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Topic 7

Safety and Health

BY MISLIYANA MISNAN

Strategic Importance of Workplace Safety


and Health

Benefits of a Safe and Healthy Workforce:

Higher productivity

Increased efficiency and quality

Reduced medical and insurance costs

Lower workers compensation rates and payments

Improved reputation as an employer of choice

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Consequences of an Unsafe and Unhealthy


Work Environment

Injury and Disease

Back injuries are most


prevalent

Exposure to Chemicals

Undetected effects,
possible long-term risk

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Mental Health

Psychological symptoms
can affect productivity
and life away from work

Deaths and Violence

Economic Costs

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Workplace Safety and Health in an Integrated HRM System

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The External Environment

Global Consideration

There are substantial differences in national standards regarding


workplace safety and health.

Global Organizations

International Labour Organization (ILO)

World Health Organization (WHO)

Strengthen international and national policies.

Develop practices for improving health at work.

Promote health at work through technical assistance/support.

Develop human resources for the field of occupational health.

Establish relevant and useful registration and data systems.

Raise public awareness.

Strengthen research on occupational health.

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Workplace Safety and Health Hazards

Occupational

Accidents

Organizational

Qualities

Factors

most affecting workplace


accidents:
Working
Tools

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conditions and times

and technology available to do the job

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Individual Qualities: The


Unsafe Employee

Characteristics that make people more


susceptible to accidents:

Emotionally low

Stressed

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Violent Employees

Homicide is
leading cause of
workplace deaths
after highway
accidents

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Signs of potential
violence:

Verbal threats

Physical Actions

Intimidation

Show weapons

Try to gain
access

Frustration

mania
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Occupational Diseases

Disease-Causing Hazards:

Arsenic, asbestos, benzene, bichloromethylether

Coal dust, coke-oven emissions, cotton dust

Lead, radiation, vinyl chloride

Workers most likely to be exposed:

Chemical and oil refinery workers, miners, textile workers

Steelworkers, lead smelters

Medical technicians, painters, shoemakers, plastics industry


workers

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Diseases Linked to Workplace


Hazards

Cancer

Liver, lung, brain, kidney

Lung Disease

White, brown, and black lung

Leukemia

Bronchitis, emphysema

Lymphoma, aplastic anemia

Central nervous system damage

Reproductive Disorders

Skin Diseases

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Accident Prevention

Design a safe work environment

Guards, handrails

Safety goggles, helmets

Warning lights

Self-correcting mechanisms

Automatic shutoffs

Ergonomics

Change job environment to match


capabilities limitations of employees

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Accident Prevention (contd)

Health and Safety Committees

At the department level, do implementation and


administration

At the organization level, formulate policies

Behavior Modification

Small percentage of workforce responsible for majority of


health insurance claims

Measure, communicate, monitor, and reinforce desired


behavior

Assessing Intervention Effectiveness

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Disease Prevention

Reducing the Incidence of Diseases

Record keeping

Monitoring exposure

Genetic screening

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Occupational Safety and


Health Act (OSHA) of 1970

Mission of OSHA

To assure the safety and health of Americas workers by setting and enforcing
standards

providing training and education

establishing partnerships with businesses

encouraging continual improvements in workplace safety and health

Coverage of employeesall nongovernmental employers and employees; state


and local government employees

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Provisions of OSHA

OSHA Standards

Apply to general industry, maritime, construction, and


agriculture

Cover the workplace, machinery and equipment, material,


power sources, processing, protective clothing, first aid, and
administrative requirements.

Enforcement of the Act

The Secretary of Labor is authorized by the Act to conduct


workplace inspections, to issue citations, and to impose
penalties on employers.

Inspections are conducted by the Occupational Safety and


Health Administration of the Department of Labor.

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Creating a Safe Work


Environment
Safety Motivation
and Knowledge

Safety Awareness
Programs

Elements in Creating a Safe


Work Environment
Enforcement of
Safety Rules

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Accident
Investigations
and Records

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Creating a Safe Work


Environment (contd)

Promoting Safety Awareness

The Key Role of the Supervisor

Communicating

Proactive Safety Training Program

the need to work safely.

First aid, defensive driving, accident prevention techniques, hazardous


materials, and emergency procedures.

Information Technology and Safety Awareness and Training

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Creating a Safe Work


Environment (contd)

Typical Safety Rules

Using proper safety devices

Using proper work procedures

Following good housekeeping practices

Complying with accident- and injury-reporting procedures

Wearing required safety clothing and equipment

Avoiding carelessness and horseplay

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Creating a Healthy Work


Environment

Recognizing and Controlling Health Hazards Related to


Hazardous Materials and Processes

Use substitutes for hazardous materials.

Alter hazardous processes and engineering controls.

Enclose or isolate hazardous processes.

Issue clothing to protect against hazards.

Improve ventilation.

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Key Elements for a Successful Ergonomics Program

Provide notice and training for employees.


Conduct pre-injury hazard assessment.
Involve employees.
File injury reports.
Plan and execute.
Evaluate and assess the ergonomics program.

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Workplace Violence

Reducing Violence in the Workplace

Commitment to prevent violence

Identify areas of potential violence

Develop violence prevention policies

Provide violence prevention training

Evaluate program effectiveness

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Building Better Health


Alternative
Approaches

Health Services

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Wellness Programs

Focus on Nutrition

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Employee Health

Cleanliness ( sewerage and sanitation)

Air ventilation and temperature (maximum 25 30 degree Celsius)


Cross

ventilation, required no of fans and exhaust fans

Thermometer

kept in visible place

Dust Sucker, Mask

Lighting

Safe drinking water


Minimum
Min

6 mtr away from toilets

Water
3

4 ltr per day

cooler ( 250 employees and more)

ltr saline water if needed

Toilets
one / 25 (female) up to first 500
one / 40 (male) up to first 500

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Employee Safety

Safety of building equipment and other infrastructure

Fire fighting and safety ( emergency door, 2 per room, emergency


staircase)

Fire fighting equipment

Safety against electrical wearing and connections

Crane and lift etc

Turbine

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SUMMARY

It is a requirement of the Factories and Machinery Act and the


Occupational Safety and Health Act that employers take
appropriate steps to ensure the safety and health of their
employees.

Accidents at work in Malaysia are gradually declining but are still


too high compared to international standards.

Workplace accidents lead to increased organizational cost ,lowered


output, lowered morale of employees and negative publicly.

Sexual harassment at the workplace can be eradicated if proper


mechanism are introduced.

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