Measurement System Analysis

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Measurement System Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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A. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

B. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS

C. TERMINOLOGY

D. MEASUREMENT ERROR

E. ACCURACY, LINEARITY AND STABILITY

F. REPEATABILITY & REPRODUCIBILITY (R & R)

G. ATTRIBUTE GAGE STUDY

H. ATTRIBUTE BREAKOUT EXERCISE (TEAM)

I. VARIABLE GAGE STUDY

J. ACCEPTABILITY CRITERIA

K. VARIABLE GAGE R & R EXERCISE

L. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM STUDY GUIDELINES

M. APPLICATION EXAMPLE

N. VARIABLE BREAKOUT EXERCISE (TEAM)

12-1

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this chapter are as follows.

To explain different terminology used in measurement systems analysis.

To identify, evaluate, and control the primary sources of measurement errors.

To learn how to perform Gage Linearity and Accuracy Studies.

To learn how to perform Gage Reproducibility & Repeatability Studies (Gage

R & R).

To analyze and interpret Gage R & R results using Minitab.

To identify acceptability criteria in evaluating measurement systems.

To point out guidelines in the conduct of measurement system studies.

12-2

MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing uses many types of measuring systems to

make decisions about a product or processs acceptability.

Leviton uses variable measuring instruments such as

micrometers, calipers and optical comparators.

Attribute visual inspection (pass, fail) is another critical

aspect of our measurement system.

12-3

MANUFACTURING

The question is, How exact is our measurement system?

When an appraiser/operator does not measure a part

consistently, the expense to Leviton can be very great.

Satisfactory parts are rejected.

Unsatisfactory parts are accepted.

12-4

SERVICE

Service processes have the same measurement system

issues.

Consider this example:

A function receives an input (electronic paper, verbal,

etc.), interprets the input data, assigns a value to the

information and inputs the value into our system.

We make business decisions based on the assumption

that the data in the system is correct.

Therefore, we must verify that the information entered into

the system is correct.

The system is only as good as the data that goes into it.

12-5

SERVICE

Organizations frequently overlook the impact of not having

a quality measurement system.

In most cases, they do not even consider that their

measurements might not be exact.

Such assumptions and inadequate considerations lead to

questionable analysis and conclusions.

12-6

TERMINOLOGY

Accuracy (Bias) difference between the observed average of

measurements and the reference value.

Linearity difference in the bias values through the expected

operating range of the measuring instrument.

Repeatability is the variability resulting from successive trials

under defined conditions of measurement. The best term for

repeatability is within system variability where the conditions of

measurement are fixed (fixed part, instrument, method, operator,

etc.).

Reproducibility is the variation in the average of

measurements caused by normal conditions) of change in the

measurement process.

Stability (or drift) total variation in the measurement obtained

with a measurement system on the same master or parts when

measuring a single characteristic over an extended time period.

12-7

MEASUREMENT ERROR

Averages

Averages

Measurement

System Bias

Determined through

Accuracy Study

Variability

Variability

Measurement System

Variability

Determined through

R&R Study

It is enough to have product or process variability at undesirable level, but it should

not be compounded by adding in measurement inaccuracy and variation termed as

Measurement Error.

12-8

SOURCES OF VARIABILITY

Measurements

Materials

Mech Integrity

Wear

Elec Instability

Humidity

Cleanliness

Vibration

Voltage Variation

Temp Fluctuations

Environment

Men

Cleanliness

Temperature

Dimension

Weight

Corrosion

Hardness

Conductivity

Density

Procedure

Fatigue

Attention

Calibration Error

Interpretation

Speed

Coordination

Knowledge

Dexterity

Vision

Cleanliness

Temperature

Training

Design

Frequency

Precision

Maintenance Standard

Calibration

Sufficient Work Time

Resolution

Standard Procedure

Stability

Operator Techniques

Wear

Ease of Use

Methods

Variation in

Measurement System

Machines

identify and quantify the source.

As indicated above, variation can be attributed to 6 specific

12-9

factors.

Measurement error can be classified into two categories:

the parts actual value. There are three components of Accuracy:

ACCURACY

LINEARITY

STABILITY

Precision describes the variation you see when you measure the

same parts repeatedly with the same device. There are two

components of Precision:

REPEATABILITY

REPRODUCIBILITY

12-10

ACCURACY

VS.

