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3G RANOP RU30

Module 2 Performance Monitoring

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NSN Siemens Networks

Course Content
KPI definition
Performance monitoring
Air interface optimization
Traffic monitoring
Capacity enhancement

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NSN Siemens Networks

Module Objectives
At the end of the module you will be able to:
Describe 3G RAN performance monitoring hierarchy

Describe the mechanisms for call analysis related to

Busy hour
Paging, RRC and RAB setup and access failure
Session setup failure for NRT and HSPA
SHO, ISHO, relocation and SCC failure
RAB, DCH, radio link and HSPA drop

List possible reasons for failures and improvement activities

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Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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KPI analysis hierarchy


Performance data hierarchy
Available data can be classified as in the figure below
There is no point to look at detailed data if the bigger picture is not clear

More details
More
understandi
ng
More
complexity
More cost
and time in
acquisition

KPIs (e.g. CSSR, CDR by Traffica)


Service level
(RRC / RAB / PS session)
SHO SCC IFHO ISHO
Cell resource (TCP, RTWP, codes)
BTS / Iub / RNC resources
Signalling (RRC, NBAP, RNSAP, RANAP)
Interface trace and probe statistics

Subscriber trace, ICSU logs (NSN internal use only


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KPI analysis hierarchy


Cell and cluster specific performance
- Handover performance
- Traffic
- Cell resources
- Iub signalling
KPIs and counters
detect faults at different layers

Availability of neighbour cell


Missing adjacency has impact both
on serving and neighbouring cell

Iub
WBTS
- Cell availability
- Failures due to Radio, BTS, transport
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NSN Siemens Networks

KPI analysis hierarchy


Cell and cluster specific performance
Complexity of performance data increases with number of cells in the network
Almost all data have to be analysed at cell or WBTS level
But evaluation over time and comparison between large areas (cities, RNCs)
still required

Cell Availability
Failures due to Radio, to BTS, to transport
Handover Performance
Traffic
Cell Resources
Iub Signalling
Some data better analysed at RNC level
Here only time evolution and RNC comparison are useful

Failures due the RNC, Iu, Iur


NAS and relocation signalling
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KPI analysis hierarchy


Analysis priority
Too big lists of results will irritate consultants
Main impacts must be visible and manageable for hands on task
Different tables of different data warehouse must be verifiable
Data / KPI benchmark should be easy
Cell ID CDR/%

List top 10-20 worst cells


E.g. those of highest CDR

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KPI analysis hierarchy


Highest analysis priority for cells of highest failure rate

Quick fault diagnostics due to priority of worst cells


Few bad cells (here 3 of 90)
cause already about of all
drops

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KPI analysis hierarchy


Highest analysis priority for cells of highest failure rate
Either total number of failures or failure rate (%) can be used

Total number of failures directly proportional to loss of


income for operator

Cell with high failure rate might not have high priority, if
total traffic is low

To reach more uniform performance

Consider statistics with some periodicity large enough (e.g.


per month)

Consider filter requesting minimum number of attempts /


failures per cell depending on network traffic (reduce
statistical fluctuations)

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Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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Call setup busy hour


Busy hour on the basis of traffic sum
MAX (CS_VOICE_CALL_DL + CS_DATA_CALL_CONV_DL +
CS_DATA_CALL_STREAM_DL + PS_DATA_CALL_CONV_DL +
PS_DATA_STREAM_DL + PS_DATA_CALL_INTERA_DL +
PS_DATA_CALL_BACKG_DL)

Traffic sum RT / NRT


e.g. by NetAct

RT and NRT summed every hour


Each counter represents product bit rate * allocation duration
Hour with maximum value taken as BH
1h

1h
1h

0
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1h
BH
CSSR
CDR

12 h

24 h

Call setup busy hour


Busy hour on the basis of data volume (example on RNC level)
6

Data volume / GByte


5

Voice, GB (AF50%)
R99_DL, GB (25 % AF)
R99_UL, GB (25 % AF)
HSDPA DL, GB (100% AF)

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Time / h

Call setup busy hour


Busy hour daily or weekly
Voice, R99 NRT and HSPA peak traffic can happen at different times
Blocking of specific service not necessarily happening during BH based on
traffic sum

In loaded networks CSSR taken at weekly BH is relevant

Failures originate mostly from congestion (Iub, BTS HW (CEs), radio)

Target call blocking probability designed for BH

In unloaded networks CSSR taken at weekly BH may not yield the hour with
highest blocking (NRT traffic is taken into account as well as RT one)

On cell level needed to compute BH statistic based on absolute time period


(e.g. 16-18h every day)
Daily data may not be accurate enough due to big variations of results
(ongoing operation, system failures, sleeping cells, alarms etc.)

