quarter

Example
Eve open her coin purse and found pennies, nickels
and dimes with a total value of $2.85 .If there are
twice as many pennies as there are nickels and
dimes combined, how many pennies, dimes, and
nickels are there if she has a collection of 90
coins?
A. P=50, N=20, D=20
B. P=60, N=15, D=15
D=20

C. P=60, N=30, D=10


D. P=40, N=30,

NUMBER/ DIGIT
PROBLEMS

Basis of Analysis
For 2-digit number:

F 10t u original number


F 10u t reversed number

Where:

For 3-digit number:

F 100h 10t u original number


F 10uu 10t h reversed number

u=units digit
t=tens digit
h=hundreds digit

Example
A number is divided into two parts such
that when the greater part is divided by
the smaller, the quotient is 3 and the
remainder is 5. Find the smaller number
if the sum of the two numbers is 37.
A. 8
B. 12

C. 32
D. 16

Example
The sum of the digits of a certain two
digit number is 10.If the digits are
reversed, a new number is formed
which is one less than twice the original
number. Find the original number.
A. 19
B. 37

C. 82
D. 64

Diophantine Equations
A system of linear equations in which
the number of equations is less than
the number of unknowns.

Example
A man bought 20 chicken for P200.00.
The cocks cost P30.00 each, hens
P15.00 each, and chicks P5.00 each.
How many cocks did he buy?
A. 2
B. 13

C. 5
D. 4

Venn Diagram

Example
A class of 40 students took examination
in Electronics and Communications. If
30 passed in Electronics, 36 passed in
Communication and 2 failed in both
subjects, how many students passed in
both subjects?
A. 28
B. 30

C. 26
D. 32

Probability
Numerical measure of the likelihood of an event to occur.
Expressed Mathematically as,

Where:

h
P
hf

h is the number of successful outcomes


f is the number of failures

Mutually Exclusive Events


Two or more events are mutually
exclusive if they cannot occur
simultaneously.
The probability that two or more
mutually exclusive events to happen
is the sum of their individual
P

...P
1
2
3
n
probability.

Non-Mutually Exclusive Events


-With common outcome

PAorB PA PB P(AandB)

Conditional Probability
Independent Events
Two events are independent if the
occurrence of one has no effect on the
occurrence of the other.

P(AandB) P(A) P(B)

Conditional Probability
Dependent Events
Two events are dependent if the
occurrence of one affect the
occurrence of the other.
P(AandB) P(A) P(B / A)

Binomial Probability
Repeated trials probability
The probability that the event can
happen exactly r times in n trials

P nCr pr qn r
Where:
p is the probability of success
q is the probability of failure
n is the no. of trials

Example
Roll a pair of dice one time. What is
the probability of getting a sum of 9?

A. 1/36
B. 1/12

C. 1/9
D. 2/9

Example
One card is drawn from a standard
deck of 52 playing cards. What is the
probability that the card drawn is
either a heart or a face card?
A. 0.532
B. 0.352

C. 0.423
D. 0.279

Example
A bag contains 3 white balls and 5
black balls. If two balls are drawn in
succession without replacement,
what is the probability that both balls
are black?
A. 5/28
B. 5/32

C. 5/16
D. 5/14

Example
A box contains 4 black balls and 6
white balls. What is the probability of
getting one black ball and one white
ball in two consecutive draws without
replacement from the box?
0.24

B. 0.27

C. 0.53

D. 0.04

Example
A manufacturer has determined that a
certain machine averages one faulty
unit for every 1000 it produces. What is
the probability that an order of 200
units will have one or more faulty units?
A. 0.8190
B. 0.7315

C. 0.1814
D. 0.4617

END...