PRECISION

12-11

WHICH AFFECT LOCATION

Accuracy

Linearity

Stability

Shown here are the three categories of measurement error which affect location.

These categories are evaluated by taking multiple, repeated measurements on

parts and comparing it to a master or standard parts.

12-12

ACCURACY

Accuracy is calculated by taking multiple measurements on a part

and calculating the difference between the observed average and

the reference value.

Reference

Value

How accurate is my measuring instrument when compared

to a master value ?

12-13

LINEARITY

Good Linearity

Bad Linearity

RegressionPlot

55

55

45

45

35

35

Y=0.934227+0.994959X

R-Squared=0.981

25

Trials

Trials

instrument through the expected operating range of the gage.

15

15

5

10

20

30

40

50

Standard

NOTE: THIS CHART INDICATES GOOD LINEARITY

DUE TO VARIATION BEING CONSTANT THROUGH

THE OPERATING RANGE OF THE GAGE.

Y=0.245295+0.99505X

R-Squared=0.982

25

10

20

30

40

50

Standard

NOTE: THIS CHART INDICATES BAD LINEARITY

DUE TO INCREASING VARIATION AT THE HIGHER

END OF THE OPERATING RANGE OF THE GAGE.

12-14

Does my measuring instrument have the same accuracy for all sizes of objects being measured?

STABILITY (DRIFT)

Stability is determined by measuring a single characteristic on the

same master part(s) over an extended time period. These are

monitored and evaluated using graphical output such as a control

charts (Control Phase).

Time-2

Magnitude

Time-1

Stability

time

12-15 ?

ACCURACY STUDY

EXAMPLE

Five items are selected that represent the expected range of the

measurements. Each part was measured by layout inspection to

determine its reference value. Then, one operator randomly

measured each part twelve times in random sequence.

Data was stored in GAGELIN.mtw file in GBData directory.

Perform Gage Linearity Study using Minitab and interpret

results.

12-16

LINEARITY EXERCISE

Perform the following Steps:

Open the file GAGELIN.mtw under GBData folder.

1.

Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Gage Study > Gage Linearity and Bias Study

2.

3.

4.

In Reference values:, select C2 Master

In Measurement data:, select C3 Response

5.

In Process Variation, type 14.1941 (Required only for the gage accuracy part of the

study.

6. Click OK.

*14.1941 is a value associated with a certain process variation which is being

used only for illustration purposes. We will learn more about it during the

Variable Gage R & R discussions later in the chapter.

12-17

MINITAB OUTPUT (GAGELIN.mtw)

Gage Linearity and Bias Study for Response

Reported by:

Tolerance:

Misc:

Gage name:

Date of study:

Predictor

Constant

Slope

Regression

95% CI

1.0

Data

Avg Bias

S

Linearity

0.23954

1.86889

Bias

0.5

0.0

Reference

Average

2

4

6

8

10

Gage Linearity

Coef

SECoef

0.73667

0.07252

-0.13167

0.01093

R-Sq

%Linearity

Gage Bias

Bias

%Bias

-0.053333

0.4

0.491667

3.5

0.125000

0.9

0.025000

0.2

-0.291667

2.1

-0.616667

4.3

P

0.000

0.000

71.4%

13.2

P

0.040

0.000

0.293

0.688

0.000

0.000

-0.5

-1.0

2

6

Reference Value

10

Percent

10

5

0

Linearity

Bias

10% linearity or less is acceptable (the closer the slope is to zero, the better the gage linearity).

Less than 1% (%Bias), is acceptable. If bias is greater than 1%, consider calibrating or

changing the gage.

12-18

WHICH AFFECT THE SPREAD

Repeatability

Reproducibility

the Spread :

Repeatability and Reproducibility.

12-19

Repeatability and Reproducibility are important contributors to

measurement error affecting the spread of the distribution.

However, each one focuses on different specific factors.

Observed Process Variation

Measurement Variation

Long-term

Short-term

Variation

Variation due

Variation due

Process Variation

Process Variation

w/i sample

to gage

to operators

Repeatability

Accuracy

Stability

Linearity

Reproducibility

primary contributors to measurement error.

12-20

REPEATABILITY OF THE

MEASUREMENT PROCESS

Implies that the measurement process variability is

consistent.

It is the variation in the measurements obtained with one

measuring instrument when one operator uses the same

instrument for measuring identical characteristics on the

same parts.

