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d-q transformation

J. McCalley

Machine model
Consider the DFIG as two sets of abc windings, one on the stator and one on the rotor.

m
m

Machine model
The voltage equation for each phase will have the form: v(t ) ri (t )
That is, we can write them all in the following form:

vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0

var 0
vbr 0

v
cr 0

0
rs
0
0
0
0

0
0
rs
0
0
0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

rr 0 0
0 rr 0

0 0 rr

ias
as
i

bs
bs
ics
d cs

dt
ar
ar
ibr
br

cr
cr

d (t )
dt

All rotor terms are given on the


rotor side in these equations.

We can write the flux terms as functions of the currents, via an equation for each flux of
the form =Lkik, where the summation is over all six winding currents. However, we
must take note that there are four kinds of terms in each summation.

Machine model
Stator-stator terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a stator
winding current. Because the positional relationship between any pair of stator
windings does not change with rotor position, these inductances are not a function of
rotor position; they are constants.
Rotor-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a rotor winding
current. As in stator-stator-terms, these are constants.
Rotor-stator terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a stator
winding current. As the rotor turns, the positional relationship between the rotor
winding and the stator winding will change, and so the inductance will change.
Therefore the inductance will be a function of rotor position, characterized by rotor
angle .
Stator-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a rotor
winding current. As described for the rotor-stator terms, the inductance will be a
function of rotor position, characterized by rotor angle .

Machine model
There are two more comments to make about the flux-current relations:
Because the rotor motion is periodic, the functional dependence of each rotor-stator or
stator-rotor inductance on is cosinusoidal.
Because changes with time as the rotor rotates, the inductances are functions of
time.
We may now write down the flux equations for the stator and the rotor windings.

as

bs
cs

Ls


ar L rs
br

cr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

Note here that all quantities are now referred to the


stator. The effect of referring is straight-forward,
given in the book by P. Krause, Analysis of Electric
Machinery, 1995, IEEE Press, pp. 167-168. I will
not go through it here.

Each of the submatrices in the inductance matrix is a 3x3, as given on the next slide

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2

1L
m

Lr Lm

1
L r Lm
2

1L
m

Machine model
1

Lm
2

1
Lm
2

1
Lm
2
Ls Lm
1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

1
Lm
2

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

Lr Lm
1
Lm
2

Diagonal elements are the self-inductance of


each winding and include leakage plus mutual.
Off-diagonal elements are mutual inductances
between windings and are negative because
120 axis offset between any pair of windings
results in flux contributed by one winding to
have negative component along the main axis
of another winding.

Lr Lm

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

cos m

cos m 120 cos m 120

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120

T
cos m 120 L sr

cos m

Machine model
Summarizing.

vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0


var 0
vbr 0


v
cr 0

Lr Lm

1
L r Lm
2

1L
m

1
Lm
2
Lr Lm
1
Lm
2

0
rs
0
0
0
0

0
0
rs
0
0
0

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

0
0
0
rr
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

rr

0
0
0
0
rr
0

Lr Lm

as

bs

ias
as
i

bs
bs
ics
d cs

dt
ar
ar
ibr
br

cr
cr

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2

1
L
m

1
Lm
2
Ls Lm
1
Lm
2

cs

Ls


ar L rs
br

cr

ias
i
bs

L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120

L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
T

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Ls Lm

Machine model
Combining.

vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0


v
ar 0
vbr 0


vcr 0

0
rs
0
0
0
0

0
0
rs
0
0
0

0
0
0
rr
0
0

0
0
0
0
rr
0

0
0
0

0
0

rr

ias
i
bs
ics
d Ls

iar dt L rs
ibr

icr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

It is here that we observe a difficulty that the stator-rotor and rotor-stator terms, L sr and
Lrs, because they are functions of r, and thus functions of time, will also need to be
d dL di

i L
differentiated. Therefore differentiation of fluxes results in expressions like
dt dt
dt
The differentiation with respect to L, dL/dt, will result in time-varying
coefficients on the currents. This will make our set of state equations difficult to solve.

Lr Lm

1
L r Lm
2

1L
m

1
Lm
2
Lr Lm
1
Lm
2

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

Lr Lm

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2

1
L
m

1
Lm
2
Ls Lm
1
Lm
2

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120

L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
T

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Ls Lm

Transformation
This presents some significant difficulties, in terms of solution, that we would like to
avoid. We look for a different approach. The different approach is based on the
observation that our trouble comes from the inductances related to the stator-rotor
mutual inductances that have time-varying inductances.
In order to alleviate the trouble, we project the a-b-c currents onto a pair of axes which
we will call the d and q axes or d-q axes. In making these projections, we want to obtain
expressions for the components of the stator currents in phase with the and q axes,
respectively. Although we may specify the speed of these axes to be any speed that is
convenient for us, we will generally specify it to be synchronous speed, s.
One can visualize the projection by thinking of the a-b-c currents as having sinusoidal
variation IN TIME along their respective axes (a space vector!). The picture below
illustrates for the a-phase.

