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Analysis And Design

Of
Belt Conveyor Gallery System
BY:
SHAH PREYASH R.
(06MCL018)
GUIDED BY :
Mr. T.S.DHOLAKIA
(PMC PROJECT. PVT. LTD)

FLOW OF PRESENTATION

INTRODUCTION
LITERATURE REVIEW
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
SCOPE OF WORK
WORK CARRIED OUT
CONCLUSION
FUTURE LINE OF ACTION
2

CONVEYORS
Are used for handling
materials
Used in all industries
Consists of several
components, like frames,
trusses, legs (adjustable if so
required), wires, pulleys,
rollers, belts, chains, bearings,
sprockets, V-belts, guards,
electricals, speed controls,
weighing mechanism and belt
cleaning arrangements.
4

Size specification
Size depends on the requirement :

Speed
Cost
Efficiency
Maximum load it takes
Material transferred per hour

BELT CONVEYOR
Belt Conveyor is one of the
most important equipment for
the material handling and
plays an important part in
industrial growth and
economy.
The belt conveyor is an endless
moving belt for transporting
materials horizontally or on an
incline up or down. They are
employed for conveying
various bulk and unit loads
along horizontal or slightly
inclined paths and transporting
articles between various
operations in production flow
lines.

Cont
Conveyor is very cost effective and the easy
expandability and reconfiguration makes it
ideal for growing operations.
A belt conveyer consists of
1.Gallery with its supporting system,
2.belt supporting system.

Cont

The belt supporting system has supporting


structure with two pulleys arranged at its
ends: the driving pulley at the head and the
take-up pulley at the rear end.

A belt bends around these pulleys and is


supported along its entire length by rollers
supports or idlers, which are fastened to
the frame.

The Gallery supports the belt system with


its supports, and gallery is supported on
columns which transfer the load to the
foundations.
8

CONVEYORS

On Ground Conveyor

Above Ground Conveyor


9

COMPONENTS
Hopper/Funnel

Unloader

Upper

Belt

idlers

Take up pulley
Drive
pulley
SupportingUnloading
Frame
funnel
Belt

Side
Elevation

Lower idlers

Cross
Sections

Plan

Drive
motor

cleaner

10

Cont
BELT:
The belt conveyor has textile
belt made from camel hair,
cotton, duck cotton and
rubberized material. The
rubberized belts are most
commonly used as belt in
conveyor. They are
manufactured in standard
width from 300 to 3000 mm.

IDLERS:
Generally the belt is supported by idler
rollers. According to their location on
the conveyor, idlers are classified as
upper or carrying (supporting the
loaded strand of the belt) and lower or
return (supporting the unloaded return
strand of the belt).
11

Cont
CENTERING DEVICE:
To prevent the belt from
running off the rollers, special
belt training idlers of
various designs are used.
These idlers automatically
maintain belt alignment.
TAKE-UP:
A belt conveyor may
have a mechanical
(screw-type) or
counterweighted
(gravity-type) takeup which are used
for adjusting tension
in the belt.

12

Cont
DRIVE UNIT:
In belt conveyors motive
power is transmitted to the
belt by friction as it wraps
around the driving pulley
rotated by an electric motor.
The drive comprises the
following parts: the pulley,
motor and the transmission
gear between the motor and
pulley.
BELT CLEANER:
Wipers or scrapers serve to
clean the outer belt surface of
dry particles sticking to it. For
wet and sticky material
revolving brushes are used.
13

Cont
CONVEYOR FRAME:
The supporting structure of
the conveyor intermediate
section is made of angle iron
or channel bar, and consists of
longitudinal beams and crosspieces. The height of the
frame is usually 400 to 500
mm; the spacing between the
uprights is 2 to 3.5 m.