12-21

REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

Implies that variability among the operators is consistent.

It is the variation in the average of the measurements

made by different operators using the same measuring

instrument when measuring identical characteristics of the

same parts.

Operator-B

Operator-C

Operator-A

Reproducibility

12-22

NO-GO

GO

known set of limits or attributes.

which a part is good or bad.

12-23

The Morganton Six Sigma Team is working to improve the final inspection of the Catalog

5601 Decora Rocker Switch. The Critical to Quality characteristic measured during

inspection is the aesthetic condition, or appearance of the switch. Before the switches are

packed out, line inspectors perform a visual inspection for defects, the result of which is a

Go/No-go response. One such defect is spots on the rocker - a switch with small black

spots. The inspection methodology is highly subjective and an Attribute Gage Study is

required to evaluate the measurement system - are the line inspectors accurately and

consistently identifying bad parts and at the same time not rejecting good parts?

20 switches - some with spots, without spots, questionable spots - have been selected.

The rocker samples are numbered and the individual appearance, or attribute of each

sample is noted and recorded in Minitab in the ATTRIBUTE column. This is the attribute by

which inspection response will be measured; how consistently sample sets are evaluated

against a known standard. Because the inspection response is Go/No-go, samples are

rated either Good (G) or Bad (B). Note: Samples with questionable spots are considered

Good.

The 20 samples were displayed in random order. Three line inspectors participated in the

study. Each inspector examined each sample twice (2 separate trials). The sample

numbers were not visible and sample order was randomized after each inspection/trial.

12-24

12-25

Attribute column - known good/bad

parts (G/B) predetermined by team

Inspectors column - identifies line

inspectors one, two and three

Sample column - identifies samples

evaluated

Rating column - inspection

response (G/B)

Note: This data is stacked - all data

points relating to the column heading

are contained in that column.

Project team members marked down responses and (G/B) and recorded

data in Minitab. Two separate trials were run.

12-26

Perform the following steps:

1. Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Attribute Agreement Analysis

2. In Attribute column:, select C3 Rating.

3. In Samples:, select C2 Sample.

4. In Appraisers:, select C1 Inspector.

Note: Minitab defaults to single column data. Select multiple

columns to utilize unstacked data.

5. In Known standard/attribute, select C4 Attribute. Attribute type

can be numeric or text, but must match Response type.

6. Click OK

12-27

Within Appraisers

Assessment Agreement

will look at sections on following slides

95 % CI

1

20

20 100.00 (86.09, 100.00)

2

20

17 85.00 (62.11, 96.79)

3

20

18 90.00 (68.30, 98.77)

Individual Response

CONSISTENCY

Each Appraiser vs Standard

Assessment Agreement

Appraiser # Inspected # Matched Percent

95 % CI

1

20

20 100.00 (86.09, 100.00)

2

20

16 80.00 (56.34, 94.27)

3

20

16 80.00 (56.34, 94.27)

Individual Response

ACCURACY

# Matched: Appraiser's assessment across trials agrees with the known standard.

Assessment Disagreement

Appraiser # G / B Percent # B / G Percent # Mixed Percent

1

0 0.00

0 0.00

0 0.00

2

1 9.09

0 0.00

3 15.00

3

2 18.18

0 0.00

2 10.00

# G / B: Assessments across trials = G / standard = B.

# B / G: Assessments across trials = B / standard = G.

# Mixed: Assessments across trials are not identical.

Between Appraisers

Assessment Agreement

# Inspected # Matched Percent

95 % CI

20

15 75.00 (50.90, 91.34)

Collective Response

CONSISTENCY

All Appraisers vs Standard

Assessment Agreement

# Inspected # Matched Percent

95 % CI

20

15 75.00 (50.90, 91.34)

# Matched: All appraisers' assessments agree with the known standard.

Collective Response

ACCURACY

12-28

MINITAB OUTPUTS

When performing an Attribute study,

Minitab produces 4 outputs:

1. Assessment Within Appraiser

2. Assessment of Each Appraiser vs.

Standard

3. Assessment Between Appraisers

4. Assessment of All Appraisers vs.

Standard

Each output displays a unique

characteristic of the measurement

system.