Decomposing the b-phase currents and the c-phase currents


in the same way, and then adding them up, provides us with:

iq k q ia cos ib cos( 120) ic cos( 120)

id k d ia sin ib sin( 120) ic sin( 120)

ia
a

Constants kq and kd are chosen so as to simplify the numerical


coefficients in the generalized KVL equations we will get.
9

d-axis

q-axis

iq

id

a'

Transformation
We have transformed 3 variables ia, ib, and ic into two variables id and iq, as we did in the
- transformation. This yields an undetermined system, meaning
We can uniquely transform ia, ib, and ic to id and iq
We cannot uniquely transform id and iq to ia, ib, and ic.
We will use as a third current the zero-sequence current:

i0 k 0 ia ib ic

Recall our id and iq equations:

iq k d ia cos ib cos( 120) ic cos( 120)

id k q ia sin ib sin( 120) ic sin( 120)

We can write our transformation more compactly as

iq k q cos
i k sin
d d
i0
k0

k q cos( 120) k q cos( 120)


k d sin( 120) k d sin( 120)
k0

k0

ia
i
b

ic

10

Transformation
iq k q cos
i k sin
d d
i0
k0

k q cos( 120) k q cos( 120) ia


k d sin( 120) k d sin( 120) ib
ic
k0
k0

A similar transformation resulted from the work done by Blondel (1923), Doherty and
Nickle (1926), and Robert Park (1929, 1933), which is referred to as Parks
transformation. In 2000, Parks 1929 paper was voted the second most important
paper of the last 100 years (behind Fortescues paper on symmertical components).
R, Park, Two reaction theory of synchronous machines, Transactions of the AIEE, v. 48, p. 716-730, 1929.
G. Heydt, S. Venkata, and N. Balijepalli, High impact papers in power engineering, 1900-1999, NAPS, 2000.

Parks transformation uses a frame of


reference on the rotor. In Parks case,
he derived this for a synchronous
machine and so it is the same as a
synchronous frame of reference. For
induction motors, it is important to
distinguish between a synchronous
reference frame and a reference frame
on the rotor.

See
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ph
p?record_id=5427&page=175
for an interesting biography on
Park, written by Charles
Concordia.
Robert H. Park,
1902-1994
11

Transformation
iq k q cos
i k sin
d d
i0
k0

k q cos( 120) k q cos( 120) ia


k d sin( 120) k d sin( 120) ib
ic
k0
k0

Here, the angle is given by


t

( )d (0)
0

where is a dummy variable of integration.


The angular velocity associated with the change of variables is unspecified. It
characterizes the frame of reference and may rotate at any constant or varying angular
velocity or it may remain stationary. You will often hear of the arbitrary reference frame.
The phrase arbitrary stems from the fact that the angular velocity of the transformation
is unspecified and can be selected arbitrarily to expedite the solution of the equations or
to satisfy the system constraints [Krause].
The constants k0, kq, and kd are chosen differently by different authors. One popular
choice is 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, which causes the magnitude of the d-q
quantities to be equal to that of the three-phase quantities. However, it also causes a
3/2 multiplier in front of the power expression (Anderson & Fouad use k0=1/3,
kd=kq=(2/3) to get a power invariant expression).

12

Transformation
The constants k0, kq, and kd are chosen differently by different authors. One popular
choice is 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, which causes the magnitude of the d-q
quantities to be equal to that of the three-phase quantities. PROOF (iq equation only):

iq k d ia cos ib cos( 120) ic cos( 120)

Let ia=Acos(t); ib=Acos(t-120); ic=Acos(t-240) and substitute into iq equation:

iq k d A cos t cos A cos(t 120) cos( 120) A cos(t 120) cos( 120)
k d A cos t cos cos(t 120) cos( 120) cos(t 120) cos( 120)

Now use trig identity: cos(u)cos(v)=(1/2)[ cos(u-v)+cos(u+v) ]


k A
kd A
iq d cos(t ) cos(t )
cos(t ) cos(t )
i

2
q
2
cos(t 120 120) cos(t 120 120)
cos(t ) cos(t 240)
cos(t 120 120) cos(t 120 120)
cos(t ) cos(t 240)
Now collect terms in t- and place brackets around what is left:
k A
iq d 3 cos(t ) cos(t ) cos(t 240) cos(t 240)
2
Observe that what is in the brackets is zero! Therefore:
k A
3k A
Observe that for 3kdA/2=A,
iq d 3 cos(t ) d 3 cos(t )
2
2
we must have k =2/3.
d

13

Transformation
Choosing constants k0, kq, and kd to be 1/3, 2/3, and 2/3, respectively, results in

iq
cos
2
id sin
3 1
i0

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

ia
i
b
ic

The inverse transformation becomes:

cos
sin
1 iq
ia
i cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i
b
d
ic cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i0

14

Example
Krause gives an insightful example in his book, where he specifies generic quantities
fas, fbs, fcs to be a-b-c quantities varying with time on the stator according to:

f as cos t
t
f bs
2
f cs sin t

Note that these are not


balanced quantities!

