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SOCIOLOGICAL

ASPECTS IN
HOURING
DESING
JANARDHAN
MALAKAPALLI
Architect & Urban Planner

What Are Families?


A group of individuals who live together
and cooperate as a unit.
Families possess a genuine love for family
which not simply parents and children but
also relatives and grandparents.

What is SOCIETY ?
A group of families organized and working
together for a common goal, interest and
beliefs is called society.
As the people who interact in such a way
as to share a common culture.
The term society can also have a
geographical meaning and refer to people
who share a common culture in a
particular location.

Family in relation to society?


Families are the foundation in society.
The life and reputation of every society depends
on the behaviour or actions of its families.
When families breakdown and fail to provide the
healthy nurturing we need, the effects impact
not only our own lives but also in our
communities.
We suffer the consequences. The goals of
society may not be achieved if the family fails in
achieving its goals.

What is CULTURE?
Culture is that complex whole which
includes knowledge, belief, art, morals,
laws and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society.
Culture is everything that people have(material possessions), think (values and
attitudes), do (behaviour patterns) as
member of a society.

Family in relation to culture?


The family acts as an instrument by which
culture is kept alive.
Through the family, the beliefs, customs
and traditions of the older generation are
passed on to the next generation.

Social and Cultural changes


in the family
In the past few decades, the world has seen
major changes in the face of the family.
Continuous and constant changes with the
time has resulted to what sociologist call
socio-cultural changes.
Such changes have caused conflicts in the
family,
resulting
to
problems
like
separation, juvenile delinquency, early
marriage and drug addiction.

The declining authority of the


male
Before, the absolute control was exercised by
the head of the family, the father.
Now, the father and mother share equal
authority and responsibility.
The sophisticated division of labour while the
traditional role of the wife is take charge of the
domestic affairs of the home and the early
education of the children, she has now
become an accepted partner in earning the
family income.

Migration to urban areas and


the frontier areas
There is now a high degree of mobility of
the population as compared to the
traditional way of life.
Better communication, improvement on
the means of transportation and mass
education has attracted people to strike
out for a new places.

Forms of MARRIAGES
MONOGAMY- one man marries only one
woman at a given time.
POLYGAMY- one person marries two or more
persons of the opposite sex at a given time.
Two forms:
POLYGYNY- marriage of a man to two or more
women at a given time in which there is no
marriage bond between the wives.
POLYANDRY- the woman is legally married to
two or more men at the same time.

Classification of families
Simple or Nuclear Conjugal family- a
family composed of composed of husband
and wife husband, wife and their children.
Extended Family Families that include
relatives other than parents and children.
Extended Is made up of nuclear or singleparent families plus other relatives such as
grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins.

Regional Characteristics in
India.

Every region in India has its own characteristics


and traditions, like the palm-leaf houses in the
south are nothing similar to the stone houses of
the Himalayas or the houseboats of Kashmir.
Every state has its own identity which is respected
by people in India and also the world. Family life is
equally varied in Indian states.
India is a country with many states in which people
from different cultures, religions, castes, etc., live.
The
language,
clothing,
customs,
and
traditions of people are influenced by the
respective
regions
they
reside
in.

Family Structure

Most of the families in India are extended ones,


wherein, every member has his/her own role,
often influenced by age and gender.
Children are cherished and considered to be gifts
from God.
The family structure in India is typical, wherein,
there are many wedding customs which have to
be strongly followed by everyone.
Religion, caste, traditional practices, and
regional
differences
influence
family
structures. Indians are more emotionally
attached to the members of their family.

Social stratification

Social stratification refers to a societys


categorization of its people into rankings of
socioeconomic tiers based on factors like
wealth, income, race, education, and power.
Societys layers are made of people, and
societys resources are distributed unevenly
throughout the layers.
The people who have more resources
represent the top layer of the social structure
of stratification. Other groups of people, with
progressively fewer and fewer resources,
represent the lower layers of society.

Inequalities between
induviduals

sociologists recognize that social stratification is a


society-wide system that makes inequalities apparent.
While there are always inequalities between
individuals, sociologists are interested in larger social
patterns.
Stratification is not about individual inequalities, but
about systematic inequalities based on group
membership, classes, and the like.
No individual, rich or poor, can be blamed for social
inequalities. A persons social standing is affected by
the structure of society.
Although individuals may support or fight inequalities,
social stratification is created and supported by society
as a whole.

Systems of Stratification
Caste system
Class system
Meritocracy
Status Consistency
A caste system is one in which people are born
into their social standing and will remain in it
their whole lives. People are assigned
occupations regardless of their talents,
interests, or potential. There are virtually no
opportunities to improve ones social position.

A class consists of a set of people who


share similar status with regard to factors
like wealth, income, education, and
occupation. Unlike caste systems, class
systems are open. People are free to gain
a different level of education or
employment than their parents. They can
also socialize with and marry members of
other classes, allowing people to move
from one class to another.

Meritocracy is another system of social


stratification in which personal effortor
meritdetermines social standing. High
levels of effort will lead to a high social
position, and vice versa. The concept of
meritocracy is an idealthat is, a society
has never existed where social rank was
based purely on merit.