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# EQUILIBRIUM AND

ELASTICITY
ANDETA VALENTINO
M IMAM SAPUTRA
LECTURER : H. ISMAIL THAMRIN, S.T., M.T.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING B 2016
SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY

## Condition for Equilibrium

Particle is in equilibrium that is, the particle does not accelerate in
an inertial frame of reference if the vector sum of all the forces
acting on the particle is zero,
, the equivalent statement
is that the center of mass of the body has zero acceleration if the
vector sum of all external forces acting on the body is zero.

Condition of Equilibrium

Center of Gravity
Entire force of gravity(weight) is concentrated at a point called
the center of gravity. The acceleration due to gravity decreases
with altitude; but if we can ignore this variation over the
vertical dimension of the body, then the bodys center of
gravity is identical to its center of mass. Center of mass are
given by

Elasticity
Elasticity (elasticity) is the ability (ability) of a solid object to
return to its original shape as soon as the external force acting
on it is lost / eliminated. Deformation (deformation) in the
elastic solid objects follow the rules that Robert Hooke later
known as Hooke's law

## Stress, Strain, and Hookes law

Hookes law states that in elastic deformations, stress (force per
unit area) is
proportional to strain (fractional deformation). The
proportionality
constant is called the elastic modulus.
Stress :
Strain :

## Tensile and compressive stress

Tensile stress is tensile force per unit area,
Tensile strain
is fractional change in length,
The elastic modulus is called
Youngs modulus Y. Compressive stress and strain are defined in
the same way

Bulk stress
Pressure in a fluid is force per unit area. Bulk stress is pressure
change,
and bulk strain is fractional volume change,
The elastic modulus is called the bulk modulus, B.
Compressibility, k, is the reciprocal of bulk modulus

Shear stress
Shear stress is force per unit area,
for a force applied
tangent to a surface. Shear strain is the displacement x of one
side divided by the transverse dimension h. The elastic
modulus is called the shear modulus, S.

## The limits of Hookes law

The proportional limit is the maximum stress for which stress
and strain are proportional. Beyond the proportional limit,
Hookes law is not valid. The elastic limit is the stress beyond
which irreversible deformation occurs. The breaking stress, or
ultimate strength, is the stress at which the material breaks.

Example
1. A child climbing a rope and stopped at the position as shown in the following figure !

Determine the stress-stress of the rope that secures the child if the child is a mass
of 50 kg !
2. a wire with sectional area of 2 mm, then stretched by a force of 5.4 N so that the
length increases by 5 cm. When the length of wire first is 30 cm, how much modulus
of elasticity of the wire?

Solution
1.

## Explanation of all force that work in the system

Condition of Equilibrium :

2. A = 2 mm2 = 2.10

-6

F = 5,4 N
l = 5 cm = 5.10-2 m
lo = 30 cm = 3.10-1 m
Modulus young = [5,4 x 3.10-1]/[2.10-6 x 5.10-2] = 1,62.107
N/m2