12-29

MINITAB OUTPUTS

Within Appraisers

Assessment Agreement

Appraiser # Inspected # Matched Percent

95 % CI

1

20

20 100.00 (86.09, 100.00)

2

20

17 85.00 (62.11, 96.79)

3

20

18 90.00 (68.30, 98.77)

# Matched: Appraiser agrees with him/herself across trials.

sample set per inspector - how consistently inspectors are

able to repeat their own measurements.

Note: These values do not reflect ACCURACY.

12-30

MINITAB OUTPUTS

Assessment Agreement

Appraiser

1

2

3

# Inspected

20

20

20

# Matched

20

16

16

Percent

100.00

80.00

80.00

95 % CI

(86.09, 100.00)

(56.34, 94.27)

(56.34, 94.27)

known standard.

Assessment Disagreement

Appraiser # G / B Percent

1

0

0.00

2

1

9.09

3

2

18.18

# B / G

0

0

0

Percent

0.00

0.00

0.00

# Mixed

0

3

2

Percent

0.00

15.00

10.00

# B / G: Assessments across trials = B / standard = G.

# Mixed: Assessments across trials are not identical.

sample attribute - how consistent inspector responses are vs. the

known standard. These values measure response ACCURACY to the

attribute.

12-31

MINITAB OUTPUTS

Between Appraisers

Assessment Agreement

# Inspected # Matched

20

15

Percent

75.00

95 % CI

(50.90, 91.34)

All Appraisers vs Standard

Assessment Agreement

# Inspected # Matched

20

15

Percent

75.00

95 % CI

(50.90, 91.34)

standard.

among all appraisers.

All Appraisers vs Standard - Calculates the proportion of all inspector

responses matching the known sample attribute. This value should be at

least 95%.

12-32

Date of study:

Reported by:

Name of product:

Misc:

Assessment Agreement

Within Appraisers

100

Appraiser vs Standard

100

95.0%CI

Percent

90

Percent

Percent

90

95.0%CI

Percent

80

80

70

70

60

60

1

2

Appraiser

2

Appraiser

all trials. This graph will be displayed only when there are multiple trials.

Appraiser vs. Standard displays the matched proportion of appraiser

responses vs. the known standard (response accuracy). This graph will be

displayed only when the attribute is known and entered in Minitab.12-33

IMPROVEMENTS

Due to the results of the initial Attribute study, the Morganton team

implemented the following changes to the measurement system:

To improve consistency and accuracy among inspectors, a sample

board of Go/No-go switches was created. The samples are used as a

reference during inspection, reducing inspector subjectivity.

Inspectors received additional training based on the sample board

criteria.

After improvements, a second study was conducted, with All Appraiser vs.

Standard and Between Appraisers scores improving from 75% to 90%.

12-34

12-35

BREAKOUT EXERCISE (TEAM)

This will be a team exercise. Instructors will distribute bags of

Peanut M&M candies to each team. Data will be entered in

Peanut.mtw file located in GBData.

Materials Needed for the Exercise

One bag of Peanut M&M candies (per team)

Ummda good

stuff!

12-36

BREAKOUT

EXERCISE

TASK 1

1. Each Team will designate (1) Master Appraiser, (1) Recorder and (3) Inspectors. If the size of

the team is less than 5, the Master Appraiser and the Recorder can be the same person, or

use only two Appraisers.

2. The Master Appraiser will take out (20) M&M candies and line them up as samples 1-20.

3. Based on a general visual criteria (do not touch/handle samples), the Master Appraiser will

determine which M&Ms are good/bad and record observations in the Attribute Column (C3) of

the Peanut.mtw file located in GBData.

Important: The Master Appraisers criteria will not be discussed with Inspectors.

4. Inspectors will take turns visually inspecting the Peanut M&M candies to determine if the

samples are good/bad and call out responses to Recorder (enter responses in Rating columns

(C4, C5 & C6) of Peanut.mtw file. Important: Inspectors should not discuss individual

responses with one another - all determinations are to remain independent.

TASK 2

1. Upon completion of first trial, Master Appraiser and Inspectors will determine the criteria for

defects prior to conducting a second trial.

2. Run the second trail in the manner described above.

3. Analyze/compare the data and be prepared to discuss the results of Tasks 1 and 2.

12-37

This exercise will be using unstacked data - the previous

Attribute example utilized stacked data.

Perform the following steps:

Agreement Analysis

2. Click on Multiple columns

3. Click inside dialogue box and select columns C4, C5,

and C6.