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Call setup bottlenecks


Resource checks

Air Interface

WBTS HW Resources

Transport

RNC

UL interference
DL transmisson power
DL Codes

During call setup (RRC, RAB, PS session)


several resource areas are checked and
physical / logical resources allocated
DSP processing
RLC/MAC

IuB
FSP/ WSP capacity
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(N*) E1 capacity / AAL2 or IP

Call setup paging


Paging types
UE

BS

RNC

CN

Paging

UE in RRC idle
E.g. incoming RT or NRT call

Paging

UE in Cell_PCH or URA_PCH
E.g. inactive NRT RAB and
incoming voice call

Paging type 1

CN initiated

RRC connection request

Paging type 1
RRC cell update
Paging
Paging type 2

UE in Cell_FACH or Cell_DCH
E.g. active NRT RAB and
incoming voice call

RNC initiated

RRC cell update

Incoming data
Paging type 1
RRC cell update

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UE in Cell_PCH or URA_PCH
NRT RAB inactive, but still data
arriving from core network
RNC pages UE to take the data

Call setup paging


Paging channels
PCH with 8 Kbit/s
Standard implementation
With 80 bit per page message up to 100 pages / s supported per cell
Has SF256
Default power setting 5 dB below CPICH (28 dBm = 0.63 W, 3% of
maximum power of 20 W cell)

PCH with 24 Kbit/s


Optionally available since RU20
With 80 bit per page message up to 300 pages / s supported per cell
Has SF128 Maximum of 14 codes for HSDPA, if additionally HSUPA
with 2ms TTI in use
Default power setting 2 dB below CPICH (31 dBm = 1.26 W, 6% of
maximum power of 20 W cell)

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Call setup paging


Code tree with 24K PCH

HSUPA with 2ms TTI requires


additionally fractional DPCH
For F-DPCH no place on first
sub-tree any more

Cch,256,15
Cch,256,14
E-AGCH 2 ms
E-AGCH 10 ms
Cch,128,6
Cch,128,5
E-HICH & E-RGCH
HS-SCCH

But loss of 1 HSDPA code not


critical
Probability, that air interface
allowes 15 codes, usually less
than 1:1000
Loss of 3% of maximum cell
power by 24K PCH much more
significant

Cch,128,4
Cch,16,0
S-CCPCH 2 PCH with 24 K
PICH

Cch,64,1

AICH
Cch,256,3
S-CCPCH 1 FACH

Cch,256,2
Cch,256,1
Cch,256,0

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P-CCPCH
CPICH

Call setup paging


Paging monitoring
Difference
Pages lost by PCH blocking

Check number of page


messages forwarded to PCH
(M1006)

Check number of pages


transmitted by PCH
(M1000)

Difference
Low air interface performance

Paging Type 1 Att CN Orig


Messages originating from
core network

Ave PCH Throughput /


PCH Throughput Denom 0 =
Throughput on PCH

Check number of responses


to paging
(M1006)

Paging Type 1 Att RNC Orig


Messages originating from
RNC

Throughput / 80 Bit =
Number of pages per second

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Call setup paging


Paging optimization
PCH blocking
Standard rule: If average throughput < 70% of maximum throughput
than blocking rate < 1 %
In case of too high blocking rate
1) Instead of 1 S-CCPCH (shared by FACH and PCH) 2 S-CCPCH (one
for FACH, one for 8K PCH)
2) Instead of 8K PCH 24K PCH
3) Reduce size of LA and RA

No response to paging
Check DL performance (RSCP, Ec/Io, S-CCPCH power settings) UE
might not be capable to decode page messages
Check UL performance (RTWP, RACH procedure parameter settings)
response of UE might not arrive at BTS

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Call setup - phases


Setup

Access
Complete

Attempts

Setup
Complete

Access

Active
Active
Complete
Access

Phase:

Active
Release
Active
Failures

Access failures
Setup failures
(blocking)
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RRC connection setup


RAN resources reserved for
signaling connection between UE
and RNC
RRC access
Connection between UE and RRC
RRC active
UE has RRC connection
If dropped, also active RAB
dropped
RAB setup
Attempts to start call
RAB setup access
Connection between UE and core
RRC RAB active phase
UE has RAB connection

