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DRAINAGE :

TEORI & PRAKTEK

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PENDAHULUAN
Problem is mainly the reduction in the
respiration
rate caused by reduced oxygen supply.
Groundwater drainage refers to the
artificial
removal of water by lowering the water
table.
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References
1. Hillel, D. 1998. Environmental soil physics. Academic
2. Luthin, J.N. 1957. Drainage of agricultural lands. Amer.
Soc. Agron.
3. Marshall, T.J.; Holmes, J.W. 1979. Soil physics. CUP
4. Ochs, W.J.; Bishay, G.B. 1992. Drainage guidelines. World
Bank Technical Paper no. 195
5. Rycroft, D.; Amer, M.H. 1995. Prospects for drainage of
clay soils. FAO Irrigation & Drainage Paper 51
6. US Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. 1978.
Drainage manual. USDI.

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Web site containing list of computer models for


drainage, irrigation, hydrology
http://www.wiz.uni-kassel.de/kww/irrisoft/all/all_i.html

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Tanah-tanah tergenang:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

gas exchange only near the surface.


within the profile, O2 may be absent & CO2
may accumulate
reduction toxic concentrations of ferrous,
sulphide, and manganous ions
OM ----------- methane
nitrification prevented
plant, especially fungal/root diseases are
more prevalent
plants may suffer from moisture stress if
grown in waterlogged soils and water table
drops
soils more susceptible to compaction by
animals
traffic.
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Tanah-tanah

tergenang:

1. clogging of machinery
2. greater heat capacity so more difficult to warm
up in spring
3. heat loss by evaporation greater
4. germination and early growth retarded
5. plant sensitivity to restricted drainage affected
by temperature since rise in temperature is
accompanied by decline in O2 solubility high
evaporation in a warm climate from
waterlogged soils leads to concentration of
salts at the surface - can only be removed by
lowering the water table through drainage (or
growing salt tolerant crops - only a temporary
solution);\
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Sebab-sebab Penggenangan tanah:


1.

shallow ground water - e.g.


riparian zones

2.

perched water table - clay


parent material or impervious rock

3.

hydraulic properties of the soil

4.

Irigasi yang berlebihan.


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TANAH-TANAH LIAT
1.
2.

vertisols - shrinking and swelling


infiltration and structure - bypass flow
through shrinkage cracks, root channels,
worm holes and horizontally along ped
faces;
3. infiltration approximately linear :
Vi = Vc + Ist
Vc is the crack volume (m3/m2)
Vi is infiltrated volume
4. hydraulic
conductivity typically 0.1 to 1
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non-Darcy flow
if K sat were used without modifications in usua
drainage equations, spacings would be too close
and so uneconomic - influence of sub-soiling
drainage changes the actual values K
(because of structural cha
Changes in K follow the sequence:

K(tiles + surface)
> K(tiles)
> K(surface drains)
> undrained
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Various models exist which relate clay content,


crack dimensions and bypass flow to
conductivity (e.g. LEACHW (Wangenet &
Hutson, 1989; Booltink, 1993))
Booltink modified model to calculate bypass flow
based on physical and morphological factors.

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Surface:
beds /furrows
ditches

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Saluran drainage dangkal untuk mengumpulkan air runoff


dari lahan

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Sistem drainage untuk menurunkan tabel-air-tanah

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Open drains - interfere with operations,


weeds, pests, but easy to monitor.

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Subsurface involving modification to


structure
Mole drainage
Gravel tunnel
Subsoiling
These methods are suitable only for soils
with high clay content if clay content is
too low, the unlined drainage lines would
collapse.
Design is very much done by rule of thumb
and
local experience.
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Pipa drainage bawah permukaan

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Pembuatan saluran drainage

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Retakan-retakan di atas saluran drainage bawahpermukaan

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Drainage by means of ditches or underground pipes


to control the height of the water table
Introduction
1. examples of the application of
Darcys law to the development of
models for drainage
1. Saluran / Parit
2. Pipa di bawah permukaan
2. control height of water table or
remove excess water from soil with
low hydraulic conductivities.
3. drainage improves hydraulic
conductivity and vice versa.
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Flow rate to drains depends on:


hydraulic conductivity of the soil:
anisotropy;
texture;
soil profile
configuration of water table : localised (alluvial),
regional,
perched,
artesian or sub-artesian
depth of drain;
outlet condition - no flow if submerged.
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slope and diameter of subsurface drains


(or cross-sectional area of ditches) must be
sufficient to lead water away;
ochre deposits due to reduced iron and
manganese or salt deposits such as gypsum
reduce the diameter - need oversizing as well
as flushing out;
Spacing.
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type of drains - clay tiles or slotted plastic

use of envelope - gravel reduces clogging and


increases seepage surface;

rate at which excess water reaches


groundwater - often taken as difference
between rainfall and evapotranspiration but
there will also be a natural drainage rate
which
occurs without artificial drainage.

