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Lecture 3

Axially loaded members

Tension members
End Connections

Tension Member

A tension Member transmits a direct axial pull between two points in a structural
frame. A member subject to axial tension extends and tends to remain straight.

Examples:

A rope supporting a load


Cables in a suspension bridge
In Buildings:
1. Tension chords and internal ties in trusses
2. Tension bracing members
3. Hangers supporting floor beams

Ties

ROOF TRUSS

Tension chord

Ties

Lattice Girder

TIES (K-BRACING)

MULTI-STOREY BUILDING

ties

hangers
Floor beams

HANGERS SUPPORTING FLOOR BEAMS

cable stayed bridges

Cable stays

Bridge deck

pylon

Suspension bridges

suspendor

stay

deck
pylon

Sections used for tension members

Larger loads

UNIVERSAL BEAMS OR COLUMNS

For small loads

CLOSED SECTIONS

CHANNEL BACK-TO-BACK

COMPOUND SECTIONS

BUILT UP SECTIONS

CHANNEL FACE-TO-FACE

Tension members where there is no reversal of stress


That means no compressive stress ever occurs
Examples: Round bars, Flats, Cables

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1.
2.
3.

Theoretically tensions member is the most efficient structural element


When axial tension occurs, the section is uniformly stressed
This stress can be increased till the whole section reaches ultimate stress
and fails. The failure load is independent of the length of the member.
A member in pure tension does not buckle locally or overall and is
therefore not affected by the classification of sections.
But its efficiency is affected by the following factors
End connections holes reduce member section
Reversal of load causes buckling so larger section has to be provided
Many tension members must also resist moment due to eccentricity of
end connections

END CONNECTIONS

BOLT OR THREADED CONNECTIONS


The strength is made by the tensile area at the threads

SINGLE ANGLE CONNECTED THROUGH ONE LEG


The outstanding leg is not fully effective
if bolts are used

FULL STRENGTH JOINTS MADE BY WELDING


Examples occur in lattice girder made from hollow sections it is
easier in hollow sections to weld
For ease of erection most site joints are bolted, and welding is
confined to shop joints

Potential problems that arise from using light slender sections


such as bars, flats, rolled angle and channel sections

Excessive sag under self weight


Vibration during dynamic loading
Damage during transportation to site
Solutions
use of sag rods
Use of intermediate packing in double angle or channel members
This will minimise the first two problems
To avoid damage during transport
In general, if the leg length of an angle tie is atleast equal to member length
divided by 60, the member will have sufficient stiffness.

Eccentricity of connections

Clause 4.13 EN 1993-1-8:2005 page 48


Although theoretically tension members are inherently
stable (no bending occurs) and most economic
structural element, the introduction of secondary effects
such as bending due to eccentricities at connections
reduce their efficiency
With the exception of angles, channels and T-sections,
the secondary effects should be allowed for in the design
Tension member design is governed by cl 6.2.3

SINGLE CHANNEL, ANGLE OR T - SECTIONS

Type 1 connection

These are bolted connections

3 D VIEW OF JOINT
Gusset plate will
be connected to
another member in
A
a similar way

Connected leg

Gusset plate

Unconnected leg

Note that the force is transmitted to the


angle through the connected leg. The
fraction of force shared by the free leg
is lesser

Weld connecting gusset to


channel

Welded connections

gusset

These are welded connections

Connected leg
A
Gusset plate

Unconnected leg

Note that the force is transmitted to the


angle through the connected leg. The
fraction of force shared by the free leg is
lesser

Type 2 connection
Double angles, channels, and T-sections connected to same side
of gusset plate

Bolted connection
Total capacity = sum of capacities of each component
Note similarity to type 1 connection

Type 3 connection
Double angles, channels, and T-sections connected to both sides
of gusset plate
Bolted
connection

Welded
connection

Other types of connections

Angle connected
through both legs

Channel connected
through both flanges

T-sections
connected either
through flange and
stem or stem only

Design of tension members

BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 bolted connections

BS EN 1993-1-8:2005

Bolt holes are made larger than the bolt


diameter to facilitate erection and to allow
for inaccuracies. The clearance is 2 mm
for bolts not exceeding 24 mm diameter
and 3 mm for bolts exceeding 24 mm
diameter (Martin and Purkiss)

Welded connections

Example 1(page 211,Martin and purkiss)

Determine the net area of a plate with holes. Calculate the net cross
sectional area for the plate shown in figure which is subject to a tensile
force. The plate is 20 mm thick and contains 4 lines of staggered holes
drilled for 24 mm diameter bolts.

