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# Trigonometry

Chance favors
only the prepared
mind
Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895)

## Ericson D. Dimaunahan, ECE

Trigonometry
1.1 Plane Angle & Angle Measurements
1.2 Solution to Right Triangles
1.3 The Six Trigonometric Functions
1.4 Solution to Oblique Triangles
1.5 Area of Triangles
1.6 Trigonometric Identities
1.7 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
1.8 Spherical Trigonometry

## Plane Angle & Angle Measurements

A plane angle is determined by rotating a ray (half-line)
about its endpoint called vertex.
Conversion Factors:
1 revolution = 360 degrees
= 2 radians
= 400 gradians
= 6400 mils

Types of Angles

## Q-1 The measure of 2.25 revolutions

counterclockwise is
A. -835

C. -810

B. 805

D. 810
Conversion Factors:
1 revolution = 360 degrees
= 2 radians
= 400 gradians
= 6400 mils

Q-2
4800 mils
__________degrees.

is

equivalent

A. 135

C. 235

B. 270

D. 142

Conversion Factors:
1 revolution = 360 degrees
= 2 radians
= 400 gradians
= 6400 mils

to

## Q-3 An angular unit equivalent to 1/400 of the

circumference of a circle is called:
A. degree

C. radian

B. mil

D. grad
Conversion Factors:
1 revolution = 360 degrees
= 2 radians
= 400 gradians
= 6400 mils

## Q-4 Find the complement of the angle whose

supplement is 152.
A. 28

C. 118

B. 62

D. 38

## Q-5 A certain angle has an explement 5 times

the supplement. Find the angle. [ECE Board
Nov.2002]
A. 67.5 degrees

C. 135 degrees

B. 108 degrees

D. 58.5 degrees

## Q-6 What is the reference angle and one

coterminal angle , respectively of 135.

A. -45, -225
B. -45, 225
C. 45, 225
D. 45, -225

## RELATED ANGLES angles

that have the same absolute
values for their trigonometric
functions. The acute angle is the
reference angle.
Ex. 20, 160, 200, 340

Right Triangles

## The Pythagorean Theorem:

In a right triangle, the square of the length
of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of
the squares of the lengths of the legs

c 2 = a2 + b2

Note:
In any triangle, the sum of any two sides must be
greater than the third side; otherwise no triangle can
be formed.

If,

## c 2 a2 b2 The triangle is right

c 2 a2 b2 The triangle is obtuse
c 2 a2 b2 The triangle is acute

Trigonometric Functions
opposite
o

hypotenuse h
adjacent
a
cos

hypotenuse h
opposite
o
tan

adjacent
a
sin

SOH-CAH-TOA

adjacent
a

opposite
o
hypotenuse h
sec

adjacent
a
hypotenuse h
csc

opposite
o
c ot

Sine Functions

sin

opposite
o

hypotenuse h

## Q-7 The sides of a triangular lot are130 m,

180 m and 190 m. This lot is to be divided by a
line bisecting the longest side and drawn from
the opposite vertex. Find the length of this line.
median

A. 120 m

1
2 side 2 2side 2 opposite 2
2

B. 130 m

C. 122 m
D. 125 m

## Altitude perpendicular to opposite side (Intersection: ORTHOCENTER)

Angle Bisector bisects angle

(Intersection: INCENTER)

## Q-8 The angle of elevation of the top of the

tower from a point 40 m. from its base is the
complement of the angle of elevation of the
same tower at a point 120 m. from it. What is
the height of the tower?
A. 59.7

C. 69.3

B. 28.5

D. 47.6

90

## Q-9 One leg of a right triangle is 20 cm and

the hypotenuse is 10 cm longer that the other
leg. Find the length of the hypotenuse.

A. 10

C. 25

B. 15

D. 20

## Q-10 A man finds the angle of elevation of the

top of a tower to be 30 degrees. He walks 85
m nearer the tower and finds its angle of
elevation to be 60 degrees. What is the height
of the tower ? [ECE Board Apr. 1998]
A. 76.31 m

C. 73.16 m

B. 73.31 m

D. 73.61 m
30

30

60

Oblique Triangles
The Sine Law

a
b
c

## sin A sinB sinC

When to use Sine Law:
Given two angles and any side.
Given two sides and an angle opposite one of them .