4. Enter number of appraisers (3) and number of trials (1).

5. Enter C3 (Attribute) for Known standard/attribute.

6. Click OK.

Repeat steps for Task 2 using appropriate data columns.

12-38

Rivet

Buckling Height

Measure Here

Variables are elements subject to variation.

A Variable Gage measures the degree to which a part varies in relation

to a certain specification.

It is represented by a quantifiable scale of measure or data.

Variable Gage studies are better than Attribute Gage studies because it offers more

information on the actual behavior of the process being studied.

12-39

The Gage R&R study function in Minitab software will enable you to analyze and interpret these data.

This is a sample of Minitabs data window with measurement data to include part

numbers, operators and actual parts measurements.

You can perform two methods in Minitab to estimate repeatability and reproducibility,

the ANOVA or the Xbar and R Chart method. ANOVA, the more powerful method, is a

statistical technique that is used to estimate and analyze the variance, whereas the

Xbar and R chart is a graphical method known as the Control Chart method.

12-40

EVALUATING

REPEATABILITY AND REPRODUCIBILITY

WITH ANOVA

Components of Measurement System Variation

Operator

Repeatability

Operator by Part

Reproducibility

measurement system study than the Xbar and R Chart method.

Our discussion will focus on the ANOVA method (use Minitab Help menu and manual

if you are interested in learning the Xbar and R Method).

12-41

ANOVA / Variance Component Analysis

op

2

r

Part

Repeatability

Measurement

Operator

Operator by part

interaction

Variance is defined as the square of the standard deviation.

ANOVA is a standard statistical technique which attempts to analyze the variation

between measurement observations and then identify the important contributing

factors.

When doing a Gage R&R, ANOVA breaks down the measurement system

variation into Reproducibility and Repeatability.

12-42

The ANOVA method partitions the total variance in the measurements into

different components. For a traditional Gage R&R study, the variation is

broken down into four categories of components:

Operator - By looking at the operator component, it allows quantifying the

variation observed between different operators who are measuring the same set

of parts.

Part-to-Part - For the part component, this allows quantifying the variation

observed for characteristic measured on different parts, regardless of the

operator.

Operator by Part - The Operator by Part component explores the interaction

between each operator and part. This allows quantifying the variation between

average part measurements for each operator, which accounts for different

situations where, for example, one operator may obtain more variation when

measuring smaller parts rather than larger parts, or vice versa.

Repeatability - quantifies the variation due to the instrument itself and the

position of the parts in the instrument.

12-43

In these exercises, we will do a Gage R&R study on two data sets:

One in which measurement system variation contributes little to the

overall observed variation (GAGEAIAG.mtw), and one in which

measurement system variation contributes a lot to the overall observed

variation (GAGE2.mtw). Analyze and interpret data using the ANOVA

method. The first one we will do as a group and the second one will be

an individual exercise.

For the GAGEAIAG data set, ten parts were selected that represent the

expected range of the process variation. Three operators measured the

ten parts, two times per part, in a random order.

Open the Minitab file GAGEAIAG.mtw in GBdata. Perform the exercise

with the instructor.

12-44

(ANOVA METHOD)

MINITAB APPLICATION

ANOVA method with GAGEAIAG.mtw data

Perform the following Steps:

1. Choose Stat > Quality Tools >

Gage Study > Gage R&R Study (Crossed).

2. In Part numbers:, select C1 Part

3. In Operators:, select C2 Operator

4. In Measurement data:, Select C3 Response

5. In Method of Analysis, click ANOVA.

6. Click OK.

12-45

MINITAB SESSION WINDOW OUTPUT

Gage R&R Study - ANOVA Method

F

39.7178

4.1672

4.4588

P

0.000

0.033

0.000

GRAPHICAL OUTPUT

ANOVA

TABLE

Components of Variation

100

Gage R&R

Study Var

(6 * SD)

0.39969

0.21564

0.33653

0.18120

0.28358

1.15668

1.22379

0.50

Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

% Contribution

Variance

Component

UCL=0.1252

0.05

_

R=0.0383

0.00

LCL=0

0.50

% Study

Variance

Discrimination Index

10

0.50

1

2

Operator

1.00

0.75

0.75

1

5

6

Part

1.00

_UCL=0.8796

_

X=0.8075

LCL=0.7354

Operator

1

2

3

1.00

0.75

0.50

1

%Study Var

(%SV)