14

CONVEYOR GALLERY
The main supporting structure of the
conveyor system consists of conveyor gallery
and trestle. The conveyor gallery includes
truss system (through or deck type which
conveyor frame is supported) and trestle
which supports gallery.
The gallery is designed as steel structures,
concrete structures (in some cases e.g. in
Cement Industries) or as composite
structures (i.e. steel and concrete).
The structural design is carried out as per
Codal standards.
15

ARRANGEMENTS
OF
BELT COVNEYORS
Double /multi layer system
Parallel system
Single system

16

DOUBLE LAYER CONVEYOR

PARALLEL CONVEYOR

SINGLE CONVEYOR

17

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

Production
Mining
Shipping companies
Food and beverage companies (with
specializations like fruits and vegetables,
meat, poultry and seafood)
Automobiles industry

18

Cont
Electronics
Pharmaceutical and medical
Printing
Packaging
Cement industry

19

20

V. Afanasyev, The book is based on the various


national code such as Indian (I.S 11592-2000),
British
standards,
Russians
standards
and
American standards. The book gives idea about
conveying machines and some of the conveyors
which are used in the industries. It gives
description about the mechanical parts of the
conveyer and show the different parts of the
conveyer system.

Wilbur G. Hudson, describes different conveyors


with their schematic diagram and gives important
tables for the design of conveyor components. It
also gives description and design for the elevators
and crushers units.

21

Dr. Ram Chandra and Virendra Gehlot,The book is


based on the analysis and design of some of the
special steel structure. It is based on the Indian
standard for the analysis and design.

IS 11592-2000, is an Indian code of practice by


BIS, for the selection and design of belt conveyors.
Its reference is made for belt speed, inclinations of
idlers, width of the belt, spacing of idlers and for
the use of the tables for the load calculations on
conveyor.

Joseph E. Bowels, gives the analysis of the


different foundation. The different techniques for
soil exploration are suggested by him. The different
tests on soil are also shown.

22

23

The conveyor system to be


designed has a site located
at Dahej (Bharuch) and is
approximately 7 Km long.
The objective of the study
is to model, analyze and
design the conveyor
gallery J2C1 and J2C2 by
using different options of
the material. Moreover the
study also involves the
economical aspect of the
conveyer galleries of
different materials, and
does the parametric study
of column by using steel
and concrete as material
for double and parallel
conveyer system.

FLOW DIAGRAM OF SYSTEM

24

25

To understand and design the conveyer belt


supporting system by using the alternatives
of steel/concrete columns and steel beams.
Also to show the cost effectiveness of
conveyer system.
The parametric study involves the
following:a. Review and design of base structure
having pile foundation.
b. To frame the Design philosophy.
26

The conveyor systems are designed for:


1. Double layer system
2. Parallel system
The framing is designed by using following
alternative: -

Sr. No.

Columns

Beams

Framing

STEEL

STEEL

STEEL

CONCRETE

STEEL

COMPOSITE

CONCRETE

CONCRETE

CONCRETE

Detailing of sample members with connections


27

d. Analysis: For the system analysis and


design STAAD-Pro software will be
used as required
e. Economics: To review with system.
f. Detailing of sample members with
connections.
28

29

MECHANICAL DATA

Rated Capacity
Bulk Density of Coal for structural calculation
Angle of surcharge
Angle of Repose
Belt width
Belt speed
Wt of belt
Wt. of rotating mass carrying side (carrying idlers)
Wt. of rotating mass return side (return idlers)
Troughing angle
Friction factor
Impact factor
Spacing of carrying idlers
Spacing of return idlers

= 4200 t/h
=12.0 kN/m3
= 20
= 37
= 1800 mm
= 4.35 m/s
= 0.46 kN/m
= 0.62 kN/m
=0.155 kN/m
= 45
= 0.03
= 1.2
=1m
=3m

30

LOADINGS
DEAD LOAD
Self weight of the gallery and trestle.
Wt. of belt

= 0.46 kN/m

Wt. of the carrying idlers

= 0.62 kN/m

Wt. of the retrun idlers

= 0.155 kN/m

Wt. of technological str.