Answer:

From figure s=95mm and p=110mm


Diameter of hole=d0=d+2 = 24+2 =26 mm
Gross cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of stress= 20
x 430=8600 mm2
Areas to be deducted at possible failure lines = nhtd0 ngss2t/(4p)

Where ngs is the number of gauge spaces in the chain of holes

110 mm
110 mm

160 mm

110 mm

95 mm 95 mm

95 mm

95 mm

Line AA: 2 x 20 x 26=1040mm2


Line BB:3 x 20 x 26 1x952x20/(4x110)=1150mm2
Line CC:4 x 20 x 26 3x952x20/(4x110)=849mm2
Minimum net area is for line BB = 8600 -1150 = 7450mm2

Example 2:

Determine the tension capacity of plate. Plate thickness = 8 mm and


20 mm diameter bolts are used.

50 mm

160 mm

50 mm

50 mm 50 mm

50 mm

50 mm

Solution:
All possible failure patterns must be considered to determine the critical case
Hole diameter = bolt diameter +2 = 22 mm
The different failure patterns are shown

A B

50 mm

160 mm

50 mm

A
50 mm

50 mm

50 mm

50 mm

Areas to be deducted
Path AA : area deducted = 2 x t x d = 2 x 8 x 22 = 352 mm2
Path BB :
Path CC:

s 2t
50 2 8
areadeduct ed 2td
2 8 22
252mm 2
4g
4 50
2 s2 t
2 50 2 8
areadeduct ed 3td
3 8 22
328mm 2
4 g
4 50

Path AA is critical since the deduction is maximum for it

Therefore
An = Gross area deduction = Ag -deduction
= 160 x 8 -352 = 1280-352=928 mm2
Tension capacity is determined using clause 6.2.3 of BS EN
1993-1-1:2005 and clause 3.4.2 of BS EN 1993-1-8:2005
Assuming S275 grade steel; fy=275, fu=430N/mm2 and
Assuming M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25
Design plastic resistance,Npl,Rd=Afy/M0
=1280x275/1=352000N = 352kN
Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes
for fasteners = Nu,Rd=0.9Anet fu/M2
=0.9x928x430/1.25=287308.8N =287.3kN
Also Design ultimate resistance of net cross section
,Nnet,Rd=Anetfy/M0 =928x275/1=255200N = 255.2kN
Therefore Plate capacity =255.2 kN

Members subjected to combined axial force and


moment (clause 6.2.9 BS EN 1993-1-1:2005) page 54

Reference: page 39 Trahair section 2.4


The formula for Npl,Rd and Nu,Rd is based on the assumption that the
member is loaded on its axis.
The procedures for angle ties are valid only for those cases in which
the bending is produced solely by the fairly small eccentricities
between the loaded leg and the member axis.
For more general problems each load component must be considered
separately since it is not known in advance which will be dominant.
The assumption of elastic behaviour leads to a simple design
approach based on limiting the sum of the individual stresses as a
cross section to the design strength of the material, fy

at bty pbtz f y ...................(1)

In which at= axial stress due to load N = N/A

bty=maximum tensile bending stress due to moments My about the


major axis
btz=maximum tensile bending stress due to moments Mz about the
minor axis
Converting this to an expression for loads

N My Mz

f y ..........................( 2)
A Zy
Zz

RE-arranging
My
N
Mz

1..................(3)
A f y Z y f y Zz f y

In which Zy=elastic section modulus about the yy axis


Zz= elastic section modulus about the zz axis

The above equation is valid when either N or My and Mz are not


small. A suggested interaction equation for failure is the linear
inequality

M y , Ed
M ty , Rd

M z , Ed
M rz , Rd

Where Mrz,Rd is the cross section resistance for tension and bending
about minor principal axis(z) is given by

M rz , Rd M cz , Rd (1

N t , Ed
N t , Rd

And Mty,Rd is the lesser of the cross section resistance Mry,Rd for
tension and bending about the major principal (y) axis given by

M ry , Rd M cy , Rd (1

N t , Ed
N t , Rd

And the out of plane member buckling resistance Mbt,Rd for tension
and bending about the major principal (y) axis given by

M bt , Rd M b , Rd (1

N t , Ed
N t , Rd

) M cy , Rd

In which Mb,Rd is the lateral buckling resistance when N=0.