32.66

17.62

27.50

14.81

23.17

94.52

100.00

Response by Operator

0.10

A verage

StdDev (SD)

0.066615

0.035940

0.056088

0.030200

0.047263

0.192781

0.203965

0.75

1

Sample Range

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Operator*Part

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

1.00

R Chart by Operator

Sample Mean

VarComp

0.0044375

0.0012917

0.0031458

0.0009120

0.0022338

0.0371644

0.0416019

Response by Part

% Contribution

%StudyVar

50

%Contribution

(of VarComp)

10.67

3.10

7.56

2.19

5.37

89.33

100.00

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Operator*Part

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

Reported by:

Tolerance:

Misc:

Gage name:

Date of study:

Percent

Source

DF

SS

MS

Part

9 2.05871 0.228745

Operator

2 0.04800 0.024000

Part * Operator 18 0.10367 0.005759

Repeatability

30 0.03875 0.001292

Total

59 2.24913

5

6

Part

output in detail...

12-46

10

ANOVA TABLE

Source

DF

SS

MS

Part

9 2.05871 0.228745

Operator

2 0.04800 0.024000

Part * Operator 18 0.10367 0.005759

Repeatability

30 0.03875 0.001292

Total

59 2.24913

F

39.7178

4.1672

4.4588

P

0.000

0.033

0.000

The ANOVA Table displays the analysis of variance output for the fitted effects;DF

(Degrees of Freedom), SS (Sum of Squares), MS (Mean Square), F-ratio and P (P-Value).

The P column values is where we need to focus our attention.

A p-value less than 0.05 indicates that the sources of variation can be considered

statistically significant (i.e., active, influential). However, interactions can fool you. If an

interaction is significant (Operator*Part), the two individual participants (Part and/or

Operator) involved should also be considered statistically significant.

In this example, all components are statistically significant.

Decision to reject or accept the measurement system should not be made at this point

without evaluating the rest of the ANOVA outputs.

12-47

% CONTRIBUTION TABLE

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Operator*Part

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

VarComp

0.0044375

0.0012917

0.0031458

0.0009120

0.0022338

0.0371644

0.0416019

%Contribution

(of VarComp)

10.67

3.10

7.56

2.19

5.37

89.33

100.00

VarComp (or Variance) column the variance component contributed by each source.

% Contribution - the percent contribution to the overall variation made by each variance

component. Each variance component divided by the total variation, then multiplied by 100.

The percentages in this column add to 100.

Shown in the table under % Contribution, the percent contribution from Part-To-Part

(89.33%) is larger than that of the Total Gage R&R (10.67%). This tells you that most of the

variation is due to differences between parts, very little is due to measurement system error.

12-48

& % Study Variance

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Operator*Part

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

StdDev (SD)

0.066615

0.035940

0.056088

0.030200

0.047263

0.192781

0.203965

Study Var

(6 * SD)

0.39969

0.21564

0.33653

0.18120

0.28358

1.15668

1.22379

%Study Var

(%SV)

32.66

17.62

27.50

14.81

23.17

94.52

100.00

Study Var (5.15*Sigma column) the standard deviation multiplied by 5.15. You can change the

multiple from 5.15 to some other number. The default is 5.15 sigma, because 5.15 is the number of

standard deviations to capture 99 % of your process measurements. The last entry in the

5.15*Sigma column is 5.15*Total. This number is usually referred to as the study variation and

estimates the width of the interval you need to capture 99% of your process measurements.

% Study Var - the percent of the study variation for each component (the standard deviation for each

component divided by the total standard deviation). These percentages do not add to 100.

12-49

It is the number of distinct categories within the process data that the measurement

system can discern.

When you measure 10 different parts, and Minitab reports that your measurement

system could discern 4 distinct categories, this means that some of the 10 parts are not

different enough to be discerned as being different by your measurement system.

If you want to distinguish a higher number of distinct categories, you need a more precise

gage (i.e. it is difficult to measure a part using a 3 ft. wooden ruler which is scaled

(.016), if you want to measure .001 dimension).

Rule of Thumb

Number of categories is less than 2, the measurement system is of no value for

controlling the process, since one part cannot be distinguished from another

When the number of categories is 2, the data can be divided into two groups, say

high and low.

When the number of categories is 3, the data can be divided into 3 groups, say low,

middle and high.