The objective is to transform them into 0-d-q quantities, which he denotes as fqs, fds, f0s.

f qs
cos
f 2 sin
ds
3 1
f 0 s

cos
2
sin
3 1

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

f as
f
bs
f cs

cos t
t/2

sin t
15

Example
This results in

Now assume that (0)=-/12 and =1 rad/sec. Evaluate the above for t= /3 seconds.
First, we need to obtain the angle corresponding to this time. We do that as follows:
t

/3

( )d (0) 1d (


)
12
3 12 4

Now we can evaluate the above equations 3A-1, 3A-2, and 3A-3, as follows:

16

This results in

Example

17

Example

f qs
cos
f 2 sin
ds
3 1
f 0 s

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

cos t
t/2

sin t

Resolution of fas=cost into directions


of fqs and fds for t=/3 (=/4).
Resolution of fbs=t/2 into directions
of fqs and fds for t=/3 (=/4).

Composite
of other 3
figures
Resolution of fcs=-sint into directions
of fqs and fds for t=/3 (=/4). 18

Inverse transformation
The d-q transformation and its inverse transformation is given below.

cos

cos(

120
)
cos(

120
)
iq

i 2 sin sin( 120) sin( 120)


d

3 1
1
1
i0

2 2
2
Ks

Ks

cos
sin
ia
i cos( 120) sin( 120)
b
ic cos( 120) sin( 120)

ia
i
b
ic

2
3

cos
sin
1
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

K s 1

1
1
1

iq
i
d
i0

cos
sin
1
1
K s cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

It should be the case that Ks Ks-1=I, where I is the 3x3 identity matrix, i.e.,

2
3

19

cos
sin
1
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


cos
sin
1 1 0 0
sin( 120) sin( 120) cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 0 1 0

1
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 0 0 1
2
2

Balanced conditions
Under balanced conditions, i0 is zero, and therefore it produces no flux at all. Under
these conditions, we may write the d-q transformation as

iq
cos
2
i sin
d
3 1
i0

iq
2 cos

i
3 sin
d

20

cos
sin
1 iq
ia
i cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i
b
d
ic cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i0

cos( 120) cos( 120) ia


sin( 120) sin( 120) ib

1
1
ic
2
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

ia
i
b
ic

cos
sin
ia

i cos( 120) sin( 120)


b

ic cos( 120) sin( 120)

iq
i
d

Rotor circuit transformation

Our d-q transformation is as follows:


But, what, exactly, is ?

cos
2
Ks
sin
3 1

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

can be observed in the below figure as the angle between the rotating d-q reference
frame and the a-axis, where the a-axis is fixed on the stator frame and is defined by the
location of the phase-a winding. We
expressed this angle analytically using
t

( )d (0)
0

where is the rotational speed of the d-q coordinate axes (and in our case, is
synchronous speed). This transformation will allow us to operate on the stator circuit
voltage equation and transform it to the q-d-0 coordinates.
We now need to apply our transformation to the rotor a-b-c windings in order to obtain
the rotor circuit voltage equation in q-d-0 coordinates. However, we must notice one
thing: whereas the stator phase-a winding (and thus its a-axis) is fixed, the rotor
phase-a winding (and thus its a-axis) rotates. If we apply the same transformation to
the rotor, we will not account for its rotation, i.e., we will be treating it as if it were fixed.

21

Rotor circuit transformation


To understand how to handle this, consider the below figure where we show our familiar
, the angle between the stator a-axis and the q-axis of the synchronously rotating
reference frame.
We have also shown
m, which is the angle between

m
the stator a-axis and the rotor ad-axis
q-axis

axis, and

i
, which is the angle between
the rotor a-axis and the q-axis of
the synchronously rotating
a'
i
i
reference frame.
a
The stator a-axis is stationary,
the q-d axis rotates at , and the
rotor a-axis rotates at m.
Consider the iar space vector, in blue,
which is coincident with the rotor a-axis.
Observe that we may decompose it
in the q-d reference frame only by
using instead of .
m

22

Conclusion: Use the exact same transformation, except substitute for , and.
account for the fact that to the rotor windings, the q-d coordinate system appears to
be moving at -m

Rotor circuit transformation


We compare our two transformations below.
Rotor winding transformation, Kr

Stator winding transformation, Ks

2
Ks
3

cos
sin
1
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

( )d (0)
0

2
Kr
3

cos
sin
1
2

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

( ) m ( )d (0) m (0)
0

r

( 0)

