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Pengantar Sistem Mobile dan Nirkabel

Teknologi Wireless/Mobile:
Teknologi Komunikasi

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Objectives
Memberikan penjelasan mengenai

perkembangan teknologi komunikasi


nirkabel

Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Why Wireless?
Human freedom
Portability v. Mobility

Objective: anything, anytime, anywhere


Mobility
Size, weight, power
Functionality
Content

Infrastructure required
Cost
Capital, operational

Basic Telecommunication
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Overview
Wireless technology brings

communication, Internet and World


Wide Web to users around the world

Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless LAN
Idea: just a LAN, but without wires
Not as easy since signals are of limited

range
Unlike wired LAN, if A can hear B and B can hear C,

not necessarily true that A can hear C

Uses unlicensed frequencies, low power


802.11 from 2 Mbs to 600Mbs
Bluetooth
UWB

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Wireless Networks
Corporations, businesses and colleges building

wireless networks allowing information access


anytime from anywhere
Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area
Networks (WAN)
Use wires and cables to connect users to central

server
Many companies and residences turning to wireless
solutions for area networks

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs),

Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) and


Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
Transmit data through air
Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless Networks
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
Inexpensive wireless internet access in

heavily populated areas


Coverage area size of college campus or
office complex
WLAN methods of communication
Peer-to-peer communications: device
communicates directly with another device
Access Points: gateways at points in network,
allows communication with other servers

No WLAN unifying standard


802.11 used in 1997, IEEE introduced 802.11b in
1999
802.11a, 802.11e, 802.11g and 802.11n
Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless Networks
WLANs (contd)
WLAN spread-spectrum technologies:

spread signals over frequencies

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)


Divides spectrum into 14 channels
Information coded into bits, bits make up chips, 64
chips sent in burst

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)


Low cost, allows roaming between different
frequencies
Signals hop on 78 patterns over bandwidth, minimizes
interference

Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless Networks
WLANs (contd)
WLAN advantages over wired networks
Allows information access from anywhere
Easy to move/install
Flexible and scalable (shaped and
configured)

Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless Networks

Wireless LANs allow users to communicate among buildings on campus.


(Courtesy of Patricia Moulder)

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Wireless Networks
Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs)
Wireless networks that cover entire cities or

states
Use cellular networks and satellites
Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) is one of the
most widely used forms of WWANs.
Supports data speeds of 19.2Kbps
Used by U.S. carriers like Verizon Wireless and AT&T
Wireless

ARDIS (Motorolla) covers 400 largest US

metropolitan areas
Transcomm covers 93% of US businesses
Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless Networks
Wireless Personal Area Networks

(WPANs)
Short-range connectivity for small areas
Bluetooth piconets use WPAN
Coverage area typically less than 30 feet

in radius
IBM believes in using electrical currents
through human body as a form of
aWPAN
Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Wireless LAN Components


WaveLAN ISA
(Industry Standard
Architecture) Card

Extended
Range
Antenna
WavePOINT II
Transmitter

Ethernet
Converter
11 Mbps WaveLAN
PCMCIA Card
SOURCE: LUCENT

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Wireless LAN
Configurations
CLIENT AND ACCESS POINT

WIRELESS PEER-TO-PEER

BRIDGING WITH
DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS

MULTIPLE ACCESS POINTS + ROAMING

UP TO 17 KM !
SOURCE: PROXIM.COM

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Wireless Technology
Technologies allowing sharing among

wireless devices
Radio frequency
Infrared
Laser
Bluetooth

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Wireless Technology
Radio Frequency (RF): communications

through radio signals

Phones, broadcasts and networks


Regulated by the Federal Communications

Commission (FCC)

Radio Frequency WLAN: networks

devices not close together


RF WLAN standards
HomeRF

In home and small offices


Data and voice products networking between
printers, PCs, and phones
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Wireless Technology
RF WLAN standards
HomeRF
Uses Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP),
FHSS technology

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)


802.11b standard
Airports, restaurants and other areas
High power consumption and low reliability in high
traffic

Mice and stereo components use radio

frequency technology as well


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Wireless Technology

HomeRF (Courtesy of HomeRF Working Group, Inc. (www.homerf.com))

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Wireless Technology
Laser technology: connects buildings
Transceivers (towers) on rooftops

communicate through signal and link


networks

Infrared technology: connects devices


Up to 30 feet and needs clear line of sight
More cost-efficient than laser technology
Concern for infrared: slow speeds and new

technologies (Bluetooth)

Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Bluetooth

A standard permitting for wireless connection of:


Personal computers
Printers
Mobile phones
Handsfree headsets
LCD projectors
Modems
Wireless LAN devices
Notebooks
Desktop PCs
PDAs
0,50%, 5264

Basic Telecommunication
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Bluetooth
Bluetooth: radio frequencies
2,200 companies involved in Bluetooth

Consortium
Point-to-multipoint and FHSS packet-switching
Can connect multiple devices within a 30 foot
radius
Interference problems: on 2.4GHz band with
most other WLAN devices

Bluetooth allows automatic

communication as soon as devices enter


coverage area
Program Studi Teknik Informatika - UAJY

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Bluetooth
Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM)
Characteristics
(unlicensed)! band. Packet switched. 1 milliwatt (as opposed

to 500 mW cellphone. Low cost.