A value of 4 or more denotes an acceptable measurement system.

12-50

Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response

Reported by:

Tolerance:

Misc:

Gage name:

Date of study:

Components of Variation

Percent

100

Response by Part

% Contribution

%StudyVar

1.00

0.75

50

0.50

0

Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

R Chart by Operator

Sample Range

UCL=0.1252

0.10

_

R=0.0383

0.00

10

2

Operator

_

_UCL=0.8796

X=0.8075

LCL=0.7354

Operator

1

2

3

1.00

A verage

Sample Mean

0.50

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.75

2

1.00

LCL=0

5

6

Part

Response by Operator

0.05

0.75

0.50

1

5

6

Part

12-51

10

ACCEPTABILITY CRITERIA

% R & R Indices

10%

10% - 30%

30%

May be acceptable based upon importance of

application, cost of measurement device, cost of

repair, etc.

Consider not acceptable. Measurement system

needs improvement.

1

2-3

4

from another.

Generally unacceptable

Recommended

12-52

INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE

Now its your turn

In this exercise, do a gage R&R study on GAGE2.mtw file in GBdata.

For the GAGE2 data set, three parts were selected that represent the

expected range of the process variation. Three operators measured the

three parts, three times per part, in a random order.

Analyze and interpret data using the ANOVA method. Be ready to

present your analysis and interpretation in front of the class.

12-53

SOLUTION TO

VARIABLE GAGE R & R EXERCISE

(ANOVA METHOD)

ANOVA METHOD WITH GAGE2 DATA

Perform the following Steps:

1. Open the file GAGE2.mtw in GBData

2. Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Gage Study >

Gage R&R Study (Crossed).

3. In Part numbers:, select C1 Part

In Operators:, select C2 Operator

In Measurement data:. Select C3 Response

4. In Method of Analysis, ANOVA will be selected.

5. Click OK

12-54

SOLUTION TO

VARIABLE GAGE R & R

EXERCISE

Interpreting the Results:

1 When the p-value for Operator is >0.25, Minitab fits

the model without the interaction and uses the

reduced model to define the Gage R&R statistics. This

value is shown in the ANOVA Table with Operator *

part Interaction (p=0.484).

2 Shown in the last table under %Contribution, the

percent contribution from Total Gage R&R (84.36) is

larger than that of Part-to-Part (15.64%). Thus, most

of the variation arises from the measuring system,

very little is due to difference between parts.

3. The Number of Distinct Categories = 1. A 1 tells you

the measurement system is poor, it cant distinguish

between parts. Refer to Number of Distinct Categories

Statement for details.

Source

Part

Operator

Part * Operator

Repeatability

Total

DF

2

2

4

18

26

SS

38990

529

26830

133873

200222

MS

19495.2

264.3

6707.4

7437.4

F

2.90650

0.03940

0.90185

P

0.166

0.962

0.484

Source

Part

Operator

Repeatability

Total

DF

2

2

22

26

SS

38990

529

160703

200222

MS

19495.2

264.3

7304.7

F

2.66887

0.03618

P

0.092

0.965

Gage R&R

%Contribution

(of VarComp)

84.36

84.36

0.00

0.00

15.64

100.00

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

VarComp

7304.67

7304.67

0.00

0.00

1354.50

8659.17

Source

Total Gage R&R

Repeatability

Reproducibility

Operator

Part-To-Part

Total Variation

StdDev (SD)

85.4673

85.4673

0.0000

0.0000

36.8036

93.0547

Study Var

(6 * SD)

512.804

512.804

0.000

0.000

220.821

558.328

%Study Var

(%SV)

91.85

91.85

0.00

0.00

39.55

100.00

12-55

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response

Reported by:

Tolerance:

Misc:

Gage name:

Date of study:

Components of Variation

Percent

100

Response by Part

% Contribution

%StudyVar

600

400

50

200

0

Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

Sample Range

R Chart by Operator

400

UCL=376.5

_

R=146.3

600

400

200

LCL=0

1

400

__

X=406.2

300

LCL=256.5

A verage

Sample Mean

500

2

Operator

UCL=555.8

Response by Operator

200

2

Part

Operator

1

2

3

450

400

350

1

2

Part

1. In the Components of Variation chart, the percent contribution from Gage R&R is larger than that of Part-to-Part,

telling you that most of the variation is due to the measurement system-primarily repeatability, little is due to

differences between parts.