We now augment our notation to distinguish between q-d-0 quantities from the
stator and q-d-0 quantities from the rotor:

iqs
cos
i 2 sin
ds
3 1
i0 s

2
23

cos( 120) cos( 120) ias


sin( 120) sin( 120) ibs

1
1
ics
2
2

iqr
cos
i 2 sin
dr
3 1
i0 r

cos( 120) cos( 120) iar


sin( 120) sin( 120) ibr

1
1
icr
2
2

Transforming voltage equations


Recall our voltage equations:

vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0


v
ar 0
vbr 0


vcr 0

Lr Lm

1
L r Lm
2

1L
m

1
Lm
2
Lr Lm
1
Lm
2

0
rs
0
0
0
0

0
0
rs
0
0
0

Lm
2

1
Lm
2

0
0
0
rr
0
0

0
0
0
0
rr
0

Lr Lm

0
0
0

0
0

rr

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2

1L
m

ias as
i
bs bs
ics cs

iar ar
ibr br

icr cr
1
Lm
2
Ls Lm
1
Lm
2

sc L s


ra L rs
rb

rc

isa
i
sb

L sr isc

L r ira
irb

irc

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120

L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Lm
2

1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

Lets apply our d-q transformation to it.

24

sa

sb

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
T

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Transforming voltage equations


vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0


var 0
vbr 0


v
cr 0

rs
0
0
0
0

0
rs
0
0
0

0
0
rr
0
0

0
0
0
rr
0

0 ias as

0 ibs bs
0 ics cs

0 iar ar
0 ibr br

rr icr cr

Lets rewrite it in compact notation

v abcs r s
v 0
abcr

0
r r

i abcs abcs
i
abcr abcr

Now multiply through by our transformation matrices. Be careful with dimensionality.

K s 0 v abcs K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s 0
0 K v 0 K 0 r i 0 K
r
r abcr r r abcr

Term 1

25

Term 2

Term 3

abcs

abcr

Transforming voltage equations


Term 1
K s 0 v abcs K s v abcs v qd 0 s
0 K v K v v
r abcr r abcr qdor
Term 1

Therefore: the voltage equation becomes

v qd 0 s K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s 0


i
0
K
0
r
0
K
qdor r r abcr r
Term 2

26

Term 3

abcs

abcr

Transforming voltage equations


Term 2
K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s r s
0 K 0 r i 0
r r abcr

0
K r r r

i abcs
i
abcr

Term 2

What to do with the abc currents? We need q-d-0 currents!


Recall:

i abcs K s 1
i
abcr 0

0
1
Kr

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s r s
0 K 0 r i 0
r r abcr

and substitute into above.

0
K r r r

K s 1

0
1
Kr

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

Term 2

Perform the matrix multiplication:

K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s r s K s 1
0 K 0 r i
0
r r abcr

0
1
K r rr K r

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

Term 2

Fact: KRK-1=R if R is diagonal having equal elements on the diagonal.


Proof: KRK-1=KrUK-1=rKUK-1=rKK-1=rU=R.
Therefore.
27

Transforming voltage equations


Term 2
K s 0 r s 0 i abcs K s r s K s 1
0 K 0 r i
0
r r abcr

0
1
K r rr K r

i qd 0 s r s
i
qd 0 r 0

Term 2

Therefore: the voltage equation becomes

v qd 0 s r s
v
qdor 0

0
r r

i qd 0 s K s 0
i

0
K
qd 0 r r
Term 3

28

abcs

abcr

0 i qd 0 s

r r i qd 0 r

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3
v
i

r
0
K
0
qd 0 s

Term 3 is:

qd 0 s

abcs

s
s
v
i

0
r
0
K
r qd 0 r
r

qdor
abcr

Term 3
K s 0 abcs K s abcs

0 K

K
r

abcr
r abcr
Term 3

qd 0 s K s abcs
qd 0 s K s abcs K s abcs
K s abcs qd 0 s K s abcs

Focusing on just the stator quantities, consider:


Differentiate both sides
Solve for K s abcs

1
K s abcs qd 0 s K s K s qd 0 s
A similar process for the rotor quantities results in K

Use abcs =K-1qd0s:

abcr

qd 0 r

K r K r qd 0 r

Substituting these last two expressions into the term 3 expression above results in

