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PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY

SECTION OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section you will be
able to:
1. Define terms related to
parasitology and entomology

2.
3.
4.

Explain types of parasites and


host
Describe the relationship between
the parasites and the host
Outline the effects of the parasites
on the host

4.

Outline the effects of the


environment on the parasites and
host

DEFINITION OF TERMS
PARASITOLOGY
The scientific study of parasites
ENTOMOLOGY
The scientific study of insects

PARASITE
A living organism which depends
on another organism for food and
shelter

HOST
A large organism which provides
food and shelter for the other small
organism

SYMBIOSIS
This is a close association between
the host and parasite both are so
dependent upon each other

COMMENSALISM
This is a relationship in which the
parasite only gets benefit without
causing any injury to the host Eg.
Entamoeba coli in human intestine

PARASITISM
An association in which the
parasite gets benefit from the host
and always causes injury to the
host

ALLERGY
It is a response within the body to a
substance which is not necessarily
harmful in itself but results in a
reaction that causes symptoms

ANAEMIA
A condition characterised by
abnormally low level of
haemoglobin or red blood cells that
can be caused by poor diet or
parasites

PATHOGENIC
This is an organism that causes
disease
PATHOGENIC PARASITE
A disease-causing parasite eg.
plasmodium

PATHOGENICITY
The degree to which something
can cause a disease or the ability
of a parasite to cause damage to a
host

DISEASE
This is impairment of normal
physiological function affecting all
or part of an organism

CONTROL
Means stopping something which
has already occurred
PREVENTION
Means taking action to stop
something from happening

TYPES OF PARASITES
ENDOPARASITES
A parasite that lives inside another
organism (host) depending on it fro
food and shelter Eg. Plasmodium

ECTOPARASITE
A parasite that lives outside (on the
body) of another organism (host)
depending on it for food and
shelter eg. Lice and ticks

OBLIGATE PARASITE
This parasite completely
dependent on the host during a
segment or all of its life eg.
Plasmodium

FACULTATIVE PARASITE
An organism that exhibits both
parasitic and non-parasitic modes
of living

ACCIDENTAL PARASITE
This is a parasite that attacks an
unnatural host and survives Eg.
Hymenolepis diminuta (Rat
tapeworm)

ERRATIC PARASITE
This is a parasite that wanders in
the hosts body to an organ in
which it is not usually found Eg.
Entamoeba histolytica in the liver
or lung of humans

TYPES OF HOST
DEFINITIVE HOST
A host that harbours a parasite in the
adult/mature stage Eg. A human

INTERMEDIATE HOST
A host that harbours the
larval/immature stages of the
parasite or in which the asexual
cycle of development takes place

PARATENIC HOST
An animal that acts as a substitute
intermediate host of a parasite,
usually having acquired the
parasite by ingestion of the original
host

RESERVOIR HOST
An animal or organism that
maintains and makes the parasite
available for transmission to
another host but is usually not
affected by the infection

ACCIDENTAL HOST
This is host that under normal
circumstances is not infected by
the parasite

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE


PARASITE AND THE HOST
Parasite

benefits from the relationship


The host provides the benefits the
parasite
The degree of dependence of the
parasite on the host varies from one
species to another

DISEASE DETERMINANT FACTORS

The following are the three main


determinant factors of diseases:
AGENT: This is the disease
causing organisms

HOST: This is the human or animal


that comes into contact with the
agent

ENVIRONMENT: The ecological


conditions that favour the
interaction of host and agent eg.
Swampy areas, and bushes

THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRID


Also

called Epidemiological cycle


or Disease causation triangle

DIAGRAM OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL
TRID

Cont.
All

communicable diseases require


the three factors for the individual
to be affected
A vector is an organism that
transmits or carries an agent from
one human to another

Cont.
Some

parasites require a vector to


complete their developmental cycle
The disease which results from this
transmission is known as Vector
borne disease

Control

and prevention measures


can be implemented by breaking
the chain between host, agent and
environment

TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN


HOST AND PARASITE
Symbiosis
Commensalism
Parasitism

and

EFFECTS OF PARASITE ON THE HOST

The damage the parasite produces


in the host can be classified into
two;
Direct
Indirect

Cont.
DIRECT EFFECTS
Mechanical injury
Deleterious effect of toxic
substances
Immunosupression
Irritation of skin and tissues

Cont.
Wasting

(Cachexia, Spoliatrices)
Allergic reaction
Superinfection

INDIRECT EFFECTS
Tissue damage due to
immunological reaction
Excessive proliferation of certain
tissues

Fibrosis

of liver due to deposition


of the ova of schistosoma

Note: The main effect is


immunological reaction

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON
THE PARASITES AND HOST
Effect of temperature
Effect of moisture
Effect of wind

Effect

of light
Effect of soil pH
Effect of herbicides

PARASITES AND VECTORS OF


MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

By the end of this section you will be


able to
1. Explain the classification of
parasites and vectors of medical
importance

Cont.
2.
3.
4.

