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Chapter 1

Establishing a Framework
for Business
Communication

Purposes of Business
Communication
To Inform
To Persuade
To Convey
Goodwill
To Establish
Credibility
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2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Communication
Theprocessofexchanging
informationandmeaning
betweenoramongindividuals
throughacommonsystemof
symbols,signs,andbehavior.

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Key Ingredients to Career Success

Integrity
Interpersonal skills
Communication

Based on a survey of 500 CEOS: Smith, K. V., and Savoian, R. (1991, December 21). Climbing to the top: Rising
through the corporate ladder. Review of Business, St. Johns University.

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Other Career Skills

Receptive to new ideas and


innovative approaches

Committed to continued career


learning

Have expertise and ability to


think in general terms

Finds humor in work situations

Can lead others

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Communication Process
Model

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Communication Process: The


Exchange
Decoding The
Message
Encoding The
Message

The process of
interpreting the
message

The process of
selecting and
organizing the
message

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Communication Channels

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Communication Flow in Organizations


Formal Network Flow
Followsacompanysformal
organizationchartcreatedby
management.
Controlsindividualandgroupbehavior.
Achievestheorganizationsgoals.
Dictatedbythecultural,technical,
political,andeconomicenvironmentof
theorganization.
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2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Formal Network Flow in an


Organization
Downward Communication
Supervisor to employee

Upward Communication
Feedback to downward
communication

Horizontal Communication
Interaction between
organizational units on the
same hierarchical level
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Communication Flow in Organizations


Informal Network Flow

Developsaspeopleinteractwithinthe
formalcommunicationsystemandcertain
behaviorpatternsemergepatternsthat
accommodatesocialandpsychological
needs.
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Flow of Information
Within an Organization

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In your experience, what kind of


interference causes the most difficulties?

1. Background noise
2. Movement in your field of
vision
3. Your thinking ahead for a
response
4. Room temperature
2

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

13

External Factors Influencing Business


Communication
LEGAL & ETHICAL

DIVERSITY

International Laws
Domestic Laws
Code of Ethics
Stakeholder Interests
Ethical Frameworks
Personal Values

TEAM ENVIRONMENT

Trust
Team Roles
Shared Goals and Expectations
Synergy
Group Reward
Distributed Leadership

Cultural Differences
Language Barriers
Gender Issues
Education Levels
Age Factors
Nonverbal Differences

TECHNOLOGY

Accuracy and Security Issues


Telecommunications
Software Applications
High-touch Issues
Telecommuting
Databases

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Stakeholders:
Those affected by decisions,
including ethical decisions.
Are people inside and outside
an organization.

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Ways to Deal with Pressure to Compromise Your Ethics:

Consider your personal value system


early.
Become aware of a tendency to
rationalize.
Learn to analyze ethical dilemmas.

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

16

Communicate Ethically & Responsibly

State information as truthfully and fairly


as possible

Do not exaggerate facts

Express ideas understandably

Support viewpoint with facts

State ideas with consideration that


preserves receivers self-worth

Design honest graphics

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Causes of Illegal and Unethical Behavior

profits
Excessive emphasis on _______
Misplaced corporate loyalty
__________
personal
Obsession with _________
advancement
caught
Expectation of not getting _______
tone set by top management
Unethical _____
___________ about whether an action is
Confusion
wrong
Unwillingness to take a ______
stand

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Four Dimensions of
Business Behavior

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Diversity Challenges
International
Intercultural
Intergenerational
Gender

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Viva la Difference
Learn about the persons culture
Have patience with yourself and the
other person
Get help when you need it
Participate in diversity
initiatives that boost morale,
creativity, and productivity

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Barriers to Intercultural Communication


Ethnocentrism
Stereotypes
Chronemics - Interpretation of time
Proxemics - Personal space requirements
Haptics Touching
Kinesics - Body language
Translation limitations
Common Sense Approach
4

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Team Environment
Organization of the Future
Small group with complementary
skills, working together for a
common purpose
A Way to Remain Competitive
in a Global Market

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Synergy

The whole is greater


than
the sum of the parts.
4

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Benefits of Work Teams


Make workers happier by causing them
to feel they are shaping their jobs
Increase efficiency by eliminating layers
of managers passing down orders and
monitoring performance
Enable a company to draw on the skills
and imagination of the whole work force

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Communication Patterns
for Successful Teams
Trust-building changes communication
patterns
Open meetings educate employees
Shared leadership involves management
and employees
Information flows up to management,
down to workers, and horizontally among
teams
4

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Important Team Skills

Problem-solving, goalsetting and


Conflict
resolution
Effective communication
skills
Ability to deal with barriers
Ability to understand needs
of
coworkers
Distributed leadership
skills
Commitment
to evaluate
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Impact of Technology
Collect and organize data better
Craft clearer and more effective
messages
Overcome distance issues
Raise legal and ethical issues

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Legal and Ethical Implications


of Technology
Information
ownership
Information
access
Threats to
privacy
4

2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Global Marketing Requires


Careful Communication

EuroDisney

Presumed U.S. policies would work in


Europe

McDonalds
and
Coca-Cola

Placed the flags of the 24 nations


participating in the World Cup on
packaging; Saudi Arabias flag
contains sacred words from the
Koran.

Wal-Mart

Kept English labels on products in the


Mexico City Store. Mexican
customers prefer the status-symbol of
American packaging

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Changing U.S. Work Force


Age Demographics

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