Success

RRC and RAB

Drop

CSSR affected if any of the following


events takes place

RRC Connection Setup Fail

RRC Connection Access Fail

RAB Setup Fail

RAB Setup Access Fail

Call setup successful RRC establishment


Signalling and trigger
UE

Three phase for RRC

Node B

M1001C0

RNC

Counter

[RACH] RRC Connection Request

AC to check to accept
or reject RRC
Connection Request
NBAP RL Setup Request

RRC Connection Setup


phase

Start
Start TX/RX
TX/RX

Allocation of UTRAN
resources

NBAP RL Setup Response


ALCAP ERQ
ALCAP ECF
[FACH] RRC: RRC Connection Setup

M1001C1

Start TX/RX

RRC Connection
Access phase

L1 Synchronisation
NBAP Synchronization Indication

[DCH] RRC Connection Setup Complete

M1001C8
RRC Connection Active phase
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Waiting for UE reply

M1001C8 = successful RRC


M1001C0 establishment

Call setup failure of RRC establishment


Failure causes
UE

RNC

BTS

CN

RRC connection Request


RRC SETUP phase
(Resource Reservation in
RNC)
RRC connection Setup
RRC ACCESS phase
(RNC waits for Reply from
UE)
RRC connection Setup Complete
RRC ACTIVE phase
RRC: Initial Direct Transfer
RANAP: Initial UE Message
UE-CN Signalling
(E.g. RAB Establishment and Release)
RANAP: Iu Release Command
RRC: RRC connection Release
RRC: RRC connection Release Complete
Release RRC resources in RNC,
BTS, Transport
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RRC SETUP fails if some of needed resources (RNC, BTS,


air, transport) are not available
When RRC setup failure occurs the RNC sends RRC
CONNECTION REJECT message to UE
RRC ACCESS fails if
UE does not reply to RRC CONNECTION SETUP message
with RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message within
given time
BTS reports radio link synchronisation failure
RNC internal failure occurs
RRC ACTIVE fails when an interface related (Iu, Iur , Iub, or
radio) or RNC internal failure occurs, and the failure causes
the release of the RRC Connection
When an RRC active failure occurs, the RNC send RANAP IU
RELEASE REQUEST to all involved CNs and waits for
RANAP IU RELEASE COMMAND message(s)
RRC ACTIVE release cause NOT indicating a drop can
be either
Normal release
IFHO / ISHO
Relocation
Pre-emption

Call setup analysis process


Flow chart for RRC / RAB
Top (N) RAB Setup and Access
or PS Setup failures

Top (N) RRC Setup


and Access failures

Serving and neighbour


cells availability
Alarms/Tickets

Setup
Failure
Cause?

Sites
OK ?

RNC
BTS/TRANS/

Yes
Setup
/Access

Frozen BTS

Setup

AC

Setup
Troubleshooti
ng
UL/DL
Interferen
ce (DL
codes)

Access

Capacity
Optimisation
Access
Yes
3G cell at
inter-RNC
border ?

Relocation
troubleshootin
g

NO

RF
Optimisation

Interference

Coverage
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Setup
/Access

Coverage/
Interferen
ce

Call setup failure


Failure overview
RRC or RAB setup failure can be due to
Coverage or interference
Capacity
AC for radio capacity issues (UL load, DL load, DL spreading codes)
BTS for channel element (FSM or WSP) capacity issues
TRANS for Iub capacity issues

RNC problem
RNC fault
Failure of incoming relocation

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Call setup RRC setup failure


Failure cause example

Dominating failure cause


during RRC setup due to

BTS
Check e.g. channel cards
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RRC setup failure analysis


RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_AC
Check UL interference, DL power and code occupancy (M1000)
UL power spikes Disable UL admission control if number of failures is critical

RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_BTS
Evaluate NBAP counters (radio link setup failures) for troubleshooting BTS resources (M1005)
Check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and CE allocation use channel element counters in
order to evaluate lack of channel elements (M5001)

Expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site


In case BTS is not responding delete and re-create COCO

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RRC setup failure analysis


RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_TRANS
Evaluate number of reconfiguration failures due the transmission
Check COCO configuration
Use AAL2 Mux in case of two WAM
Expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site

RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNTI ALLO FAIL


RNC decides to reject RRC connection request due to RNTI allocation
failure caused by RRMU overload

RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC
Typically RNC fault or incoming SRNC relocation failure
Requires ICSU log tracing if no RNC fault or SRNC relocation problem

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Call setup RRC setup optimization


Common channel setup

Network access of UE via Cell_FACH

RACH and FACH transport channels used for call setup

Call setup on CCH is faster than on DCH

All time consuming procedures move to Cell_DCH

Depending on Ec/Io and CCH load/power status, UE moves to Cell_DCH

With I-phone
not possible
Quicker access
via RACH/FACH
for UE
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NSN Siemens Networks

Call setup RRC setup optimization


Common channel setup
UE

BS

RNC

RRC Connection Request


RRC Connection Setup
RRC Connection Setup Compete

CN

RRC SETUP PHASE

No RL setup
No CAC
No AAL setup

RRC ACCESS PHASE

RAB ass. req.

