You are on page 1of 63

Is Ethics an indispensable

knowledge?

Is the study of Ethics


important?

Basically
To know

what is right & wrong.


To understand why its right/moral
(wrong/immoral)
To be corrected, clarified
To be affirmed & to deepen ones
knowledge & moral conviction.
To be formed by moral principles &
have moral integrity.
To exercise my freedom correctly.
To be able to choose the good.

Ethics serves as the foundation of


every
human society

Without

civic morality, communities


perish - B. Russell
When the moral foundations of a nation
are threatened the society itself is
threatened. L. Shahani
At the bottom of our economic
problems, & political instability is the
weakness and corruption of the moral
foundations of our society. We do need
an economic recovery program. We also
urgently need a moralrecovery
program. N. Joaquin

We need:
Correct ethical principles
Correct state laws
AND of course:
Good moral conduct by
applying the laws & will
truly become a:
VIRTUE

Characteristically, as a rational being


(with intellect & will) we are able to...

(As RATIONAL Beings we are therefore


MORAL because)
1. We can distinguish good from bad/evil.
2. We feel within our self an obligation to do
good and avoid evil.
3. We feel that we are accountable for our
actions, expecting reward or
punishment for them.

DIFFERENT APPROACHES
TO ETHICS/MORALITY:
I. Foundation
(Two Ethical Systems)

a. Theistic
b. Atheistic

II. Framework/Approach
a. Utilitarian
b. Rights
c. Fairness/Justice
d Common Good
e. Duty
f. Virtue

http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/thinking.html

CLARIFICATION OF
TERMS

ETHICS
&
MORALITY/MORALS
DIFFERENCE:

Etymologically they are the same.

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
ETHICS

from the Gk. word ethikos,


which means character, & ethos, which
means custom.
Custom means a more or less
permanent moral behavior in
accordance with the precepts of
natural moral law which is universally
known and common to all men.

MORALS

from the Latin mos, mores,


meaning tradition or custom (hence,
etymologically, the Latin equivalent of
the Greek ethos).

Hence,

etymologically ethics & morality


are the same.

A Nuance:
MORALS are intrapersonal in
nature. One is acting with moral
virtue, or character, when he or she
strives to do the right thing.

Nuance: Ethics & Morals

Etymologically,
they are the
same

DIFFERENCE:
We talk of morals when a
person has already
Morality/Morals
interiorized the ethical
deeper because
principles, making it
it is about the
ones personal beliefs,
whole person, his
principles, &values.
very character.
He is therefore not only
applying ethics but
One may be
acting according to
ethical but is
values.
he/she moral?

Ethics & Moral Theology


Difference between
Ethics (as a branch of
Philosophy)
and Moral Theology

ETHICS

MORAL THEOLOGY

SOURCES:
1. Human Reason
2. Human Experience

SOURCES:
1. Human Reason
2. Human Experience
3. Divine Revelation (Sacred
Scripture, Sacred Tradition)

MATERIAL OBJECT:
Human Acts

Material Object:
Human Acts

FORMAL OBJECT:

FORMAL OBJECT:

The rightness and


The rightness and
wrongness of human acts in wrongness of human acts in
view of its natural end.
view of its supernatural end.

Logic

guides mans intellect in


the acquisition of truth.

Ethics

guides the intellect in


the acquisition & application of
the moral principles.

ETHICS

is a natural science.
Employs the power
Of human reason

Ethics

is the study of the moral


behavior or conduct of man as
viewed from ultimate principles
in so far as these principles are
known by human reason.

Ethics as a branch of philosophy,


investigate truths by means of:
1. Human reason
2. Human Experiences personal
experience, and the experience of
others (contemporary & historical).

ETHICS

is a practical science.
Why is Ethics a practical science?

ETHICS is also known as


moral philosophy.
It

is a philosophical science
dealing with the rightness or
wrongness of human acts.
Therefore, a practical science.

ETHICS is the (practical) science of human


acts with reference to right & wrong.

MATERIAL OBJECT OF ETHICS: Human


Acts (Constituents):
1. Knowledge
2. Freedom
3. Voluntariness

FORMAL OBJECT OF ETHICS: It is the


study of the rectitude of human conduct.

HUMAN ACTS:
Doing

an act with knowledge makes it


deliberate.

