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Nutrition

Chapter 4 Page 48-68

Food
Why do we need food?
Energy for activities
Make new protoplasm for grow and repair
For health
How do we get food
Plants photosynthesise to make food
Animals consume food for its chemical energy

Water
Why do we need water?
For chemical reactions (ex. Plants need water to
photosynthesis)
For tissues (cells, tissue fluid, blood and
digestive juices all need water)
Controlling body temperature (sweat contains
water and cools the body down)
Transporting dissolved substances which are
found all around the body

How much water and food do you


need?
Well it depends
How active you are
Where you live (Canada vs. Indonesia)
How old you are
How healthy you are

Definitions
Nutrients: Organic substances and
mineral ions, containing raw materials
or energy
Organic substance: has a carbon in
the molecule
Nutrition: Taking in nutrients for
growth and tissue repair, absorbing
and assimilating them

Nutrients
Carbohydrates
fats
organic
substances
proteins
minerals (calcium & iron in man)
vitamins (C &D)
inorganic
water

Vitami Vitamin Calciu


nC
D
m
What does
it do? Why
is it
important
What
happens if
we dont
have
enough
(deficiency

Iron

Fibe
r

Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamin C
What does it do?
healthy body tissue, wound repair, blood vessels
and an efficient immune system
Where do we get it:
Fresh fruit and vegetables: Guava, Red chilli
peppers, parsley, kiwi, broccoli, citrus (orange,
lime)
What if we dont have enough? : Scurvy weak
immune system, bleeding gums

Vitamins D
Why do we need it?:
Essential for healthy bones and teeth. It helps the body to
absorb calcium and helps our immune system
Where do you get it:
The sun is a major source, some fish (salmon, tuna), Milk
What if you dont have enough?: Rickets : weakening and
softening of bones

Mineral Salts calcium and iron

Calcium
Why do we need it?:
Teeth and bone health
proper function of nerves, muscles, kidneys,
and the heart
Where do we get it:
Dairy, canned fish, beans, almonds, broccoli

Iron

Why do we need it?:


Helps transport oxygen to the body
Where do we get it?
Red meat,Edamame, Spinach, Asparagus, Potatoes,
Yogurt, Cereal
What if you dont have enough:
Anemia :Loss of energy/fatigue (tiredness),

Fiber roughage (insoluble and


soluble fiber)
Why do we need it:
It helps with egestion
Where do we get it?:
Most fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans), nuts and
grains

What if we dont have enough: constipation

Macromolecules
What is the relationship
between atoms, bonding and
Atoms
macromolecules?
join together
Bonds
that form
Molecules
that form large structures call
Macromolecules

Organic substances
All organic substances contain carbon
Water would be considered inorganic
The 3 we are looking at are
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats

Inorganic substances
Water and Minerals are inorganic
Nutrients which dont have a Carbon
atom

Macromolecules and their subunits


1

main function

main function

ENERGY
STORAGE

ENERGY
STORAGE

short-term

long-term

main function

main function

CATALYSIS
&
STRUCTURE
/SUPPORT

Monomer vs Polymer
Monomer : from Greekmono"one"
andmeros"part") is a moleculethat may
bindchemically to other molecules
Polymer :is a large moleculecomposed
of many monomers

Condensation and hydrolysis


reactions

Condensation reactions: a chemical


reaction when two simple molecules are
joined together to form a larger molecule
with the removal of one water molecule
Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction in which
a water molecule is needed to breakup a
complex molecule into small molecules

Carbohydrates
What are they?
Where are they found?
How do we use them?

Carbohydrates atoms involved


Organic molecules made up of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.
The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present
in a 1:2:1 ratio
Ex. Glucose C6H12O6 (12H: 6O)

Why are they important?


Short term quick energy
Our body makes ATP with carbohydrates

Sources
Simple sugars: Candy, chocolate, fruit
Complex: rice, noodles, bread

Carbohydrates
Main Function: quick and short-term energy storage
Composition: C, H, and O atoms Carbon
(1 : 2 : 1 ratio)
Compound
Two types: 1. Simple Carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides reducing sugars)
s
include
2. Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides - starch)

Carbohydrat
es

Lipid
s

Which are made of


Simple sugars
(e.g., glucose)