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Steady flow v. transient flow solutions

steady flow solutions assume constant


infiltration rate (even when it is
not raining!)

transient flow solutions try to allow


for the fluctuation in the water table
due to
intermittent rainfall or
irrigation - much more difficult to solve
mathematically .

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Adjustment of K, x and y values to allow for


Anisotropy:
Conductivity,. especially in clay soils, will usually
be different in the vertical & horizontal
directions - the conductivity in this case is said
to be isotropic.
A simple method is used to derive a single value
for use in drainage calculations:

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K KxKy
/

As well as using this composite value for K, modified


values for depth (y) are used:
x/ = x

(i.e. x is unchanged)

y/ = yA
in which A is the anisotropic ratio, Kx/Ky

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Depuit-Forcheimer (DF) soils


A DF soil assumes:
(a) for small inclinations of a water table in a
gravity flow system, the streamlines can be taken
as horizontal, i.e. the water has no vertical
component of flow
(b) the velocities along the streamlines are
proportional to the slope of the water table
The assumption is widely used and often produces
solutions which are comparable to more rigorous
treatments
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In effect, the DF solution imagines the soil


to be divided into a lot of narrow vertical
slabs ---

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Hooghoudt method for ditch drainage


Like many others, Hooghoudts method oversimplifies the field situation but even so gives useful
solutions.
The method assumes:
isotropic and constant K
parallel and equally spaced drains
hydraulic gradient is equal to the slope of
the water table
Darcys law applies
impervious layer exists
constant flux
the soil is a Depuit-Forcheimer (DF) soil.
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DF solution assumes that there are no streamlines below


the bottom of the impermeable layer.
solution seems to be a good enough approximation for
water table surface (though not for the route the water
takes to the drain)

Consider length of drain (i.e. into the paper) of 1


metre.
Assume water passing horizontally through an
arbitrary plane is product of downward flux, q
(normally mm/day but here we use metres/sec so
that units are consistent) and the distance between
the plane and the mid-point between the drains
Q = -q (S/2 - x) x 1 metre
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From Darcys Law, horizontal flux at plane is:

Flux per unit area = K

dh
dx

Total flux through the section:

Q = h x 1 metre x K dh
dx
The hydraulic potential is taken as the height of water
table above the impervious layer, i.e. a DF soil.

Equating the two expressions for Q:

q( x) = Kh
S
2

dh
dx

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So:
1
2

qSdx qxdx Khdh

The water table varies from D to (H + D) above


the impermeable layer, so integrating:

1
2

qSdx qxdx

HD

Khdh

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which gives:

qSx
1
2

qx
2

Kh
2

HD
D

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Which simplifies to:


qS2
4

qS2
4

qS2
8

K
2

H D

K (H 2HD)
2

2D H

4 KH
q

8 KHD
S2

4 KH 2
S2

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Referring to the diagram, since b = H-D,


this can be rewritten as

S
2

4K
q

(b D )
2

which is the equation of an ellipse.


The above equation can also be written as

S
2

4K
q

(b D)(b D)

Since b-D = H and (b+D)/2 is the average depth that the


water can flow through, this can in turn be written as :Sumber: pages.bangor.ac.uk/~azs80f/565_Soil-Plant.../04-

S 8
2

KH
q

where T is the average depth that the water


flows through
This idea has been extended to the situation
where the bottom of the ditch does not rest on
an impermeable layer though it pushes the
theory
even further beyond its proper limits - but still
seems to work
Note in practice an impermeable layer is one
that has a K of say less than <10% of the
Sumber: pages.bangor.ac.uk/~azs80f/565_Soil-Plant.../04overlying soil

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Web sites for Hooghoudts solution and a


calculator for drain spacing :-

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/5606/calculat/ground1.htm

http://www.sedlab.olemiss.edu/java/Hooghoudt_java.html

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Hooghoudts method for tile drainage

Hooghoudt envisaged a virtual drain and


modified the ditch equation to :

q
where

1
d

8 KHd
S2

4 KH 2
S2

8 ( S D 2 )
S
8 DS

ln
1

r0 2

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