Describe nematodes of medical


importance
Describe cestodes of medical
importance
Describe trematodes of medical
importance

5.
6.
7.

Describe protozoa of medical


importance
Describe helminths of medical
importance
Describe vectors of medical
importance

CLASSIFICATION OF PARASITES OF
MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

Classified into four main groups:


1. Nematodes (Round worms)
2. Cestodes (Tape worms)
3. Trematodes
4. Protozoa

NEMATODES
These are:
Ascaris lumblicoides
Tricuris trichiura (Whip worm)
Enterobius vermicularis (Thread,
pin or seat worm)

Strongloides

stercoralis

Hookworm
Trichnella

spiralis
Winchereria Bancrofti (Filariasis)
Loa loa

Onchocerca

volvulus (The blinding

worm)
Drancunculus medinesis (The
guinea worm)

CESTODES
These are:
Taenia Solium (Pork tape worm)
Taenia Saginata (Beef tape worm)
Dwarf tape worm (Hymenolopis
nana)

Diphyllobothirium

latum (Fish tape

worm)
Echinococcus garanulosus (Dog
tape worm)
Larval forms of cestode infection in
man (Paganosis)

TREMATODES
These are:
Schistosomiasis species
Clonorchis Sinensia (Liver fluke)
Paragonimus Westermani (The
lung fluke)

Fasciola

hepatica (The sheep liver

fluke)
Fasiola buski

PROTOZOA
These are:
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium malariae

VECTORS
These are:
Fleas
Snail
Ticks
Lice

Cockroach
Tsetse

flies
Black flies
Mosquitoes

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
Please, during home stay read on
the following headings:
Morphological characteristics of
parasites and vectors
Modes of transmission of parasites

The

disease process and


Prevention and control measures
Other remaining subtopics

PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE
PREVENTION AND CONTROL

By the end of this section you will be


able to:
1. Explain the principles of disease
prevention and control
2. Explain the standard precautions
in infection prevention and control

Preventive measures fall into two


categories:
1. Physical approaches
2. Chemical approaches

PHYSICAL APPROACHES
Eating thoroughly cooked food
Washing hands before eating
Personal hygiene like use of
latrines

Thorough

wash of fruits
Boiling drinking water

CHEMICAL APPROACHES
Involves use of chemical substances
to kill or eliminate the parasites for
example:
Chemoprophylaxis

Treatment

(Metronidazole tabs
against Giardia lamblia)
Use of chemical agents aimed at
killing the parasites/organisms for
example chlorination

CONTROL OF VECTORS
Physical control of vectors
Intervening the life cycle of vectors
using other approaches without
chemicals:
Drying stagnant water against
mosquitoes

Cleaning

methods

bushes and many other

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF
VECTORS
Application of chemical substance
like insecticides and larvicides

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF
VECTORS
Approach by which large
organisms is used to feed on the
smaller organisms

LEVELS OF DISEASE PREVENTION


AND CONTROL

PRIMARY PREVENTION:
It is the action taken before the onset
of disease
Immunization
Environmental sanitation

Accident

prevention
Protection from occupational
hazards
Change in life style

SECONDARY PREVENTION
It is the action which stops the
progression of the disease
Early diagnosis
Appropriate treatment

Case

finding programmes

TERTIARY PREVENTION
It is used when the disease has
advanced beyond its early stages
to prevention disabilities and

PRICINPLES OFDISEASE
PREVENTION AND CONTROL

Attacking the source


Treatment
Isolation
Reservoir control
Notification

Transmission
Environmental sanitation
Personal hygiene
Behavior change
Vector control

Disinfection

and sterilization

Protecting the host


Immunization
Chemoprophylaxis
Personal protection
Better nutrition

Reducing the number of infection


causing microorganisms
present
Hand hygiene
Cleaning instruments

Preparing

skin before intravenous

insertion
Killing or inactivating infectiouscausing microorganisms
Creating barriers to prevent
infectious agents from spreading

IDENTIFACATION OF
PARASITOLOGICAL SPECIMENS

Parasitological specimens Are any


biological specimens collected for
the identification of parasites

Forms of parasitological specimens


Blood
Stool
Urine
Skin snips
Tissues

Sputum
Cerebral

spinal fluid (CSF)

Quality assurance
Definition
Quality assurance are all steps and
procedures which need to be taken
to ensure the reliability of the
results

Includes:
Control of collection
Control of transportation of
specimens
Control measures to ensure
reliable performance of tests

Correct

reporting of the results

Importance of quality assurance:


Facilitates correct laboratory
results
Leads to true diagnosis
Ensures appropriate treatment

Minimizes

expenses
Patients will not stay for long time
in the hospital