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How to draw a Schematic

INDEX:
1. Different Components
2. Component Schematic Symbols & References
3. Different Component Packages
4. How to trace the Circuit on PCB
5. How to enter the Schematic in to Software tool

Types of components
An electronic circuit is composed of various
types of components. An electronic component
is any device that handles electricity.
Electronic components are classified by
1. Passive Vs Active
2. Discrete Vs Integrated
3. Mounting Methodes

1. Passive Vs Active
Passive Components: A passive device is one that

contributes no power gain (amplification) to a circuit or


system. It has no control action and does not require any
input other than a signal to perform its function. Passive
devices include resistors, capacitors and inductors.

Active Components: Active components are devices


that are capable of controlling voltages or currents and
can create a switching action in the circuit. They can
amplify or interpret a signal. They include diodes,
transistors and integrated circuits.

2. Discrete Vs Integrated
Discrete: When a component is packaged with one or
two functional elements, it is known as a discrete
component. For example, a resistor used to limit the
current passing through it functions as a discrete
component.

Integrated: An integrated circuit is a combination of

several interconnected discrete components packaged in


a single case to perform multiple functions. A typical
example of an integrated circuit is that of a
microprocessor which can be used for a variety of
applications.

3. Mounting Methode
Trough Hole: Through-hole components are those
components which have leads that can be inserted
through mounting holes in the circuit board.

Suface Mount: Surface mount components are so


designed that they can be attached directly on to the
surface of the board.

Differerent Types of components


1. Passive - Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, etc....
2. Semiconductor Discrete - Diodes, Transistors, MOSFETs, etc...
3. Integrated Circuits - MicroProcessors, MicroControllers, Memories, etc...
4. Clock Generatores - Crystals, Cryctal Oscilators, Resonators, etc...
5. OptoElectronic Components - LED, 7-Segment, LCD, etc....
6. Power Electronics Components - AC-DC, DC-DC, Regulators, etc....
7. Protection Components - Fuse, MOV, Transil Diode, etc....
8. Electro Mechanical Components - Buzzer, Switch, KeyBoard, etc...
9. Transformers - Audio, Voltage, Cutrrent, etc...
10. Intercomnects - D-connectors, Supply connectors, Euro, etc....
11. Wires & Cables - Single Stand, Multistand, Coaxial, etc...
12. Hardware - Heatsinks

Resistors
Schematic & Design
Reference is 'R'.
Resistors are three
types.
1. Fixed Resistor
2. Variable Resistor
3. Resitor Network

Capacitors
Schematic & Design
Reference 'C'.
Capacitors are three
types
1. Polarized - Aluminium
& Tantalum Electrolytic
Capacitors

2. Non-Polarized Film, Ceramic

3. Variable

Inductor
Schematic & Design
Reference 'L'.
Inductors are four types
1. Air Core
2. Iron Core
3. Ferrite Core
4. Variable

Diodes
Schematic & Design
Reference 'D'.
Diodes are Six types
1. PN Diode - Rectifiers, Switching
Diodes

2. Zener Diode - Reference 'Z'


3. Schottky Diode
4. Tunnel Diode
5. Varactor Diode
6. Photo Diode

Thyristors
Thyristors are Three
types
1. SCR - Reference is
'SCR'
2. Diac - Reference is
'DIAC'
3. Triac - Reference is
'TRIAC'

Transistor
Schematic & Design
Reference 'Q'.
Transistors are Three
types
1. UJT
2. BJT - NPN, PNP
3. Photo Transistor

FET
Schematic & Design
Reference 'Q'.
FETs are Two types
1. JFET
2. MOSFET

ICs (Integrated Circuits)


Schematic & Design
Reference 'U'.
ICs are classified by
1. Functionality
2. Package

Clock Generators
Schematic & Design
Reference 'X'.
Clock Generators are
classified as
1. Crystals
2. Crystal Oscillators
3. Resonators

Opto Electronics
LED - Reference 'D'
LDR - Reference 'LDR'
LCD - Reference 'LCD'.
Types:
1. Charater
2. Graphical - TFT, OLED

7-Segment - Reference
'SEG'

DotMatrix - Reference
'BLOCK'

OptoCoupler - Reference 'U'

POWER

Battery - Reference 'BAT'.

AC-DC Converters - Reference


'U'. Types:
1. Isolated
2. Non-Isolated

DC-DC Converters - Reference


'U'. Types:
1. Isolated
2. Non-Isolated

Regulators - Reference 'REG'.


Types:
1. Linear
2. Switching

Solar

Protection

Fuse - Reference 'F'.

Resettable Fuse - Reference 'F'.

Varistor (MOV) - Reference 'MOV'.

TVS Diode - Reference 'D'. Types:


1. UniDirectional
2. BiDirectional

GDT (Gas Discharge Tube) Reference 'GDT'.

Electro Mechanical

Audio Devices:
1.Buzzer - Reference 'BUZ'.
2. Speaker
3. Micro Phone, etc...

Switches: Reference 'S'


1. DIP Switch
2. Tact Switch
3. PushButton Switch, etc...

Relays: Reference 'K'


1. ElectroMechanical
2. Solid State
3. Power, etc...

KeyBoards: Reference 'KEY'


1. Plastic / Rubber
2. Memberane
3. Metal, etc...

Transformers
Reference 'T'
Types of transformers
1. Audio
2. Current
3. Voltage
4. Power
5. Balun
6. LAN
7. Telecom
8. Toroidal, etc...

InterConnects
Reference - 'J'
Types:
1. D - Connectors
2. Euro Connectors
3. FRC / BOX Connector
4. Wago Connectors
5. Phoenix Connector
6. Molex Connectors
7. Bergstics / Pin Headers
8. USB
9. Ethernet, etc...

Wires & Cables


Reference 'WP'
Wires:
1. Single Stand
2. Multi Stand

Cables:
1. Power Cable
2. Data Cable - Coaxial, Fiber,
Multi Core, Multi stand, Ribbon,
etc...

Hardware
HeatSink:
1. Small
2. Medium
3. Big

Component packages

How to Trace a PCB?

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