Ks 0
0 K

abcs K s abcs qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s

K
K

abcr K r abcr qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

Term 3

29

Substitute this back into voltage equation

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3
v
i

r
0
K
0
qd 0 s

s
v
qdor 0

Ks 0
0 K
r

abcs

abcr

qd 0 s

abcs

i
r r qd 0 r 0 K r abcr

Term 3
K s abcs qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s

K
K

K r abcr qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

Term 3

v qd 0 s r s
v
qdor 0

30

0
r r

i qd 0 s qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s


i
1

K
K

qd 0 r qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

Now lets express the fluxes in terms of currents by recalling that

qd 0 s

Ks


qd 0 r 0

0
K r

abcs

abcr

and the flux-current relations:

as

bs
cs L s


ar L rs
br

cr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics
abcs L s

L r iar
abcr L rs
ibr

icr

i abcs K s 1
Now write the abc currents in terms of the qd0 currents:

i
abcr 0

Substitute the third equation into the second:

abcs L s
L
abcr rs

L sr K s 1

L r 0

L sr i abcs
L r i abcr

0
1
Kr

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

0 i qd 0 s

1
K r i qd 0 r

Substitute the fourth equation into the first:

qd 0 s
31

Ks


qd 0 r 0

0
K r

Ls
L
rs

L sr
L r

K s 1

0
1
Kr

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3
qd 0 s

Ks

qd 0 r 0

Ls
L
rs

L sr K s 1

L r 0

K s L sr
K r L r

K s 1

0
K r

0 i qd 0 s

1
K r i qd 0 r

Perform the first matrix multiplication:

qd 0 s

K s Ls


qd 0 r K r L rs

0
1
Kr

and the next matrix multiplication:

qd 0 s

K s L s K s 1


1
qd 0 r K r L rs K s

32

K s L sr K r
1
K r Lr K r
1

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3

K s L s K s 1

qd 0 r

K r L rs K s

qd 0 s

1
K s L sr K r i qd 0 s

1
i
K r L r K r qd 0 r

Now we need to go through each of these four matrix multiplications. I will here omit
the details and just give the results (note also in what follows the definition of
additional nomenclature for each of the four submatrices):

3
L

Lm

2
K s Ls K

1
s

K s L sr K

K r L rs K

1
s

3
L

Lm

2
K r Lr K

33

1
r

3
Ls Lm
2
0
3
2 Lm

1
r

0
3
Lm
2
0

0
3
Lr Lm
2
0

0 L sqd 0

Ls

0 L mqd 0

0 L rqd 0

Lr

qd 0 s

L sqd 0


qd 0 r L mqd 0

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

L mqd 0
L rqd 0

And since our inductance matrix is


constant, we can write:

qd 0 s L sqd 0

qd 0 r L mqd 0

L mqd 0
L rqd 0

i qd 0 s

i qd 0 r

Substitute the above expression for flux


derivatives into our voltage equation:

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3

L
L
i
qd 0 s

sqd 0


qd 0 r L mqd 0

mqd 0

qd 0 s

L rqd 0 i qd 0 r

Substitute the above expressions for flux & flux derivatives into our voltage equation:

v qd 0 s r s
v
qdor 0
v qd 0 s r s
v
qdor 0

0
r r

0
r r

i qd 0 s qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s


i
1

K
K

qd 0 r qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

i qd 0 s L sqd 0
i L
qd 0 r mqd 0

L mqd 0
L rqd 0

i qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s


1
i
K
K

qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

We still have the last term to obtain. To get this, we need to do two things.
1.Express individual q- and d- terms of qd0s and qd0r in terms of currents.
1
1
2.Obtain K s K s and K r K r

34

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3
1. Express individual q- and d- terms of
and in terms of currents:
qd0s

qd 0 s

L sqd 0


qd 0 r L mqd 0

L mqd 0
L rqd 0


qr

dr

0 r

0 s

i qd 0 s
i
qd 0 r

3
L

s 2 Lm

qs

ds

qd0r

3
Lm
2
0

0
3
Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lm
2
0

3
Lm
2

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

0
0

0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lm
2
0

Lr

From the above, we observe:

35

3
3

qs Ls Lm iqs Lmiqr
2
2

3
3

ds Ls Lm ids Lmidr
2
2

qr

3
3

Lmiqs Lr Lm iqr
2
2

dr

3
3

Lmids Lr Lm idr
2
2

0
iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s
iqr
0
idr

0 i0 r

Lr

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3

2. Obtain

cos
2
K s sin
3 1

K s
1

K r
1

36

and K r K r 1

To get

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120)
1
2

K s ,

we must consider:

t
(t ) ( )d (0) (t )

sin( 120)

Therefore:
sin
2
K s cos
3
0

cos
sin
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

cos
2
Kr
sin
3 1

KsKs

sin( 120) sin( 120)


cos( 120) cos( 120)

0
0

Likewise, to get K ,r we must consider:

cos( 120) cos( 120)


sin( 120) sin( 120)

1
1

2
2

cos
sin
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

t
( ) m ( )d (0) m (0) (t ) m
0

(0)

Therefore:
sin
2
K r m cos
3

sin( 120) sin( 120)


cos( 120) cos( 120)

0
0

Transforming voltage equations


Term
3

K K

2. Obtain

1
s

sin
2
1
K s K s cos
3
0

0
2 3

3 2
0

3
2

sin( 120) sin( 120)


cos( 120) cos( 120)