= 0.80 kN/m

(short supports and idler connection)

31

LIVE LOAD
Load on Walkway

= 3 kN/m2

Dust Load

= 1 kN/m2

L.L on conveyor belt

= 1.6 x design wt. of the


material carried over the
belt
= 7.95 kN/m

Load due to motion of belt

= 1.8 kN (longitudinal)

Load due to outward

= 1.8 kN (transverse)

movement of stringers
32

WIND LOAD
As. Per I.S. 875-1987(part 3)
Basic wind speed
= 44 m/s (Dahej)
The probability factor (k1)
= 1.08
The terrain category
=2
The class of the building
=C
The terrain, height and structure
size factor (k2)
= from Tb-2 of I.S.875
topography factor (k3)
=1
The structure having two or more parallel frames where the
windward frames may have a shielding effect upon the
frames to leeward side. So shielding factor is calculated from
Tb-29 of I.S 875
33

EARTHQUAKE LOAD
The earthquake load is taken as per IS:
1893-2002 (I).
Location Dahej (bharuch)
zone - III

34

IMPACT FACTOR
Impact factor due to moving hoists etc.
shall be 1.2 for electrically operated hoist
and 1.1 for hand operated hoists. For floor
beams directly supporting drive machinery
like head end / tail end / drive pulleys,
motor, gear boxes etc. an impact factor of
1.5 shall be considered.
35

LOADING ON GALLERY
Dead Load= Self weight of Gallery,
supporting beams, columns and bracings.
Normal Load at mid support = 3.1 kN
Normal Load at end support = 1.55 kN
Live Load =
Normal Load at mid support = 11.9 kN
Normal Load at end support = 5.95 kN
Longitudinal Load
= 1.8 kN
Transverse Load
= 1.8 kN

36

Design Wind pressure


For Single Conveyor
Gallery
= 1.2 kN/m2
For Double Layer
Conveyor Gallery = 1.3 kN/m2 (upper truss)
For Double Layer
Conveyor Gallery = 1.2 kN/m2 (lower truss)
For Parallel Conveyor Gallery = 1.3 kN/m 2
37

LOADING
SHORT SUPPORTS
BELT

4.55 m
TRUSS
38

LOAD COMBINATION

Load Combination is taken from I.S.875


(part V)
They are as follow:
1. DL+LL
2. DL+LL+WL
3. DL+0.5LL+EQ

39

DEFLECTION

The deflection is taken as per IS 11592-2000:-

a) Conveyor galleries

: Span/500

b) Trestle supporting gallery in transverse


Direction

: Height/1000

c) Gallery crosses beams directly supporting


Conveyor short posts

: Span/500

d) Walkway beams of conveyor galleries

:Span/325

e) Floor beams directly supporting drive


Machinery, motor and gear boxes

: Span/500

f) End portal of conveyor gallery girder

: Height / 325
40

STAAD MODEL
SINGLE CONVEYOR

3-D VIEW

SECTION
ELEVATION

41

STAAD MODEL
STEEL DOUBLE CONVEYOR

ELEVATION

PLAN

Cross
section
42
3-D VIEW

CONCRETE DOUBLE CONVEYOR

ELEVATION

PLAN

3-D VIEW

43

COMPOSITE DOUBLE CONVEYOR

ELEVATION

PLAN

44

3-D VIEW

DISPLACEMENT COMPARISON FOR


DOUBLE LAYER CONVEYOR GALLERY
Type

Max Disp (mm)

Permissible
Def. (mm)

Steel

45.35

48.00

Composite

35.87

48.00

Concrete

41.23

48.00

45

STEEL PARALLEL CONVEYOR

ELEVATION

PLAN

3-D VIEW

Cross
46
section

CONCRETE PARALLEL CONVEYOR

ELEVATION

PLAN

47

3-D VIEW

COMPOSITE PARALLEL GALLERY

ELEVATION

PLAN

3-D VIEW

48

DISPLACEMENT COMPARISON FOR


PARALLEL CONVEYOR GALLERY
Type

Max. Disp (mm)

Permissible
Def. (mm)

Steel

46.80

48.00

Composite

45.30

48.00

Concrete

36.24

48.00

49

CONNECTIONS
In general the cost of the design, fabrication and
erection of the structural frame in a steel framed
building is approximately 30% of the total cost of
construction. Of these three items, fabrication and
erection account for approximately 67%.
Any savings in the fabrication and erection costs
can significantly reduce the overall cost of
construction.
The majority of the fabrication costs are absorbed by
the connections, and the choice of connection also
has a significant influence on the speed, ease, and,
therefore, the cost of erection.
50