Which are made of


Glycerol &
3 Fatty Acids

which contain

which contain

Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen

Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen

main function

ENERGY
STORAGE
short-term

Nucleic
acids
Which are made of

Nucleotid
es
which contain
Carbon,
hydrogen
oxygen,
nitrogen,
phosphorus

Protein
s
Which are made of

Amino
Acids
which contain
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen,
nitrogen,

Classifying Carbohydrates
Depending on sugar content
Monosaccharaides single sugars
Disaccharides double sugars
Polysaccharides - complex
carbohydrates
Sugars provide us with energy to do work

Monosaccharaides Single
sugars
Small molecules
Wont be further broken down/digested
Can pass through cell membranes and be
absorbed into the cells
Ex: Glucose, fructose and galactose - C6H12O6
All have the same formula but different
arrangements

What are these monosaccrides and


Where do we find simple sugars
Forms
- Sources
Glucose candy
Fructose fruits
Galactose dairy/milk

Disaccharides (Simple
sugars)

Disaccharide:
A compound composed of 2 monosaccharide subunits
ex. lactose, maltose, sucrose
Same chemical makeup but different structure
Formed by the condensation of 2 monosaccharaides
Split into 2 monosaccharaides through hydrolysis

Making & Breaking Carbohydrates

Condensation (dehydration) synthesis


Hydrolysis

CONDENSATION
Maltose

Lactose

maltase

lactase
sucrase

Sucrose
HYDROLYSIS

glucose
+

glucose

glucose + galactose
glucose + fructose

What are these sugars?


Maltose
Formed by 2 glucose molecules
Found in grains
Sucrose
Formed with a glucose and a fructose molecule
Found in sugar cane stems and sweet fruits
Lactose
Formed with a glucose and a galactose molecule
Found in milk

Polysaccharides - Complex
carbohydrates
Many monosaccharaides formed together
through condensation
Examples of this are starch, glycogen and
cellulose made by many glucose molecules
with different structures.

Carbohydrates Complex (Polysaccharides)

Main Function: quick and short-term energy


storage
Contain many units of glucose in long chains
Examples: Starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin

Starch = energy
storage in plants
Starch Granules (purple) in Potato Cells

Carbohydrates Complex (Polysaccharides)

Glycogen (polymer)

Glucose (monomer)

Glycogen = energy
storage
in animals
muscle
liver
Glycogen (red) in Hepatocytes (liver cells)

Carbohydrates Complex (Polysaccharides)


Cellulose fibers
Macrofibril
Microfibril

Chains of
cellulose
Cellulose = polysaccharide found in plant cell
walls giving walls structure and strength

Carbohydrates Complex (Polysaccharides)


What is the difference between starch and cellulose?

Starch

Cellulose

Complex Structure
carbohydr
ate
Starch
Several thousand
glucose
molecules linked
Cellulose
Many glucose
molecules with
different bonds
than starch
Glycogen

Branched

Role

Stored
energy for
plant cell
Plant cell
wall
Dietary
fibers for
human
Stored

Occurre
nce

Cell wall
of plants

Sources of Carbohydrates

What if you dont eat enough carbs?


Signs and symptoms that you're not
consuming enough carbs include:
fatigue (lack of energy)
constipation (most carbs contain fiber)
Ketosis: headaches, nausea and bad breath
which can be a risk factor for painful
swelling of the joints and kidney stones

Carbohydrate Groups
Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides
(single sugars)

Disaccharides
(double sugars)

Polysaccharides
(complex sugars)

glucose, fructose,
galactose

maltose, lactose,
sucrose

starch, glycogen,
cellulose

Food test
Simple sugars: Benedicts solution
Complex sugars: iodine

Fats
What are
they?
Where are
they found?
How do we
use them?

Fats
Like Carbohydrates are composed of
Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon but
have less oxygen in proportion to
hydrogen
The proportion is not a fixed ratio like
in carbohydrates

What are their functions

Store energy long term


Insulation of heat - seals
A solvent - soluble vitamins and many other
vital substances such as hormones
Essential part of protoplasm, especially in
cell membranes
Reduce water loss from the skins surface by
secreting an oily substance

Sources of fat
butter, cheese,
olives, nuts, peas,
beans

Lipids (fats)

Main Function: long-term energy storage


Special Feature: 3contain more
energy per gram
4
than any other biological molecule
Groupings: Mostly C and H atoms(hydrocarbons)
Types: 1. Triglycerides
2. Sterols 3.
Phospholipids

main function

main function

CATALYSIS
ENCODING
&
HEREDITARY Plant oils (liquid @ room temp)
STRUCTURE
INFORMATION
Animal fat (solid @ room temp)
/SUPPORT