0
0

cos
sin
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

0

0

0
0 0
0 0

1
Obtain K r K r

sin
2
1
K r K r m cos
3

37

0
m
0

( m ) 0
0
0
0
0

sin( 120) sin( 120)


cos( 120) cos( 120)

0
0

cos
sin
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

Substitute into voltage equations

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

Substitute into voltage equations


0 0
1
K s K s 0 0
0 0 0
v
( m ) 0
0
0
0
0

K r K

1
r

rs

v
qdor 0
qd 0 s

0
r r

i qd 0 s L sqd 0
i L
qd 0 r mqd 0

L mqd 0
L rqd 0

i qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s


1
i
K
K

qd
0
r

r r qd 0 r

This results in:

vqs
v
ds
v0 s

vqr
vdr

v0 r

rs
0

0
0

rs
0
0

0
rs
0

0
0
rr

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0
0
0

0
0

rr

iqs
ids

3
Ls 2 Lm

i0 s

iqr

idr

i0 r

0
3
Lm
2

0
0

3
Ls Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

Note the Speed voltages in the


first,
second,
fourth, and
fifth equations.
38

3
Lm
2

0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lr Lm
2
0

-ds
qs
-(- m)dr
(- m) qs

iqs 0

0 ids

i
0 0s 0

iqr 0

0
i 0
dr
0 i0 r 0

Lr

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0 m
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

( m ) 0
0
0

0
0
0

qs
ds
0 s

qr
dr

0 r

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

Some comments on speed voltages: -ds, qs, -(- m)dr, (- m) qs:

These speed voltages represent the fact that a rotating flux wave will create
voltages in windings that are stationary relative to that flux wave.
Speed voltages are so named to contrast them from what may be called
transformer voltages, which are induced as a result of a time varying magnetic field.
You may have run across the concept of speed voltages in Physics, where you
computed a voltage induced in a coil of wire as it moved through a static magnetic
field, in which case, you may have used the equation Blv where B is flux density, l is
conductor length, and v is the component of the velocity of the moving conductor (or
moving field) that is normal with respect to the field flux direction (or conductor).
The first speed voltage term, -ds, appears in the vqs equation. The second speed
voltage term, qs, appears in the vds equation. Thus, we see that the d-axis flux
causes a speed voltage in the q-axis winding, and the q-axis flux causes a speed
voltage in the d-axis winding. A similar thing is true for the rotor winding.

39

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3
0 0

1
K s K s
0

K r K

v qd 0 s r s
v
qdor 0

( m ) 0
0
0
0
0

1
r

0
0

0
0

0
r r

i qd 0 s L sqd 0
i L
qd 0 r mqd 0

L mqd 0
L rqd 0

i qd 0 s K s K s 1 qd 0 s


1
i
K
K

qd 0 r r r qd 0 r

Substitute the matrices into voltage equation and then expand. This results in:

vqs
v
ds
v0 s

rs
0

0
0

vqr
vdr

v0 r

0
rs

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

rs
0

0
rr

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0
0

iqs
i
ds
0 i0 s

0 iqr

0 idr

rr i0 r

3
Ls 2 Lm
0
0
3
Lm
2

0
0

3
Lm
2

3
Ls Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lm
2
0

Lr

iqs 0

0 ids

0 i0 s 0

iqr 0

0
i 0
dr
0 i0 r 0

Lr

0
0 0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0 m

qs

ds
0
0 0 s


( m ) 0 qr
0
0 dr


0
0 0 r
0
0

Lets collapse the last matrix-vector product by performing the multiplication.