Human

acts are free acts that may or


may not be done by the agent. He can
choose between doing & not doing the
act. His choice is based on freedom.

HUMAN ACTS
No

person may claim that his act is


voluntarily done unless he has
knowledge of his act & he has freedom
in doing the act.
ACTS WHICH LACK THESE
ELEMENTS ARE NOT CLASSIFIED
AS HUMAN ACTS, RATHER THEY
ARE CALLED ACTS OF MAN.

ACTS OF MAN:
INVOLUNTARY actions
Actions

which merely happen


in the body or through the body
without the awareness of the
mind or the control of the will.

ACTS OF MAN:

*Nutritive processes of the body,


circulation, respiration, growth,
chemical reaction.
*They comprise all spontaneous,
biological, & sensual processes
without the use of reason.

HUMAN ACT

ACTS OF MAN

1.Deliberate

1. Indeliberate

2. Free

2. Not free

3. Voluntary

3. Involuntary

2 KINDS OF HUMAN ACTS:


a. ELICITED
b. COMMANDED
KINDS OF ELICITED HUMAN ACTS
1. Wish
2. Intention
3. Consent
4. Selection ELECTION CHOICE
5. Use
6. Satisfaction / Fruition

Elicited acts a simple WILL-ACT


WISH

the first tendency of the will


towards a thing, whether this thing be
realizable or not. It is the simple love of a
thing. (Desire)

INTENTION

the purposive tendency of


the will towards a thing regarded as
realizable, whether the thing is actually
done or not. (Active Desire; will to obtain
it).

CONSENT the acceptance by the will of the


means necessary to carry out the intention.
(A definite decision).
ELECTION the selection by the will of the
precise means to be employed in carrying out
the intention.
USE the employment by the will of powers
to carry out its intention by the means
elected.
FRUITION the enjoyment of the thing willed
& done; the wills act of satisfaction in
intention fulfilled. (The actual attainment &
enjoyment of the desired good).

Seatwork #2

COMMANDED ACTS under orders from


the will
1. INTERNAL acts done by internal
mental powers under command of the
will. {Effort to remember, conscious
reasoning, effort to control anger,
deliberate use of the imagination in
visualizing a scene}
2. EXTERNAL acts effected by bodily
powers under the command of the will.
{Deliberate walking, chores.}

3. MIXED acts that involve the


employment of bodily & mental powers.
{Study which involves the use of
intellect and the use of eyes in
reading}

Question:
Knowing

that our human acts


are not always elicited, what
then is the importance of
knowing about commanded
human acts?

Moral theology

1.
2.
3.

CHRISTIAN ETHICS when ethics is


treated from the point of view of
Christian faith.
MORAL THEOLOGY the term used
in Catholic thought as a study of
morality.
Sources:
Divine Revelation in the Catholic
Tradition
Human reason
Experience

Moral

Theology a systematic
attempt to understand Divine
Revelation in reference to the
Christian persons loving
response in faith to Gods
salvific invitation.

The

MATERIAL OBJECT OF MORAL


THEOLOGY:
Human acts

The

FORMAL OBJECT OF MORAL


THEOLOGY:
Morality of human acts in
relation to our Supernatural
End (GOD).

Specific Goals of Moral


Theology:
To understand, appreciate, & accept
the moral norms and principles given
to us by the Church.
2. To assimilate in our life these moral
norms.
3. To follow Christ.
1.

General Goals of Catechesis


ORTHODOXY

-correct understanding

of the Faith.
ORTHOPRAXIS -is the correct
application of the Faith in moral living
and in worshipping.
Living the challenges & demands of
faith with the support of prayer &
sacraments.
Integration of:
Doctrine, Morals, Worship

BELIEVING

TOTAL,
Integral
FAITH
DOING,
Obeying

Entrusting,
WORSHIPPING

Dogmatism
BELIEVING

Ideological Activism

Ideological Ritualism

TOTAL,
Integral
FAITH
OBEYING,
Doing

Activism

Pious Activism WORSHIPPING


Entrusting
Ritualism

Seatwork #3

Moral Theology:

PROXIMATE Goal: to say no to sin and yes


to love; it is continuing conversion, integral
liberation, to be holyNOW, the present
moment.
IMMEDIATE Goal: to develop moral
adulthood Christian maturity
ULTIMATE Goal: union with God in heaven
in the company of all the saints.