Steel Frame Connection Types

(AISC)

All connections have a certain amount of rigidity

Simple connections (A above) have some rigidity, but


are assumed to be free to rotate

Partially-Restrained moment connections (B and C


above) are designed to be semi-rigid

Fully-Restrained moment connections (D and E above)


are designed to be fully rigid

51

Cont
The different steel
frame connections are
Simple connection
Moment Resisting
connection
The one of loading of
parallel steel gallery is
shown below,
P= 25.1 kN
M= 57.1 kN
Beam = ISMB 450
Column = ISMB 500

Simple connection

52

Moment resisting connection

Cont
The design results are as
follows,
Provided top plate =
130 mm x 6 mm
(6 mm fillet weld)
Design bottom seat plate
=
170 mm x 77 mm x 6 mm
(6 mm fillet weld)

12 mm
clearence

ISMB 500

6 mm fillet weld

ISMB 450

450

Beam
Column
Bottom plate
Elevation

100

70

130

Plan from Top

53

PILE FOUNDATIONS
Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to
carry and transfer the load of the structure to the
bearing ground located at some depth below
ground surface. The main components of the
foundation are the pile cap and the piles. Piles are
long and slender members which transfer the load
to deeper soil or rock of high bearing capacity
avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity.
The main types of materials used for piles are
Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these
materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the
ground and connected to pile caps.
BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL
The capacities of soil at Dahej for different depths
are given in table in next slide.

54

Thk. of strata

Description of strata

Notation

(m)

Capacity of soil
(T)

0-2

Dark brown med. Dense


fine sand

SP-SM

20

2-3

Dark brown dense fine


silty sand

SM

20

3-5

Dark grey stiff med.


plastic silt and clay

CI

20

5-7

Dark grey med. Dense


fine silty sand

SM

30

7-8

Dark grey very


sandy clayey silt

stiff

CL

30

8-12

Dark grey very stiff


med. Plastic silt and clay

CI

40

12-15

Brown very stiff plastic


silt and clay

CH

40

15-19

Brown very stiff med.


Plastic silt and clay

CI

60

19-21

Brown very stiff plastic


silt and clay

CH

80
55

LOADING ON PILE
The load from
column of double
composite gallery
to pile cap are,
P = 875.3 kN
Mx = 333.5 kNm
My = 540.5 kNm
The load per pile is
given by,
F=

Mxn
Myn
P+W

n
Iy
Ix
56

Cont

F1 =

290.14

kN

F2 =

475.42

kN

F3 =

12.23

kN

F4 =

197.51

kN

Pile diameter = 0.6 m


Pile length = 18 m
No. of pile in group = 4 nos.
Cover provided to pile = 40 mm
Main reinforcement:
8-20 mm# having area of 2512 mm2
Lateral ties:
8 mm# @ 300 c/c
Lateral ties at bottom:
8 mm# @ 56 mm c/c
Lateral ties at top:
8 mm# @ 37 mm c/c

DETAILING OF PILE

57

58

The Conveyor Gallery is


analyzed for the
assumed sectional
property and it is
checked for the design in
STAAD-Pro.
The wind load
combination is
governing than
earthquake load.
The DL+ LL
combinations give
governing result with
compared to DL+LL+WL.
RESULTS FOR
PARALLEL STEEL
CONVEYORS

59

The concrete conveyor gallery proves to be economical than


steel conveyor gallery, but steel is chosen for its durability,
easy fabrication and easy further extension.
Concrete galleries have large cross section than steel, and
hence concrete is generally not used.
The option1 profile proves to be economical than option2.

60

Option

kN

37.43

Rate (Rs. In
lakhs)
1.50

39.76

1.59

Cost comparison

Wt. comparison

61

WEIGHT COMPARISON OF GALLERIES


Steel Galleries
Type (steel)

kN

Double

1174.51

Parallel

796.35

62

Concrete Galleries
Type (conc.)