10m to 100m range
Uses Frequency Hop (FH) spread spectrum, which divides
the frequency band into a number of hop channels. During
connection, devices hop from one channel to another 1600
times per second
Bandwidth 1-2 megabits/second
Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (two or more Bluetooth
units sharing a channel).

Built-in security.
Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases.
Easy integration of TCP/IP for networking.

Basic Telecommunication
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Bluetooth Devices

ERICSSON R520
GSM 900/1800/1900

NOKIA 9110 + FUJI


DIGITAL CAMERA

ALCATEL
One TouchTM 700
GPRS, WAP

ERICSSON
BLUETOOTH
CELLPHONE
HEADSET

ERICSSON
COMMUNICATOR

Basic Telecommunication
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Bluetooth Piconets
Piconet = small area network
Ad hoc network: no predefined structure
Based on available nodes and their locations
Formed (and changed) in real time

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Bluetooth Scatternets

Scatternet

Piconets
Master
Master / Slave
Slave

Piconet

ScatterNet

SOURCE: KRISHNA BHOUTIKA

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Time-Modulated Ultra-Wideband (TMUWB)

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Not a sinewave,

but millions of
pulses per second

500 ps
Spread Spectrum

make noise-like
signal

Frequency (GHz)
Power Spectral Density (dB)

Time coded to

Amplitude

Randomized Time Coding


0

-40

Time

0 1

-80

Random noise signal

Frequency (GHz)

Pulse position

modulation

ps

SOURCE: TIME DOMAIN

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Ultra Wideband
Properties
VERY low power: 0.01 milliwatt
Bluetooth
Cellphone

1 milliwatt (100 x UWB)


500 milliwatts (50,000 x UWB)

Range: 30 to 300 feet


Very small
Low cost
100 Mbits/second
Up to 500 Mbps for short distances

(USB speed)
No interference
Secure
PulsON,
A Chip Based Solution

Basic Telecommunication
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Wireless Technology
Satellite communications is alternative

for wireless networks


Satellite system types

Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOs)


100-300 miles above surface: transmit signals
quickly
Hundreds placed in ring following earths curvature:
communicate with each other until in range of
destination user

Medium Earth Orbit Satellites (MEOs)


6,000 to 12,000 miles above surface
Require fewer satellite than LEOs
Used by government and for weather
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Wireless Technology
Satellite system types (contd)
Geostationary Orbit Satellites
22,282 miles above surface
Replaced less often
More transmission delays and distortions

Satellites provide voice, data, and

location-based services
Iridium

Motorolla satellite network for voice, data,

fax and location


Used 66 LEO satellites, bankrupt in 1999
and bought in 2001 by Iridium Satellite
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Satellite Systems
GEO

GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial)


high bandwidth, power, latency

M EO
LEO

MEO
high bandwidth, power, latency

LEO (400 mi.)


low power, latency
more satellites
small footprint

V-SAT (Very Small Aperture)


private WAN
SATELLITE MAP

SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV.

Basic Telecommunication
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Geostationary Orbit

SOURCE: BILL LUTHER, FCC

Basic Telecommunication

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GPS Satellite
Constellation
Global Positioning
System
Operated by USAF
28 satellites
6 orbital planes at a
height of 20,200 km
Positioned so a
minimum of 5 satellites
are visible at all times
Receiver measures
distance to satellite
SOURCE: NAVSTAR

Basic Telecommunication
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GPS Trilateration
DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
MUST BE VERY PRECISE
LIGHT TRAVELS 1018 FEET
EACH MICROSECOND

SOURCE: PETER DANA

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Wireless Telephony

AIR LINK

WIRED

PUBLIC SWITCHED
TELEPHONE NETWORK

SOURCE: IEC.ORG

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Cell Clusters
ACTUAL COVERAGE
AREA OF CELL 3

CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS


DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES
MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT
CELLS
SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF
FREQUENCIES REQUIRED

ACTUAL COVERAGE
AREA OF CELL 1

SOURCE: IEC.ORG

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Space Division Multiple Access


(SDMA)
MANY CELLS CAN SHARE
SAME FREQUENCIES IF
SEPARATED IN SPACE
5240

PATTERN CAN BE
REPLICATED OVER
THE ENTIRE EARTH
200 FREQUENCIES
IN ONE CELL
TOTAL NUM BER OF
FREQUENCIES = 1400
WORLDWIDE