Mcy,Rd = cross section resistance for bending alone about y axis

Mcz,Rd = cross section resistance for bending alone about z axis

In these equations,
Nt,Rd = the tensile resistance in the absence of bending (taken as
lesser of Npl and Nu

Design using EC3

Clause 6.2.1 item 7:


As a conservative estimate for all cross section classes a linear summation
of the utilization ratios for each stress resultant may be used. For class 1,
class 2 or class 3 cross sections subjected to the combination of Ned, My,Ed
and Mx,Ed this method may be applied by using the following criteria

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed

1
N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd

Where NRd, My,Rd and Mz,Rd are the design values of the resistance depending
on the cross sectional classification and including any reduction that may be
caused by shear effectsclause 6.2.8
For class 4 sections use clause 6.2.9.3 part 2 page 56 BS EN 1993-11:2005

class 4 sections use clause 6.2.9.3 part 2


In the absence of shear force , for class 4 sections the maximum
logitudinal stress x,ED calculated using the effective cross
section area shall satisfy the criterion:

The above equations are rather conservative and so EC3 allows Isection tension members with class 1 or class 2 cross section with
bending about major axis to satisfy clause 6.2.9.1 (5)

M Ny , Rd M pl , y , Rd

For na: MN,z,Rd=Mpl,z,Rd

For n>a:

M N , z , Rd

Where n=Ned/Npl,Rd
a = (A-2btf)/A but a0.5

1 n

1 0.5a

butM Ny , Rd M pl , y , Rd

na
M pl , z , Rd 1

1 a

Clause 6.2.9.1 (6) Biaxial bending

Example 5: page 48 Trahair

A tension member consists of two equal angles of S355 steel whose ends
are connected to gusset plates as shown. If the load eccentricity for tension
member is 39.1mm and the tension and bending resistances are 1438kN
and 37.7kNm, determine the resistance of the member by treating it as a
member under combined tension and bending.

Answer:

using the clause 6.2.1 (7)

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed

1
N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd

N Ed N Ed (39.1 / 1000)

0 1
1438
37.7
So that Nt,Ed 577.2kN.
Because the load eccentricity causes the member to bend about
its minor axis, there is no need to check for lateral buckling ,
which only occurs when there is major axis bending.

Example: A high strength Grade S 460 steel hanger consisting of a 203


x 203 UC 46 carries factored loads from beams framing into it and from
the floor below. Check the hanger at the main floor beam connection.
(figure next slide). All bolt holes 22 mm
Solution:
STEP 1
Properties of 203 x 203 UC 46
h, Depth of section=203.2 mm; b, width of section=203.6;
tw, thickness of web=7.2, tf, thickness of flange=11,
r, root radius=10.2, d, depth between fillets=160.8,
A, area of section=58.7 cm2,
Moment of Inertia, Wel,y=4568 cm4; Moment of inertia, Wel.z=1548 cm4;
radius of gyration about y axis, ry=8.82; radius of gyration about z axis, rz=5.13,
Elastic section Modulus about y axis, Zy=450 cm3; Elastic section Modulus
about z axis, Zz=152 cm3;
Plastic section modulus about y axis. Wpl,y=497 cm3; Plastic section modulus
about z axis. Wpl,z=231 cm3;

2 @120kN

320kN reaction from beam


Hanger 203 x 203 x 46 UC
Grade 55 steel

590 kN
elevation

457 x 152 x 74 UB
305 x 165 x 54 UB
Plan or top view

Step 2
Since thickness <40 mm, the design strength Py=460
N/mm2..from table 3.1 of BS EN 1993-1-1 page 27
Step 3
The net section is shown below..
T=11

120 kN

x1

x
Eccentricity 201.6 mm

b=101.6
320kN
590kN

x1
New centroidal axis

x
120 kN

The connection plates are not considered.