## The Cosine Law

S tandard Form :
F a b c 2bc CosA
2

F b2 a2 c 2 2ac CosB
F c 2 b2 c 2 2bc cosC

Alternative Form :
b2 c 2 a2
cos A
2bc
a2 c 2 b2
cosB
2ac
a2 b2 c 2
cosC
2ab

## Use the Laws of Cosine if:

Given three sides
Given two sides and their included angle

Q-11
In a triangle, find the side c if
angle C = 100 , side b = 20 and side a =
15

A. 28

C. 29

B. 27

D. 26

## Q-12 Points A and B 1000 m apart are plotted on

a straight highway running east and west. From
A , the bearing of a tower C is 32 degrees W of N
and from B the bearing of C is 26 degrees N of E
. Approximate the shortest distance of tower C to
the highway. [ECE Board Apr. 1998:]

A. 364 m

C. 394 m

B. 374 m

D. 384 m

## Q-13 A PLDT tower and a monument stand on a

level plane . The angles of depression of the top
and bottom of the monument viewed from the
top of the
PLDT tower are 13 and 35
respectively. The height of the tower is 50 m.
Find the height of the monument.
A. 33.51 m

C. 47.30 m

B. 7.58 m

D. 30.57 m
13
35
50

Area of Triangles

## Q-14 Given a right triangle ABC. Angle C is the

right angle. BC = 4 and the altitude to the
hypotenuse is 1 unit. Find the area of the
triangle. ECE Board Apr.2001:

A. 2.0654 sq. u.

C.1.0654 sq. u.

B. 3.0654 sq. u.

D.4.0654 sq. u.

## Q-15 In a given triangle ABC, the angle C is

34, side a is 29 cm, and side b is 40 cm.
Solve for the area of the triangle.
A. 324.332 cm2
B. 344.146 cm2

C. 317.15 cm2
D. 343.44 cm2

## Q-16 A right triangle is inscribed in a circle such

that one side of the triangle is the diameter of a
circle. If one of the acute angles of the triangle
measures 60 degrees and the side opposite that
angle has length 15, what is the area of the
circle? ECE Board Nov. 2002
A. 175.15

C. 235.62

B. 223.73

D. 228.61

## Q-17 The sides of a triangle are 8 cm , 10 cm,

and 14 cm. Determine the radius of the
inscribed and circumscribing circle.

A. 3.45, 7.14

C. 2.45, 8.14

B. 2.45, 7.14

D. 3.45, 8.14

## Q-18 Two triangles have equal bases. The

altitude of one triangle is 3 cm more than its base
while the altitude of the other is 3 cm less than its
base. Find the length of the longer altitude if the
areas of the triangle differ by 21 square
centimeters.
A. 10

C. 14

B. 20

D. 15

Reciprocal relation :
1
? sin u
?
csc u

cos u

1
sec u

tanu

Trigonometric Identities
Quotient relation
?

tanu

sin u
cos u

Pythagorean relation
?

sin2 u cos2 u 1

## Addition & subtraction formula

? sin u v sin u cos v cos u sin v
?

? tan u v

tan u tan v
1 mtanu tan v

## Double Angle formula :

? sin 2u 2 sinu cos u
?

cos 2u 2 cos 2 u 1

tan 2u

2 tanu
1 tan2 u

1
cot u

## Inverse Trigonometric Functions

The Inverse Sine Function
y = arc sin x iff sin y = x
The Inverse Cosine Function
y = arc cos x iff cos y = x
The Inverse Tangent Function
y = arc tan x iff tan y = x

## Q-19 If sec 2A = 1 / sin 13A, determine the

angle A in degrees
A. 5 degrees

C. 3 degrees

B. 6 degrees

D. 7 degrees

COFUNCTION RELATIONS

cos sin(90o )

sec csc 90
o

## csc sec 90o

SOLUTION:

1
sec 2 A
sin13 A
1
1

cos 2 A sin13 A
sin13 A cos 2 A
cofunction
sin13 A sin 90 2 A
13 A 90 2 A
A6

## Q-20 ECE Board Nov.2003

Simplify the expression
4 cos y sin y (1 2 sin2y).