Moral Theology:
PROXIMATE

Goal: to say no
to sin and yes to God NOW.
IMMEDIATE Goal: Christian
maturity
ULTIMATE Goal: union with
God

Characteristics of Moral Theology


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A dynamic morality
A personalist morality
A positive morality
A God and Christ-centered morality
A Biblical & Sacramental morality
A Communitarian morality
A Dialogical & ecumenical morality
A morality of praxis

Characteristics of Moral Theology


1. A dynamic morality - Church teachings
are not static, addresses the situations
of the time while remaining faithful to
Gods Law.
2. A personalist morality helps us to be
accountable and responsible for our
choices, and to understand and integrate
or interiorize the Churchs teachings

Characteristics of Moral Theology


3. A positive morality focuses on genuine
happiness and freedom, values and
virtues not merely dos and donts
4. Christ-centered morality to follow
Christ
5. A Biblical teachings rooted in the Word
of God;
6. & Sacramental morality moral life needs
to be sustained by prayer and
sacramental life

Characteristics of Moral Theology


7.

A Communitarian morality

a)

is concerned about the whole humanitys


welfare not just members of the Catholic
Church
moral discernment is made not just by 1
person but the community ( Pope, college
of Bishops, consultation with other experts)

b)

Characteristics of Moral Theology


8. A Dialogical & ecumenical morality
dialogues with: experts, other cultures
and religion.
9. A morality of praxis - - to follow Christ,
his attitudes and dispositions. Thus
Christian morality is not mere head
knowledge but applying the teachings of
Christ, genuinely following Jesus.

Divisions of Ethics &


Moral Theology:
FUNDAMENTAL or
GENERAL ETHICS
2. SPECIAL ETHICS or
APPLIED ETHICS
1.

1.

Fundamental or General =
present truths about human acts,
and from these truths deduces
the general principles of morality.

Treats basic components of the


moral action.

2. SPECIAL is applied moral


theology/ethics. It applies principles
of general ethics in different areas of
human activity (individual and social).
Studies moral behavior in a specific
life.
Special moral issues, cases,
problems

Human Acts can be:


Ethical
Good,

moral
Unethical
Bad, immoral, evil
Indifferent, amoral
Neutral
Nonmoral

Ethical

right, correct, acceptable


Unethical not right, incorrect,
unacceptable standard of behavior.
Moral specific sense: good
MORAL one who correctly judges
between right & wrong, and
consequently act on what is virtuous.
general sense: deals with the question
of good or bad.

Immoral not only wrong or bad, but

also evil & sinful .


IMMORAL when one does not only
act in conformity with the principles of
right and wrong but also chooses to do
what is evil and sinful.

AMORAL
1.
-- Lacking moral sensibility; one who is
not concerned with any moral standards
at all;
--not caring about right and wrong;
--having no moral standards, restraints or
principles;
--with callous conscience.

AMORAL
2. When a person is blind to some moral
values.
--- Unaware of what is right or wrong
--- Do not possess ethical notions at all as a
result of:
a) unusual upbringing,
b) culture
c) mentally handicapped
d) still an infant/child.

Clarification:
Should

we use amoral synonymously


or interchangeably with morally neutral
or indifferent acts?

AMORAL

A nonmoral

Neutral or Indifferent
- Neither Good nor bad
act/ neutral or

indifferent
Example: wearing a pink
baseball cap
Example:

the term used in the Principle


of Double Effect:
1. The act must be good never bad or at
least neutral or indifferent
e.g. Cutting the fallopian tube

OTHER TERMS:

IMPUTABLE - To impute to implicate,


charge/accuse a person with fault, an offense
or a crime.

CULPABLE guilty, blameworthy, (Latin) mea


culpa my fault.

ACCOUNTABLE answerable or responsible

LIABLE - legally responsible.

Sources/References:

Catholicism and Ethics by Edward Hayes, et al.


Ethics by Paul Glenn, SJ
Ethics by Alfredo Panizo, OP
Ethics & the Filipino by Ramon Agapay
Promoting Justice, Love, Life by Fausto Gomez, OP
A Pilgrims Notes by Fausto Gomez, OP
The Christian Commitment of Todays Filipino edited by
Joseph L. Roche, S.J.
Living the Faith Option: Christian Morality by Ma.
Christina Astorga
Catechism for Filipino Catholics
Docete Series