RAB SETUP PHASE

CM service request
Security procedures

Radio Bearer Setup


Radio Bearer Setup Complete

No RL setup
No CAC
No AAL setup

RAB ACCESS PHASE

RAB ass. resp.


Cell_FACH state used for subsequent signaling
UE enters Cell_FACH e.g. for pure signaling procedure like LA update
Traffic Volume Measurements performed in Cell_FACH state
Cell_DCH used once channel type switching selected DCH or HSPA transport channel
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Call setup RRC setup optimization


Common channel setup
Allocation of RACH / FACH or DCH based on establishment cause
received from UE (22 causes)

Available SRB bit rate on DCH 3.4 kbps or 13.6 kbps configurable
by parameter

RACH and FACH load continuously monitored in RNC (too high


load prevents common channel setup default = 75% load)

Air interface quality (CPICH Ec/Io) criteria has impact on common


channel allocation (default Ec/Io -8 dB required)

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Call setup RRC access failure


Failure definitions

L1 Synchronisation

X
X

NBAP: Synchronisation Indication


RRC Connection Setup Complete
UE

BTS

No L1 synchronization
Failure due to radio

No response from UE
Failure due to UE
Cell reselection or directed RRC
setup (no error)

L1 Synchronisation
NBAP: Synchronisation Indication
RRC Connection Setup Complete
UE

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BTS

RNC

RNC

Call setup RRC access failure


Failure cause example

Dominating failure cause for RRC access due to radio


But for a few days dominating failure due to RNC
Check e.g. ICSU and DSPs

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RRC access failure analysis


RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO
Dominant failure cause
Perform drive test to detect if lack of UL or DL coverage
UL coverage tune cell dominance if cause is UL interference
DL coverage tune S-CCPCH power if UE does not receive RRC connection setup message

RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS
UL coverage tune cell dominance (CPICH) in order to balance UL and DL (if UL interference
not the cause

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Call setup RRC access optimization


Fast Layer 1 synchronization

UE starts transmitting
without Post
Verification

Quicker access due to post verification of QoS


If CPHY-Sync-IND primitive quality sufficiently
good, UE starts 70 ms quicker
Faults due to radio will decrease, faults due to
UE (post verification) will increase

The total delay before UE starts UL


transmission is reduced by 70 ms.

40 ms window

[RRC Connection Setup (FACH)

40 ms window

RRC Connection Access phase

ms window
50 ms 40
window

Node B starts transmitting

40 ms window
UE starts transmitting
with Post Verification

UE stops transmitting if
verification check fails

10 ms radio
frames
UE starts receiving,
mobile is listing on FACH

40 ms window

UE L1 collects 40 ms
of quality
measurements
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Post verification
check

Call setup successful RAB establishment


Signalling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

CN

CM service request

AC

RAB ass. req.

M1001C66 RAB STP ATT

RL rec. prepare
RL rec. ready

Iu CS
RNC internal
resources
AAL2
CAC

AAL2 sig. ERQ

RAB_STP_ATTEMPTS

RNC Iub internal


resources
AAL2
CAC

RAB SETUP PHASE

AAL2 sig. ECF


RL rec. commit

AAL2 sig. ERQ


M1001C73 RAB STP CPL
AAL2 sig. ECF

Radio Bearer Setup


Exception: release of the RAB
during SETUP or ACCESSE phase

Radio Bearer Setup Complete

RAB ass. resp. (failure cause,


if resources missing)

RAB ACCESS PHASE


RAB_ACC_COMPLETE

RAB ass. resp. (success)

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RAB_STP_COMPLETE

M1001C115 RAB ACC CPL

Call setup RAB setup failure


Failure cause example for voice
Many CS RAB setup failure causes
due to AC, Iub and BTS

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RAB setup failure analysis


RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_AC (not done in case of NRT RAB)

Check UL interference, DL power and code occupancy

Evaluate AMR voice and PS 64K code congestion

RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_BTS

Evaluate NBAP counters (radio link reconfiguration failures) for troubleshooting BTS resources
(M1005)

Check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and CE allocation use channel element counters in
order to evaluate lack of channel elements (M5001)

Expand capacity or decrease traffic offered to the site

In case BTS is not responding delete and re-create COCO

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RAB setup failure analysis


RAB_STP_FAIL_XXX_TRANS

Evaluate number of reconfiguration failures due the transmission

Check COCO Configuration

RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_MS

Evaluate cell resources TCP and RTWP (for example high uplink interference)