2. Most of the points in Xbar Chart by Operator are inside the control limits, indicating the observed variation is mainly

due to the measurement system.

3. In the By Part chart, there is little difference between parts, as shown by the nearly level line.

4. In the By Operator chart, there are no differences between operators, as shown by the level line.

12-56

5. Operator * Part Interaction is a visualization of the p-value for Oper*part-0.484 in this case-indicating the differences

between each operator /part combination are insignificant compared to the total amount of variation.

GUIDELINES

Plan the approach. Determine if reproducibility is an issue because

sometimes it can be considered negligible-for example, when pushing a

button.

Select the number of appraisers, number of samples or parts, and number of

repeat reading. Select appraisers who normally operate the instruments.

Establish frequency of reading based on part configuration and availability for

measurements.

Sample parts from the process that represents its entire operating range.

Ensure that measurement procedures and necessary data collection forms

are available, clearly defined and completely understood by all participants.

Gages should have a discrimination or graduation that is at least one-tenth of

the expected process variation of the characteristic to be read.

12-57

GUIDELINES

instrument is following the defined procedure.

drift or changes that occur will be spread randomly

throughout the study.

Record readings

12-58

STEP 1: Verify the appropriateness of the measurement for judging the characteristic of interest

(i.e. historical experience).

STEP 2: Construct a process map (flowchart) of the measurement process.

STEP 3: List possible sources of variation and their impact on the measurement process on Cause

& Effect Diagram (Fishbone).

STEP 4: Calibrate measurement instrument or verify calibration (accuracy study) has been

performed in the range of interest. For some processes (but not all) linearity or accuracy may also

be of interest.

STEP 5: Carefully plan Gage R & R Study, Run Trials and Collect Data.

STEP 6: Obtain Gage R & R Results through Minitab application.

STEP 7: Analyze and Interpret Results.

STEP 8: Verify consistency of measurement units.

STEP 9: On-Going evaluation: measurement as a process (over time).

STEP 10: Identify the individual(s) responsible for ensuring the quality of the measurement system.

12-59

A 5-STEP MEASUREMENT

IMPROVEMENT PROCESS

Breyfoggles Implementing Six Sigma (2nd edition) has an

excellent 5-step measurement improvement process.

The approach is simple and effective and provides the

methods for identifying and reducing measurement

variation.

12-60

TEAM VARIABLE

GAGE R & R EXERCISE

Working as a team, you will perform a Variable Gage R & R Team Exercise

following these guidelines:

Objective:

To shoot the catapult 10 times (10 different settings) with a target distance of

3-10 feet and obtaining measurements using (2) Distance Recorders.

Materials Needed:

1. Catapult assembly

2. Catapult Ball

3. Tape Measure

4. Variable Gage R & R Form (Refer to the next slide)

Team Composition:

1 Catapult Operator

2 Distance Recorders

1 Data Entry Operator

1 Coordinator (also Ball Retriever)

12-61

TEAM VARIABLE

GAGE R & R EXERCISE

1. The Catapult Operator sets the catapult and launches the ball. The Coordinator retrieves the ball

and marks the point where the ball landed as Sample 1. Distance recorders secretly record the ball

distance (to the nearest 1/16 inch) on their Variable Gage R & R Form 1 under Sample 1 Try 1.

2. The Coordinator instructs the Catapult Operator to make one adjustment on the catapult

(attachment point, tension point, angle, etc). This now represents Sample 2. The Catapult Operator

launches the ball. The Coordinator retrieves the ball and marks the point where the ball landed as

sample 2. Both distance recorders take their measurements and log it on the Form 1 under Sample

2 Try 1. This procedure is repeated until ten (10) different settings are shot, marked and measured.

3. After completing the Form 1 Try 1 column of the form, both data recorders turn in their measurement

to the Data Entry Operator who transcribes and formats the measurements of the (2) Distance

Recorders into Minitab.

4. Both Distance Recorders go back and re-measure the 10 different points. Their measurements

are now recorded on Form 2 under column Try 2. After completing the form, they submit this to

the Data Entry Operator to be transcribed into Minitab together with the first measurement data.

5. Your team will perform a Variable Gage R & R analysis on the data and interpret results. Have a

spokesperson ready to present your results to the class.

12-62

12-63

12-64

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