40

0
0

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

vqs
v
ds

rs
0

v0 s 0


vqr 0
vdr 0


v0 r 0

rs

0
0
0
0

rs
0
0
0

0
rr
0
0

0
0
rr
0

0
0
0

0
0

rr

3
Ls 2 Lm

iqs

ids

i0 s

iqr

idr

i0 r

0
0

Results
In

rs
0

v0 s 0


vqr 0
vdr 0


v0 r 0

rs
0

v0 s 0


v
qr

0
vdr 0


v0 r 0

41

0
3
Lr Lm
2

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

rs
0
0

0
rr
0

0
0
rr

0
0

Ls 2 Lm

iqs
i
ds

i0 s

iqr
idr

rr i0 r

0
0

0
0

3
Lm
2
0

Ls

0
0
3
Lm
2

0
rs

0
0

0
0

0
0

rs

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0
rr

0
0

0

0
0

rr

iqs
i
ds

3
Ls 2 Lm

i0 s

iqr

idr

i0 r

3
Lm
2

0
0

Ls

0
0

3
3

qs Ls Lm iqs Lmiqr
2
2

3
3

ds Ls Lm ids Lmidr
2
2

0
0

3
Lm
2
0

From slide 35,


we have the
fluxes expressed
as a function of
currents
vqs
v
ds

Ls

3
Lm
2
0

qr

3
3

Lmiqs Lr Lm iqr
2
2

dr

3
3

Lmids Lr Lm idr
2
2

3
Lm
2

3
Ls Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

0
0
iqs 0 0
3

Lm
0 ids
0
0
0 0
2

0
0
0
0 i0 s 0 0 0

iqr 0 0 0
0
( m )
0
0
i 0 0 0 m
0
3
dr

Lr Lm 0 i0 r 0 0 0
0
0
2

0
Lr
3

Lm
0
0

2
ds

iqs
3

0
Lm
0 ids
qs

0
0
0
0 i0 s

iqr ( m )dr
3

Lr Lm
0
0
2
i ( m )qr
3
dr

0
Lr Lm 0 i0 r
0

0
0
Lr
0

0
rs

3
Lm
2

3
Ls Lm
2
0

3
Lm
2

vqs
v
ds

0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lm
2
0

Lr

iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s


0 iqr
idr

0 i0 r

Lr

0
0

qs

ds

0 0 s


0 qr
0 dr


0 0 r

And then substitute


these terms in:

3
3
Ls Lm ids Lm idr
2
2

3
3
Ls Lm iqs Lm iqr
2
2

0
3
3

( m ) Lm ids Lr Lm idr
2

2
3
3

( m ) Lmiqs Lr Lm iqr
2

2
0

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

rs
0

vqr
vdr

v0 r

0
0

vqs
v
ds
v0 s

rs
0

0
rs

0
0

0
0

rr

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0
0
0

0
0

rr

3
Ls 2 Lm

iqs

ids
i0 s


iqr

idr

i0 r

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

3
3
Ls Lm ids Lmidr

0
2
2

iqs

3
3
Ls Lm iqs Lm iqr
0 ids
2
2

0 i0 s
0


3
3

0 iqr ( m ) Lmids Lr Lm idr


2

2
idr

3
3


0 i0 r
( m ) Lm iqs Lr Lm iqr

2
Lr

3
Ls Lm
2
0

3
Lm
2

3
Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lr Lm
2
0

Observe that the four non-zero elements in the last vector are multiplied by two currents
from the current vector which multiplies the resistance matrix. So lets now expand back
out the last vector so that it is a product of a matrix and a current vector.

vqs rs
v 0
ds
v0 s 0


vqr 0
vdr 0


v0 r 0

0
rs
0
0

0
0
rs
0

0
0
0
rr

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0
0
0

rr

3
Ls 2 Lm

iqs
i
ds
i0 s

iqr
idr

i0 r

42

L 3 L
s 2 m

3( m )
Lm

3
Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lm
2

0
3
Lm
2
0

Ls Lm
2

0
3( m )
Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

0
0

0 ( m ) Lr Lm
2

0
0

3
Lm
2

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

0
0

0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lr Lm
2
0

3
Lm
2
0
0
3

( m ) Lr Lm
2

0
0

iqs

0 ids

0 i0 s

0 iqr
idr
0 i0 r

Lr

iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s

0 iqr
idr

0 i0 r

Now change the


sign on the last
matrix.

Transforming voltage equations


Term 3

vqs
v
ds

rs
0

v0 s


vqr 0
vdr 0


v0 r 0

rs
0

0
rs

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

rr
0
0

0
rr
0

3
Ls 2 Lm

0 iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s

0 iqr

0 idr

rr i0 r

L 3 L
s
m

3( m )
Lm

3
Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lm
2

0
3
Lm
2
0

Ls Lm
2

0
3( m )
Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

0
0

0 ( m ) Lr Lm
2

0
0

3
Lm
2

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

0
0

3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lm
2
0

Lr

3
Lm
2
0
0
3

( m ) Lr Lm
2

0
0

iqs

0 ids

0 i0 s
iqr
0
idr

0 i0 r

Lr

iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s

0 iqr
idr

0 i0 r

Notice that the resistance matrix and the last matrix multiply the same vector, therefore,
we can combine these two matrices. For example, element (1,2) in the
last matrix will go into element (1,2) of the resistance matrix, as shown. This results in
the expression on the next slide.

43

Final Model

rs

vqs
v
ds

L 3 L
s
m

v0 s

vqr
vdr

v0 r

3( )
m

Lm
2

3
L

s 2 Lm

3
Lm
2

44

Ls Lm
2

rs

0
3( m )
Lm
2

rs

3
Lm
2
0

rr

3
Lm
2

3
Ls Lm
2
0

Ls

0
3
Lr Lm
2

3
Lm
2
0

( m ) Lr Lm
2

0
0
3
Lm
2
0
0
3
Lm
2
0

Lr

iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s
iqr
0
idr

0 i0 r

Lr

3
Lm
2
0
0
3

( m ) Lr Lm
2

rr
0

iqs
0 ids

0 i0 s

i
0 qr
i
dr
0 i0 r

rr

This is the complete


transformed electric
machine state-space
model in current form.