Check radio bearer reconfiguration failure ratio

RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_RNC

Typically RNC fault or incoming SRNC relocation failure

Requires ICSU log tracing if no RNC fault or SRNC relocation problem

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Call setup RAB access failure


Failure cause example for voice
Many CS RAB access failure
causes due to UE

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RAB access failure analysis


RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_MS
Evaluate cell resources TCP and RTWP (for example high uplink interference)
Check radio bearer reconfiguration failure ratio

RAB_ACC_FAIL_XXX_RNC
Typically RNC fault or incoming SRNC relocation failure
Requires ICSU log tracing if no RNC fault or SRNC relocation problem

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Call setup successful PS session establishment


Signalling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Capacity request

AC

RL rec. prepare
RL rec. ready
AAL2 sig. ERQ

RNC Iub internal


resources
AAL2
CAC

PS session SETUP PHASE

AAL2 sig. ECF


RL rec. commit
Radio Bearer Reconfig.

PS session ACCESS PHASE


Radio Bearer Reconfig. Complete

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Call setup PS session setup failure


Failure cause example

Fault analysis completely analog to RRC and RAB


Many PS RAB setup failure causes
due to UE and AC

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Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

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Call drop analysis process


Flow chart for RAB
Serving and neighbour
cells availability
Alarms/Tickets

Top (N) drops


Neighbour performance
(use SHO success per adjacency
counters to identify badly
performing neighbours) and map
Site OK ?
YES

Configuration and
parameter audit

YES
SHO
Success
Rate <
90%?

SHO

3G Cell at
RNC
border?

ISHO
Failures

2G Cell Doctor
2G
Investigation
TCH blocking or
TCH seizure
failure
(interference)
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NO
YES

ISHO
Success
Rate <
90%

Iur
performance

Investigation
Iur

New site ?
Analyse last
detailed radio
measurements

NO

3G cell at
inter-RNC
border ?

YES
No cell
found
ratio >40
%

YES

YES

NO
ISHO

Audit adjacent sites for


alarms, availability,
configuration and
capacity

NO

Conf OK ?

Traffic

3G cell
covers over
a coverage
hole ?

YES

No cell
found ratio
> 90 % and
enough
ADJG

RF and IFHO
neighbour
optimisation

RF and ISHO
neighbour
optimisation

Wrong reference
clock (10MHz tuning)

Call drop analysis


Failure cause example for voice
Many CS RAB drop causes due
to radio and transmission

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Call drop analysis


Failure cause example for PS
Many PS RAB drop causes
due to UE and radio

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NSN Siemens Networks

Call drop analysis


1. Check high call drop cells and its neighbouring cells for any fault alarms
2. Generate call drop root cause distribution and check for main contributors (radio, BTS,
Iub, Iur, RNC, Iu, MS)

3. Check SHO if success rate < 90% (leads to radio link failure)

4.

Check if cells are at RNC border (check Iur capacity and SRNC relocation problem)

Detect badly performing neighbours using SHO success rate per adjacency counters (M1013)

High incoming HO failure rate from all adjacencies check sync alarms

Assess neighbor list plan and do visualization check with map

Evaluate HO control parameters and trigger thresholds

Check ISHO KPI if RT ISHO < 90% or NRT < 80% (leads to radio failure)

Check missing neighbours (M1015)

Check GSM frequency plan, RNC and MSC database consistency

Check alarm of reference clock in 3G or in 2G

Check 2G TCH congestion

Check RRC drop during ISHO RT / NRT

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Call drop analysis


5. Look for DL or UL path loss problem if RAB drop due to radio dominates

Check UE lost counters (active L1 synchronization failure) to check UL/DL path loss problem

Check active set update failure rate (with cause no response from UE)

Map radio failures with RL power and CPICH related parameters (CPICHToRefRABOffset, PTxDPCHMax)

Check call reestablishment timer (T315)

Check Ec/Io distribution for bad coverage issue (M1007)

6. Check core network parameter setting if RAB drop due to Iu

Check SCCP signaling (MSC / SGSN, RNC, IuCS / IuPS)

7. If high RAB drop due to BTS

Check for any BTS faulty alarm (e.g. 7653 cell faulty alarm)

If no alarms, COCO detach/attach

8. If high RAB drop due to MS

Check physical channel reconfiguration failure rate (IFHO, ISHO, code optimization)

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Call drop analysis


Example for trace of individual dropped call

UE does not find SHO neighbor


Event 1F due to RSCP
UE enters compressed mode
But does not find GSM
neighbor either

