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Chartwork and Position Fixing

Position Fixing
Methods

Position 1
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Outline

Simple fix
Position lines
compass bearing
transits
uses of position lines

Position fix
Visual fix accuracy
GPS
Other methods

Position 2
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Simple fix

Simple fix
close to you
fixed & clearly identifiable
shown on chart

Ensure object is correct one


Detour for simple fix often better than
fix by other means
Is GPS position a simple fix?

No - a lat/long is not clearly identifiable


Position 3
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Position lines

Lines that can be identified


Tower bears 090T
at sea and on a chart
Types
compass bearing
transits

ire
Sp

be

0
06
s
ar

Beacon in line with


headland

Be
a

Tower in line RH of church

co
n

be

ars

32

Beacon in line with spire

Position 4
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

0T

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Transits

Two identifiable objects in line with each other

Position 5
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

taken from a chart to use at sea


recorded at sea for later use
obtained from books or divers with local knowledge
can be very accurate 0.5
not visible at distance, at night, in fog or in mist

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Choosing transits

Fast

objects wide apart


near mark close to observer
easy to see if lined up
sensitive to sideways
movement

Suitable landmarks
easily identified
long lasting
fixed to the spot
headlands
conspicuous buildings
easily identifiable rocks etc

avoid vegetation, buoys and


tide dependent marks
Position 6
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Recording transits

Conspicuous
Permanent
Precise
Well-recorded

Position 7
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

sketch
bearing
context
narrative

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Uses of position lines

Clearing line

Ballintoy Pt
Bengore Hd
Sheep I

Leading line

Fix
an intersection of 2 or more position lines
Position 8
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Fix

Intersection of 2 or more
position lines defines a point
bearings
transits
a mixture of transits and
bearings

Exercise: Mystery Point


Lat ....................
Long ...................
Position 9
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Visual fix accuracy

Errors
all position lines have errors
error effect increases with
distance
area of uncertainty

Error in metres

Improving fix accuracy


position lines at right angles
use transits if possible
extra position lines show area of
uncertainty
boat movement during fix

What accuracy needed?

Position 10
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

clearing lines
intermediate points
ease of navigation

cocked hat

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

GPS

Global Positioning System


receiver determines position
using signal from 4+ satellites
augmentation systems
EGNOS/WAAS
GPS set displays lat/long
calculates distance/bearing to any
other lat/long

24/7 all-weather availability


Accurate and easy to use
Accuracy
15m and 3-5m with EGNOS
= good transits at 1nm and 400m

Also easy to misuse!

Position 11
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

GPS limitations

Lat/long is just a number.....


Geodetic datum
Earth not an exact sphere
different chart makers use different
models
significant differences

Limitations

Position 12
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

must use correct datum


garbage in garbage out
large errors if satellites obscured
relies on accurate chart
can become inoperable
electrical faults
damage, theft
military operations

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Other methods

Depth soundings
checks other fix if deeper or shallower
water nearby
get-me-home in fog
crude position line where depth
changes sharply
apply tidal height and transducer offset
if depth variation is small

Radar
range and bearing of land
height of aerial problem for small boats

Position 13
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010

Chartwork
Chartworkand
and
Position
Fixing
Position Fixing

Summary

Simple fix
Position lines
compass bearing
transits
uses of position lines

Position fix
Visual fix accuracy
GPS
Other methods

Position 14
CPF09 v1.4
Copyright BSAC 2010