Making and Breaking a fat molecule

Hydrolysis breaking down fats


Fat molecule broken down with three water
molecules to become a glycerol and 3 fatty
acids
catalys
t

Fat molecule + 3 water molecules


Three fatty acids

Glycerol +

Glycerol

Triglycerides

FA
FA

= TG (Triglyceride)

FA

Structure
Triglycerides are composed of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
(16-18 Carbons long)
Made with 2 Types of Fatty Acids
1.Saturated
2.Unsaturated

Making and Breaking Lipids (fats)

s and oils are triglycerides because of their struc

Ester linkage

Hydrolysis
Condensation
Synthesis

+ 3 H2O

Sources
Candy
Alcohol
Bread
Salmon
Beef
Walnuts

Types of Fatty Acids

Saturated

Unsaturated

Poly unsaturated

None
# of Double
(contains
Bonds
between maximum
# of H
Carbons
atoms)

At least one
double bond
between
carbon
atoms

Several
double
bonds

Types of Fatty Acids: Saturated

Saturated Fats
Solid at room temperature
Contain only single C-C bonds
(resulting in straight chains)
During digestion these are converted
into bad cholesterol which can clog
arteries
Ex. animal fats, butter

Types of Fatty Acids: Unsaturated

Unsaturated Fats
Liquid at room temperature
Contain double C-C bonds (resulting in kinks
in their chains)
Unsaturated fats with more than one double
bond are called polyunsaturated fats
Ex. vegetable oils

Types of Fatty Acids

CH 2-CH =C
H
BEND DUE
TO
DOUBLE
BOND

GOOD FATS
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Olive oil
Soybean oil
Canola oil
Corn oil
Sunflower oil
Safflower oil
Peanut oil
Walnuts
Sesame oil
Sunflower, sesame, and
Avocados
pumpkin seeds
Olives
Flaxseed
Nuts
Fatty fish Soymilk
Peanut butter
Tofu

BAD FATS
Saturated fat
High-fat cuts of meat
(beef, lamb, pork)
Chicken with the skin
Whole-fat dairy products
(milk and cream)
Butter
Cheese
Ice cream
Lard

Trans fat
Commercially-baked
pastries, cookies,
doughnuts, muffins,
cakes, pizza dough
Packaged snack foods
Stick margarine
Vegetable shortening
Fried foods Candy bars

Health concerns not enough fat in


your diet

Poor Vitamin Absorption for fat soluble vitamins


Hunger not feeling full after eating
Dry skin
Mental fatigue

Health concerns - To much fat in


your diet
Weight gain
High cholesterol

Fat test
Ethanol emulsion test
Grease stain

2.3 Proteins

Organic compounds made up of carbon,


hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
(Sulphur may also be present.)
Acid

2.3 Proteins

They are made up of an


Amino group (NH2)
Acid group and (-CHOO)
A side chain (R).
Acid

Proteins and their subunits


Amino acids are the building blocks of
proteins
Amino Acid Structure
Amino Group

Any one of the 20 different


side-chains

Carboxyl (acid) Group

2.3 Proteins

Basic units are amino acids


linked together by peptide
bonds.
There are 20 different naturally
occurring amino acids
Amino acids condensation
polypeptides
condensation
proteins

Peptide bond
Formed by the condensation of amino
acids

Protein
Long polypeptide chains folded together
form in a 3D shape are called proteins

2.3 Proteins

Amino acids condensation


polypeptides

condensation
proteins

Breaking down proteins


We must break down proteins in order
to absorb them
We digest them through hydrolysis into
amino acids

polypeptides
amino acids

CONDENSATIO
N

HYDROLYSIS

proteins

Proteins and their subunits


Examples of amino acids

Why do we need proteins

Synthesis of new protoplasm


Growth and Repair of cells
Synthesis of enzymes and
some hormones
Formation of antibodies to fight
diseases

Sources of proteins

PROTEIN DEFICIENCYKwashiorkor

Protein test
Biuret test

1. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
Carb
on
Carb
ohydr
ate

fats

prot
ein

Hydro
gen

Oxyge Nitroge
n
n

Nutrie
nts
Carbs
Starch
Glycoge
n

Sources

Importance

Bread
For short term
Stored in
Energy
plants
Stored in
animals
protoplasm
Protein meat, beans,
synthesis of
milk

Fats

enzymes,
hormones;
antibodies
nuts, beans, Long term

NUTRIENTS

10/28/16

Carbohydrates

Fats

Organic compounds made up of


carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a
ratio
of 1 : 2 : 1.
may be

Organic
compounds made
up of carbon,
hydrogen and
oxygen but they
contain much less
oxygen in
proportion to
hydrogen.
Basic units
Fats are
hydrolysed to
form fatty acids
and glycerol.