STEP 4
Check the limiting proportions of the flanges
=(235/460)0.5= 0.71
C= (203.6-7.2-2x10.2)/2=88
c/tf=88/11=8.00
Note: Assuming compression only as worst case
Class 1 plastic 9=9x0.71= 6.39
Class 2 compact 10=10 x 0.71 = 7.1
Class 3 semi-compact 14=15x0.71=9.94
The flange is semi-compact

Assuming full compression as worst case


d/t=160.8/7.2=22.33
Plastic =33x0.71=23.43
Compact =38x0.71=26.98
Semi-compact =42 x 0.71=29.82
Clearly web is plastic.
So section is semi-compact
The section can be checked using any of the provisions
Using clause 6.2.9 (7)

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed

1
N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd

The moment capacity Mc of each of the four classes of section is


calculated as below:
W pl f y
Class 1: .clause 6.2.5 (2)
M

pl , Rd

Class 2: ------- clause 6.2.5 (2)

Class 3: -------- clause 6.2.5 (2)

Class 4: ----------- clause 6.2.5 (2)

Where Wpl = plastic section modulus


Wel = elastic section modulus
Weff = Effective elastic section modulus

M0

M pl , Rd
M pl , Rd

M pl , Rd

W pl f y

M0
Wel ,min f y

M0

Wef ,min f y

M0

Dimensions:
T=11

120 kN

y1

y
Eccentricity 201.6 mm

b=101.6
320kN
590kN

y1
New centroidal axis

y
120 kN

Gross area and Net Area of section


Gross area = 58.7 cm2
Area of holes = dt x 2 = 22 x 11 x 2 = 484 mm2 = 4.84 cm2
Net area = 53.86 cm2
Note since section is in tension

Gross area
Location of centroid
Centroid is calculated by assuming a base line and taking
moments of all areas about it and equating it to the moment of
the total area
If y is the position of new centroid from left flange, then
y

Ag y g area _ holes yholes


Ag area _ holes

Therefore

58.7

20.32
4.84 (20.32 1.1 / 2)
596.392 95.6868
2

9.29cm
58.7 4.84
53.86

Moment of inertia of Effective section

I eff I g Ag ( y ) AreaHoles y
1 2

I eff

11 2

20.32
1.1

4568 58.7 (
9.29) 2 4.84 20.32
9.29

2
2

Ieff = 4568+58.7x0.87x0.87-531.6=4080.3 cm4

Z min

Ix
4080.3
4080.3

369.9
D y 20.32 9.29 11.03

The applied axial load :


N = 2 x 120+320+590 = 1150kN
Net area = 53.86 cm2
Axial load capacity, Npl,RD = NRd = Ae py = 53.86x100x460 =2477.56kN
The applied moment about the yy axis
My=320 x 0.2016+(2 x 120+590)x0.0088 = 74.5 kNm
The moment capacity for the major axis:
Mcy=363 x 460/103=166.9 kNm

Substitute into the interaction expression:

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed
1150
74.5

0 0.91 1
N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd
2477.56 166.9
The hanger is satisfactory

Clause 6.2.9 (5) can be applied for mono-axial bending and axial force

As per 6.2.9 (4) the following conditions are to be checked for y axis

0.25Npl,Rd = 0.25 x 2477.56=619.39 < Ned (1150kN)..not satisfied

0.5x(203.2-2x11)7.2x460/1.0=300.0672kN<N ed .not satisfied


Hence the effect of axial force effect has to be considered for y axis.

For z axis;

(203.2-2x11)7.2x460/1.0=600.13kN<Ned (1150kN).not satisfied


Hence allowance for axial force need to be made
The eccentricity is about the major axis yy

Where MN,Rd is given by

MN,y,Rd = 166.9(1-0.45)/(1-0.5x0.24)=104.3kN
Note that MN,y,Rd Mpl,y,Rd (166.9kN)
Med = 74.5kNm < MN,y,Rd . Hence OK.

n=1150/2477.56=0.46
a=(5870 2x203.6x11)/5870=0.24
The expression for MN,z,RD has not been considered as there is moment
about Z axis.

The expressions 6.2.9.1(6) can also be used with second


term as zero.

Then it reduces to

M y , Ed

M N , y , Rd

M y , Ed

M N , y , Rd
Which is same as in clause 6.2.9.1 (2)