Conc. (m3)

Steel (kN)

Double

342.79

211.08

Parallel

253.74

153.70

63

Composite Galleries
Type (comp.)

conc. (m3)

steel (kN)
(Reinf + members)

Double

94.00

869.00

Parallel

58.00

709.00

64

COST COMPARISON
Rate of steel = Rs. 40/ kg

Type of

Rate
(Rs.lakhs)

Rate of Concrete = Rs. 3500/ m3

Rate
Rate (Rs.-lakhs)
(Rs.lakhs)

conveyor

(steel)

(concrete)

(composite)

Double

46.98

20.44

38.05

Parallel

31.85

15.03

30.39

65

From above graphs it is concluded that


Parallel Conveyor Galleries are economical
than Double Layer Conveyor Galleries.
Moreover Concrete Galleries are the most
economical one than the others two
galleries.

66

67

Optimum distance between the trestles for


belt conveyor
Optimum truss pattern for belt conveyor
Conveyor on jetty
Analysis and Design of Cable conveyor

68

REFERENCES

V.Afanasyev,Conveying Machines-I, Mir


Publishers Moscow-1985.
Don Danemanis, Conveyors and Related
Equipments,Peace Publishers, Moscow
Wilbur G. Hudson, Conveyor and Related
Equipment, John Wiley and Sons-New York INC.
Chapman and Hall, Limited- London
Dr.B.C.Punmia, and A.K.Jain,Design of Steel
Structures, Laxmi Publications Ltd.
Dr.Ram Chandra and Virendra Gehlot,Design of
steel structure-2, Standard Publishers
Distributors.
Jerzy Antoniak, Resistance to the motion in Mining
Belt Conveyors Russia-1992
Jagman Singh,Cross Country Conveyor System,
Construction Equipment and Machinery in India
(vol-I) - Civil Engineering and Construction
69
Review-1988-91.

Ascalew Abebe and Dr. Ian GN Smith, Pile Foundation


Design, School of Build Environment , Napier
University ,Edinburgh
Dr. B.C.Punmia, Soil Mechanics and Foundations,
Standard Book House, New-Delhi.
A.S.Arya and J.L.Ajamani, Design of Steel Structures,
Nem Chand and Bros Publication, Roorkee.
James G Colin, Timber Pile Design and Construction
Manual, Timber Piling Council American Wood
Preservers Institute.
Buick Davison and Graham W Owens, Steel Designers
Manual, Steel Construction Institute, Blackwell
Publication.
Joseph E. Bowels, Foundation Analysis and Design,
McGraw-Hill company, New York, 1997
H. J. Shah, Reinforced Concrete II, Charotar
Publication, Anand, 2005
70

IS 456-2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced


Concrete, Fourth Revision, Bureau of Indian
Standard, New-Delhi, 2000
IS 11592-2000,Selection and Design of Belt
Conveyors-Code of Practice First Revision, Bureau of
Indian Standard, New-Delhi, 2000
IS 875-1987(part3),Code of Practice for Design Loads
for Buildings and Structures, Second Revision, Bureau
of Indian Standard, New-Delhi, November-1998
IS 800-1984 Code of Practice for General
Construction in Steel, First Revision, Bureau of Indian
Standard, New-Delhi, May-1999
IS 1893-2002 Criteria For Earthquake Resistant
Design of Structures, Fifth Revision, Bureau of Indian
Standard, New-Delhi, June-2002.
Sp-16,Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to I.S456-1978, Bureau of Indian Standard, New-Delhi.
71

LIST OF WEBSITES

www.conveyorchain.com
www.kamandirect.com
www.hasler-int.com
www.bandt.com
www.tranterphe.com
www.cemanet.org
www.kwsmfg.com
www.armax-conveyors.co.uk
www.patentstorm.com

www.inventorypos.com
www.conceptengineer.com
www.hic-india.com
www.ise.ncsu.edu
www.martin-eng.com
www.interroll.com
www.pro-belt.com
www.interquip.com.au
www.ingenieriatecnica.cl

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