A. sec 2y

C. tan 4y

B. cos 2y

D. sin 4y

## sin 2 2sin cos

2 tan
tan 2
1 tan 2
cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 1 2sin 2 2 cos 2 1
4 cos y sin y 1 2sin 2 y

2sin 2 y cos 2 y
sin 4 y

## Q-21 ECE Board Nov. 1996:

If sin A = 2.511x , cos A = 3.06x and sin 2A
= 3.939x , find the value of x?

A. 0.265

C. 0.562

B. 0.256

D. 0.625

Q-22
Solve for x if tan 3x = 5 tanx
A. 20.705

C. 15.705

B. 30.705

D. 35.705

3 tan tan 3
tan 3
1 3 tan 2
tan 3 x 5 tan x
3 tan x tan 3 x
5 tan x
2
1 3 tan x
3 tan x tan 3 x 5 tan x 15 tan 3 x
14 tan 2 x 2 tan x
2
2
tan x
14
x 20.705

## Q-23 If arctan2x + arctan3x = 45 degrees,

what is the value of x?
ECE Nov. 2003

A. 1/6

C.1/5

B. 1/3

D.1/4

arctan 2 x arctan 3 x 45
let , tan A 2 x; tan B 3 x
SUBSTITUTE
arctan tan A arctan tan B 45
A B 45
tan A B 45

tan A B tan 45
tan A tan B
tan 45
1 tan A tan B
SUBSTITUTE
2 x 3x
1
1 2 x 3x
6 x2 5x 1 0
x 0.1666 & 1

Spherical Trigonometry
The study of properties of spherical triangles
and their measurements.
Conversion Factors
1 minute of arc 1 nautical mile
1 nautical mile 6080 ft.
1 nautical mile 1.1516 statue mile
1 statue mile 5280 ft.
1 knot 1 nautical mile per hour

The Terrestrial
Sphere

Spherical Triangle
A spherical triangle is the triangle enclosed by arcs of three great
circles of a sphere.
Sum of Three vertex angle :
A B C 180
A B C 540
Sum of any two sides :
bc a
ac b
ab c
Sum of three sides :
0 a b c 360
Spherical Excess :
E A B C 180
Spherical Defect :
D 360 a b c

SPHERICAL TRIANGLES:

Law of sines:

## sin A sin B sin C

Law of cosines (FOR SIDES):

## cos a cos b cos c sin b sin c cos A

cos b cos a cos c sin a sin c cos B
cos c cos a cos b sin a sin b cos C

## Q-26 A spherical triangle ABC has sides a =

50, c = 80, and an angle C = 90. Find the
third side b of the triangle in degrees.
A. 75.33 degrees

C. 74.33 degrees

B. 77.25 degrees

D. 73.44 degrees

## cos c cos a cos b sin a sin b cos C

cos 80 cos 50 cos b sin 50 sin b cos 90
0.1736 0.6428cos b 0
b 74.33

## Q-27 Given an isosceles triangle with angle

A=B=64 degrees, and side b=81 degrees .
What is the value of angle C?

A. 144

26 '

B. 135 10 '

C. 120 15'
D. 150

25'

## cos A cos B cos C sin B sin C cos a

cos B cos A cos C sin A sin C cos b
cos C cos A cos B sin A sin B cos c
cos B cos A cos C sin A sin C cos b
cos 64 cos(64) cos C sin 64sin C cos81
0.4384 0.4384 cos C 0.1406sin C
SUBSTITUTE
0.4384 0.4384 cos(144o26 ') 0.1406sin 144o26 '
0.4384 0.4384

END...