Proteins
Organic compounds made
up of carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen.
Sulphur may also be
present.

Water

Inorganic nutrient.
Water does not
contain carbon.
Functions of
Monosaccharide
Identificatio
water
In
s (single
n Test for
animals, water:
Basic units
sugars), e.g.
reducing
is a
Proteins consist of
glucose,
sugars: A
medium for
amino acids linked
fructose and
reducing
chemical reactions
together by peptide
galactose
sugar gives a
Disaccharides
to occur;
bonds.
amino acids
(double sugars),
brick-red
transports
e.g. maltose,
precipitate
polypeptides
digested food
lactose and
when boiled
products, excretory
proteins
sucrose
with
products, and
Identification
Benedicts
Polysaccharides
hormones from one
Test for
(complex
solution.
part of the body to
Identification
fats: A cloudy
carbohydrates)
Sucrose is a
another;
Test
for
proteins:
white emulsion
made up of
non-reducing
Proteins
give
a
violet
is an
is formed in the
many
colouration with Biuret
sugar.
ethanol
essential
part
of
monosaccharide
reagent.
e.g.
emulsion
test.
protoplasm,
s
lubricants, digestive
serves as the main form of storage for
Starch
juices and blood;
carbohydrates in green plants; and
is
gives a
In plants, water:
essential
for
blue-black colour with iodine (test for starch).
is essential for

serves
as
the
main
form
of
storage
for
hydrolysis;
and
photosynthesis;
Glycoge
carbohydrates
in
animals
and
fungi.
is needed to keep plant
n
helpsto
control
cells turgid;
transports

forms
the
cell
walls
in
plants;
and
body
temperature.
mineral salts
from
the roots to
Cellulos

cannot
be
digested
by
mammals,
the leaves; and
e
but is used as fibre in their diet.
transports food
Copyright 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish
substances from the leaves to
International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

Microorganisms in the food industry


Yogurt
Bread
Single cell proteins

Food additives and colours


Uses
Benefits
Health hazards

PROTEI
N

FAT

STARC
H

FOOD
TEST
S
REDUCIN
G

3. Identification Tests
3.1 Benedict Test for reducing
sugars:
A large amount of reducing
sugar(eg. glucose) gives a brickred precipitate when boiled with
Benedicts solution.
Sucrose(table sugar) is a nonreducing sugar.
Starch Test : Starch turns iodine

IODINE TEST
STARCH

A few drops of iodine solution


+: blue black colour

Benedicts solution

GREEN

no
reducin
g sugar

YELLO
W

ORANG
E

Increasing
amount of
reducing sugar

RED

3.2

Biuret Test for proteins:

Proteins give a violet


colouration with Biuret
reagent.

BIURET TEST
PROTEINS

+: violet colouration

3.3 Emulsion Test for fats:


A white emulsion is formed
in the ethanol emulsion test.

Take note that food samples must


be crushed
for a larger surface area to release
nutrients and for a more accurate

ETHANOL EMULSION TEST


FATS

LIQUID FOOD
1) 2 cm3 ethanol + a drop of test solution
2) Shake
3) Add 2 cm3 water
4) Shake
+: cloudy white emulsion

GREASE SPOT TEST FOR FATS

DCPIP test for vitamin C


starts off as blue then will
become colourless by
absorbing acid from the

DNA

DNA

two strands coiled together to form a double helix


each strand contains chemicals called bases
(nucleic acids)
cross-links between the strands are formed by
pairs of bases
The bases always pair up the same way: A with T,
and C with G
A- adenine
T thymine
C- cytosine
G Guanine

Proteins

Different
sequences of
amino acids give
different shapes
to protein
molecules.

Types of proteins
The shape and structure of protein molecules are specific to
their function :
Enzymes (binding site)
Haemoglobin (binding site)
Protein pumps (passage way)
Antibodies (binding site)
Hormones (body functions)