Basic Telecommunication
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Cell Handover
AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL A TO CELL B:
CELL A MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO B
PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES
CELL A MUST STOP TRANSMITTING
Minimum
performance
contour

z
Handover threshold
contour

ANIMATION

SOURCE: R. C. LEVINE, SMU

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Cell Sizes
GSM:
100m - 50 km
250 km/hr

MACROCELL: $1M

FAST-MOVING
SUBSCRIBERS

PICOCELLS

MICROCELL: $250K
SLOW-MOVING
SUBSCRIBERS

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Multiple Access
Many users sharing a resource at the same

time
Needed because user must share cells
FDMA (frequency division)
Use different frequencies

TDMA (time division)


Use same frequency, different times

CDMA (code division)


Use same frequency, same time, different codes

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Frequency Division Multiplexing


(FDMA)
Each channel gets a band (range) of frequencies
Used in traditional radio, TV, 1G cellular
Advantages:
No dynamic
coordination

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

Disadvantages:
Inflexible & inefficient if
channel load is
dynamic and uneven

EACH CHANNEL
OCCUPIES SAME
FREQUENCY
AT ALL TIMES

t
SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH

Basic Telecommunication
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Time Division Multiplexing


(TDMA)
Each channel gets entire spectrum for a certain (rotating)
time period
k1
c

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

FREQUENCY BAND

Advantage: Can assign more time to senders with heavier loads


3X capacity of FDMA, 1/3 of power consumption
Disadvantage: Requires precise synchronization
SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH

Basic Telecommunication
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Combining TDMA and FDMA


Each channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time. Example: GSM
Advantages:
More robust against frequencyselective interference
Much greater capacity with
time compression
Inherent tapping protection
Disadvantages
Frequency
changes must
be coordinated

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

c
f

SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH

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Time-Division Multiple
Access

SOURCE: QUALCOMM

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Code Division Multiplexing


(CDMA)
Each channel has unique

k1

k2

k3

code
All channels use same spectrum
at same time but orthogonal codes
Advantages:
bandwidth efficient code space is huge
no coordination or synchronization
between different channels
resists interference and tapping
3X capacity of TDMA, 1/25 power consumption
Disadvantages:
more complex signal regeneration
Implemented using spread spectrum

k4

k5

k6

Basic Telecommunication
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Cellular Generations
First
Analog, circuit-switched (AMPS)

Second
Digital, circuit-switched (GSM, Palm) 10 Kbps

Advanced second
Digital, circuit switched, Internet-enabled (WAP)

10 Kbps

2.5
Digital, packet-switched, TDMA (GPRS, EDGE)

40-400 Kbps

Third
Digital, packet-switched, wideband CDMA (UMTS)

0.4 2 Mbps

Fourth
Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves telepresence

Basic Telecommunication
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GSM Architecture

CELL TRANSMITTER
& RECEIVER

INTERFACE TO LAND
TELEPHONE NETWORKS

HIERARCHY
OF CELLS

DATA RATE: 9.6 Kbps

PHONE

STOLEN, BROKEN
CELLPHONE LIST
ENCRYPTION,
AUTHENTICATION

SIM:
IDENTIFIES A
SUBSCRIBER

LIST OF
ROAMING
VISITORS
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS
IN THIS AREA

SOURCE: UWC

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SMS Short Message


Service
Integral part of GSM standard
Added to other standards as well

Technology

Message
Length

2
way?

Send/Receive short text messages

GSM

160 bytes

Yes

Sender pays (if from mobile phone)

TDMA/PDC

160 bytes

No

CDMA

256 bytes

Yes

iDEN

140 bytes

Yes

Uses control channel of phone

Phone has "email" address


SMTP Interface

Only in the US, not the rest of the world


Allows messages to be sent for free!
3125551234@wireless.att.net

1 BILLION SMS/day worldwide


SOURCE: GEMBROOK SYSTEMS

Basic Telecommunication
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SMS in Banking
Bank Web
Site

Customer

Alert me to all credit


card transactions
greater than $100.

Message from YourBank: Credit card


purchase of $1245 at Joes HiFi.

Interne
t

Bank
Back-end
Systems

Appl
icati
on

Air

Message appears within


seconds
on the customers phone

SMS
Monitorin
g

Wireless
Carrier
Cell Tower

SMS
Carrier

Credit card
used
Joes HiFi
$1245

SOURCE: GEMBROOK SYSTEMS

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Wireless Application
Support
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and iMode
High-level protocols that use cellular transport
WAP:
Uses WML (Wireless Markup Language)
Divides content into cards equal to one telephone

screen
Simplified but incompatible form of HTML
To send to a WAP phone, must broadcast WML
content

Basic Telecommunication
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WAP Applications
Internet

Web Content
Server

Non Mobile
Internet User
WAP Gateway
Mobile
Terminal

iNexware

Mobile
Network
WAP simulator

Database
Server
SOURCE: DANET

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