Some comments about the


transformation
ids and iqs are currents in a fictitious pair of windings fixed on a synchronously
rotating reference frame.
These currents produce the same flux as do the stator a,b,c currents.
For balanced steady-state operating conditions, we can use iqd0s = Ksiabcs to show
that the currents in the d and q windings are dc! The implication of this is that:
The a,b,c currents fixed in space (on the stator), varying in time produce the
same synchronously rotating magnetic field as
The ds,qs currents, varying in space at synchronous speed, fixed in time!
idr and iqr are currents in a fictitious pair of windings fixed on a synchronously
rotating reference frame.
These currents produce the same flux as do the rotor a,b,c currents.
For balanced steady-state operating conditions, we can use iqd0r = Kriabcr to show
that the currents in the d and q windings are dc! The implication of this is that:
The a,b,c currents varying in space at slip speed ss=(s- m) fixed on the
rotor, varying in time produce the same synchronously rotating magnetic
field as
The dr,qr currents, varying in space at synchronous speed, fixed in time!
45

Torque in abc quantities


The electromagnetic torque of the DFIG may be evaluated according to

Tem

Wc
m

where Wc is the co-energy of the coupling fields associated with the various windings.
We are not considering saturation here, assuming the flux-current relations are linear,
in which case the co-energy Wc of the coupling field equals its energy, Wf, so that:

Tem

W f

We use electric rad/sec by substituting m=m/p where p is the number of pole pairs.

Tem p

W f

The stored energy is the sum of


The self inductances (less leakage) of each winding times one-half the square of its
current and
All mutual inductances, each times the currents in the two windings coupled by the
mutual inductance
Observe that the energy stored in the leakage inductances is not a part of the
energy stored in the coupling field.

46

Consider the abc inductance matrices given in slide 6.

Torque in abc quantities

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2

1L
m

Lr Lm

1
L r Lm
2

1L
m

L sr Lm

1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

Lm
2

1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

1
Lm
2

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

1 T
1 T
T
W f i abcs ( L s Ls U )i abcs i abcs L sr i abcr i abcr ( L r Lr U )i abcr
2
2

1
Lm
2

Lr Lm
1
Lm
2

Applying the torque-energy relation

Tem p

to the above, and observing that dependence


on m only occurs in the middle term, we get

W f

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
cos m

W f

Lr Lm

cos m 120 cos m 120

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
47

The stored energy is given by:

T
cos m 120 L sr

cos m

T
i abcs L sr i abcr
m

So that

Tem p

T
i abcs L sr i abcr
m

But only Lsr depend on m, so


T

Tem pi abcs

L sr
i abcr
m

Torque in abc quantities


Tem p

T
i abcs L sr i abcr
m

We may go through some analytical effort to show that the above evaluates to


1
1
1
1
1
1

Tem pLm ias iar ibr icr ibs ibr iar icr ics icr ibr iar
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
ias ibr icr ibs icr iar ics iar ibr cos m

Negative value for


generation

To complete our abc model we relate torque to rotor speed according to:
J is inertia of the rotor
in kg-m2 or joules-sec2

Tem

J dm
Tm
p dt

Inertial
torque

48

Mech
torque (has
negative
value for
generation)

sin m

Torque in qd0 quantities


However, our real need is to express the torque in qd0 quantities so that we may
complete our qd0 model.
To this end, recall that we may write the abc quantities in terms of the qd0 quantities
using our inverse transformation, according to:
1

i abcs K s i qd 0 s
1

i abcr K r i qd 0 r

Substitute the above into our torque expression:

Tem pi

49

T
abcs

1
L sr i abcr p K s i qd 0 s
m

1
L sr K r i qd 0 r
m

Torque in qd0 quantities

Tem p K i

K s
1

cos
sin
1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

L sr Lm

Tem p

cos
sin
1 iqs
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 ids
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i0 s

T
1
s qd 0 s

1
L sr K r i qd 0 r
m
cos

K r
1

sin

1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120
cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
cos m
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m
cos m 120
Lm cos m 120

cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

cos
sin
1 iqr
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i

dr
cos( 120) sin( 120) 1 i0 r

I will not go through this differentiation but instead provide the result:

9
Tem pLm iqs idr ids iqr
4
50

Torque in qd0 quantities


9
T pL i i i i
em

qs dr

ds qr

Some other useful expressions may be derived from the above, as follows:

Tem

3
p qr idr dr iqr
2

3
Tem p ds iqs qs ids
2
Final comment: We can work with these expressions to show that the
electromagnetic torque can be directly controlled by the rotor quadrature current iqr
At the same time, we can also show that the stator reactive power Qs can be directly
controlled by the rotor direct-axis current idr.
This will provide us the necessary means to control the wind turbine.

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