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Soft drop - DCH


RT and NRT
RT
If communication between UE and network interrupted, this will
trigger RAB drop

NRT
Interrupted communication between UE and network will not trigger
immediately RAB drop
Network tries to shift UE to Cell_FACH state, i.e. tries to keep RAB
running

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Soft drop - DCH


Failure cause example
Majority of DCH drops still
due to radio

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Two drop cause counters only


Radio
Other

Soft drop radio link failure


Definition
BTS looses synchronization with UE and cannot reestablish it
within specified time
Compare number of radio links deletions due to synchronization
failure with total number radio link setup processes
In SHO radio link failure downgrades coverage only, but does not
trigger immediately DCH or even RAB drop
DEL _ SHO _ SRNC _ ACT _ RL _ SYN _ FAIL
UL _ LOST _ ACT
RL _ BRANCH _ ADD _ SUCC _ SHO _ SRNC
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ FIRST _ RL
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ SHO _ RL
Downlink radio link failure
results in UL synchronization
loss since the UE stops
transmitting
Soc Classification level
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RL deletion due to
synchronization failure
RL setup due to softer HO
RL setup due to initial request
RL setup due to soft HO

Soft drop - radio link failure


Failure example RL deletion by SRNC and DRNC
< 20 % abnormal deletions

Each point represents one cell


Black = RL deletion by SRNC
Red = RL deletion by DRNC

High number of
abnormal radio link
deletions by DRNC

> 50 % abnormal deletions

Soc Classification level


54
NSN Siemens Networks

Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

Soc Classification level


55
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO successful softer HO


Signalling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Measurement report 1A or 1C
AC
RL addition request
RL addition response

BTS resources
needed
But no Iub resources
(no CAC)

SETUP PHASE

If problem, check radio link


addition failure causes (M1005)
Active set update

ACCESS PHASE
Active set update complete

Soc Classification level


56
NSN Siemens Networks

If problem, check air interface


performance

SHO successful soft HO


Signalling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Measurement report 1A or 1C
AC
RL setup request
RL setup response
AAL2 sig. ERQ
AAL2 sig. ECF

BTS resources
needed

SETUP PHASE
And Iub resources
needed (CAC)

If problem, check radio link


setup failure causes (M1005)

Active set update

ACCESS PHASE
Active set update complete

Soc Classification level


57
NSN Siemens Networks

If problem, check air interface


performance

SHO Overhead
Concept and counters
Indicates size of SHO area
If too small, SHO might fail
If too big, capacity is wasted

Counter for calculation of overhead


Consider the time, a call stays in an active set of 1 / 2 / 3 cells, both for RT and
NRT services
ONE_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT
TWO_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT
THREE_CELL_IN_ACT_SET_FOR_(N)RT

Soc Classification level


58
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO Overhead
Concept and counters

Soc Classification level


59
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO Overhead
Cell level
E1A CPICH

E1B CPICH

Offset 4dB

KPI shall give average


number of radio links
during a call

Offset 6dB

SHO
area

cell
cellAA
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ FOR _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT 2
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT 3
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
Total time during which all calls are
running with different AS size
60

Nokia Siemens Networks

Factors 1/2/3
= number of
radio links

Total time of
all calls

cell
cellBB

SHO Overhead
Cell level
Example: RNC area with 3 cells A, B and C
Cell A: 20 s active alone, 10 s with B, 10 s with C, 5 s with B + C
(20 s alone, 20 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell B: 30 s active alone, 10 s with A, 5 s with C, 5 s with A + C


(30 s alone, 15 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell C: 25 s active alone. 10 s with A, 5 s with B, 5 s with A + B


(25 s alone, 15 s with 2 cells, 5 s with 3 cells)

Cell level results


Cell A: Average AS size = (20x1 + 20x2 + 5x3) / (20 + 20 + 5) = 1.67 (67% overhead)
Cell B: Average AS size = (30x1 + 15x2 + 5x3) / (30 + 15 + 5) = 1.50 (50% overhead)
Cell C: Average AS size = (25x1 + 15x2 + 5x3) / (25 + 15 + 5) = 1.56 (56% overhead)

Too big SHO overhead indicated


Soc Classification level
61
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO Overhead
Cell level
Cell level formula gives too high KPI value
Reason:
If e.g. A and B are active, during this time a call is counted both in A and B,
i.e. two times
If e.g. A. B and C are active, during this time a call is counted in A, B and
C, i.e. three times

cell
cellAA
Counted in
cell A only
Counted in cell A and cell B
If cell A active together with B
than cell B also active together
with cell A
Soc Classification level
62
NSN Siemens Networks

cell
cellBB

SHO Overhead
RNC level
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ FOR _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT

KPI compares effective


number of calls with
number of radio links

THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT


ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT / 2
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET _ RT / NRT / 3
Denominators 1/2/3:
Call with 1 radio link

cell
cellAA

Belongs completely to its single


active cell
Cell with 2 radio links
Half the call belongs to each
active cell
Cell with 3 radio links
One third of the call belongs to
each active cell

63

Nokia Siemens Networks

Call belongs
to cell A only

cell
cellBB
Call belongs half to
cell A and half to cell B

SHO Overhead
RNC level
Example: RNC area with 3 cells A, B and C
Cell A: 20 s active alone, 10 s with B, 10 s with C, 5 s with B + C
Cell B: 30 s active alone, 10 s with A, 5 s with C, 5 s with A + C
Cell C: 25 s active alone. 10 s with A, 5 s with B, 5 s with A + B
RNC level results
Cell A, B and C altogether
75 s active alone
50 s with second cell
15 s with third cell
Average AS size = (75 + 50 + 15) / (75/1 + 50/2 + 15/3) = 1.33 (33% overhead)
RNC level KPI gives about half the overhead only than the cell level KPI!!

Realistic SHO overhead indicated

Soc Classification level


64
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO Overhead
RNC level example

Soc Classification level


65
NSN Siemens Networks

Typical target for SHO overhead 40%

SHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
SHO attempts per adjacency
No attempts to distant cell might be removed from neighbor list
No attempts to nearby cell check whether SC of ADJS is declared correctly
in RNC data base
No attempts to inter-RNC cell check whether RNC data bases are consistent
with each other (e.g. SC declarations)

Very few attempts to nearby cell check user distribution and propagation
conditions
Very few attempts in general check addition window setting

Too many attempts to specific neighbor check user distribution and pilot
pollution
Too many attempts in general check addition window setting

Soc Classification level


66
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
SHO success per adjacency
High failure rate (several 10%) besides RL setup / addition failures and air
interface performance check for SC clash
100% failure rate to intra-RNC cell check for HW faults
100% failure rate to inter-RNC cell check for inconsistency between RNC
and core network data base (e.g. CI, LAC and RAC declarations)

Attempt and success per adjacency monitored by AutoDef SHO


counters (M1013)
SHO_success_per_ADJS_RNC

Soc Classification level


67
NSN Siemens Networks

SHO_ADJ_INTRA_FREQ_SHO_COMPL
SHO_ADJ_INTRA_FREQ_SHO_ATT

ISHO successful procedure


Signalling and trigger
U
BT
E
S
RRC: Measurement Report (Event 1F)

RN
C

MS
C

NBAP: RL reconfig. prepare


NBAP: RL reconfig. ready
NBAP: RL reconfig. commit
RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration

UE put into
compressed
mode

RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete


NBAP: CM command
RRC: Measurement Control
RRC: Measurement Report

RxLev
measurements

NBAP: CM command
RRC: Measurement Control

BSIC verification

RRC: Measurement Report


RANAP Relocation required
RANAP Relocation command
RRC: HO from UTRAN Command
Soc Classification level
68
NSN Siemens Networks

RANAP Iu release request

ISHO
execution

ISHO analysis
Flow chart

No

Too low success


rate
Top N cells

No action
needed

Yes

CM Start
Not
Possible?

No

Low ISHO
No
Measurement
success ?

Low ISHO
Success ?

No

Yes
Yes

Check admission
control rejection
TCP and RTWP

Yes
Missing ADJG or
Bad Neighbor
planning ?

Wrong 2G Ncell
Parameter (BSIC)
Or BSIC collision

Non-optimum
Compressed mode
parameter set

Soc Classification level


69
NSN Siemens Networks

Missing or wrong 2G
parameter in 2G MSC
or SGSN (BCCH, LAC,
CellID)
Poor GSM
Coverage
2G Ncell
Congestion
Too low ISHO triggering
threshold or
Too strict ADJG
minimum threshold

Half Rate in 2G
Ncell ?

ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example
Blue = RSCP triggered
Red = Ec/Io triggered
Black = DL RL power triggered
UE power triggered = 0
UL SIR target triggered = 0
HHO mostly triggered by
event 1F
Event 1F again mostly due to
low coverage, but not quality

Soc Classification level


70
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example RSCP under 1F conditions

Usually very low coverage


under event 1F conditions
Consistent with counter
statistics

Soc Classification level


71
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO analysis
ISHO cause example Ec/Io under 1F conditions

Usually acceptable Ec/Io even


under event 1F conditions
Consistent with counter
statistics

Soc Classification level


72
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example no target cell found
Each point represents one cell
100% target cell found

80% target cell found

Soc Classification level


73
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example no target cell found

In several source cells often


failure to find target cell

Soc Classification level


74
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO - analysis
ISHO failure example target cell not accessed

Much less critical to access


target cell

Soc Classification level


75
NSN Siemens Networks

ISHO per adjacency


Concept and counters
ISHO attempts per adjacency
No attempts to distant cell might be removed from neighbor list
No attempts to nearby cell check whether BCCH frequency and BSIC is
declared correctly in RNC data base

ISHO success per adjacency


High failure rate (several 10%) besides air interface performance check for
BCCH-BSIC clash
100% failure rate check for inconsistency between RNC, BSC and core
network data bases (e.g. CI, LAC and RAC declarations)

Attempt and success per adjacency monitored by AutoDef SHO


counters (M1015)
ISHO_success_per_ADJG_RNC

Soc Classification level


76
NSN Siemens Networks

HO_ADJ_INTER_SYS_HHO_COMPL
HO_ADJ_INTER_SYS_HHO_ATT

Inter-RNC mobility
Relocation and anchoring
3GPP options to
use MM

SRNS relocation
CN

Iu
RNC

Iu
RNC

Iu

Iu

RNC

Iur

RNC

S-RNC

Release Iur resources


after drop of last
source RNC cell

SRNS Relocation standardised


mobility method

Anchoring supported in
Nokia SRNC only for CS RT
and PS NRT services within
Cell_DCH

Soc Classification level


77
NSN Siemens Networks

CN

CN

CN

Iu
Iur

SRNC anchoring

Iu

Iu
Iur

D-RNC

RNC

Iu
Iur

RNC

Keep Iur resources


until release of the
call

SRNC Anchoring not as such


standardised mobility method
Can lead to limited mobility at the border
between RNCs of different vendors
But can be implemented by applying
undefined set of standardised features

Inter-RNC mobility
Incoming and outgoing relocation

Relocation procedure and failure detected differently between


source and target RNC

Target RNC
Target RNC sees relocation as incoming RRC connection setup with cause SRNC
relocation

Setup, access and active counters incremented both for RRC and RAB
In case of failures, corresponding setup and access failure counters are
incremented both for RRC and RAB (failure due to RNC)

Source RNC
Source RNC starts relocation procedure and releases finally RRC connection
with cause SRNC relocation

Active release counters incremented both for RRC and RAB


In case of failures, corresponding active failure counters are incremented both for
RRC and RAB (drop due to RNC)

Soc Classification level


78
NSN Siemens Networks

Inter-RNC mobility successful relocation


Signalling and trigger
Core

RNC
Source

RNC
Targe
t

RANAP Relocation required


RANAP Relocation request

UE

SETUP PHASE

RANAP Relocation request ACK


RANAP Relocation command

RRC setup attempt


RRC setup failure due to RNC

ACCESS PHASE

RNSAP Relocation commit

RRC setup complete


RRC access failure due to
radio or RNC

RANAP Relocation detect

RRC UTRAN mobility info


RRC UTRAN mobility info confirm
RANAP Relocation complete
RANAP Iu release
RANAP Iu release complete

Soc Classification level


79
NSN Siemens Networks

ACTIVE PHASE
RRC release due to relocation

Inter-RNC mobility possible failures

Target RNC does not respond to RANAP relocation request or


RNSAP relocation commit (internal RNC or Iu problem)

Target RNC responds with RANAP relocation request NACK (no


resource available in target RAN)

Synchronization failure on Iur (transmission problem)

UE does not respond to RRC UTRAN mobility info (air interface or


UE problem)

Synchronization failure on radio link (air interface problem)

Soc Classification level


80
NSN Siemens Networks

Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

Soc Classification level


81
NSN Siemens Networks

HSDPA setup successful session establishment


Signalling and trigger
UE

BS

RNC

Capacity request
RL rec. prepare
RL rec. ready

session SETUP PHASE

AAL2 sig. ERQ


AAL2 sig. ECF

After RRC establishment two further


AAL links are needed for HSDPA

AAL2 sig. ERQ


AAL2 sig. ECF
RL rec. commit
Radio Bearer Reconfig.
Radio Bearer Reconfig. Complete
HS-DSCH capacity request
HS-DSCH capacity allocation
Soc Classification level
82
NSN Siemens Networks

session ACCESS PHASE

HSDPA setup analysis process


Flow chart

No

High setup
failure rate

Top N cells

Yes
Setup Fail
BTS
Yes

No action
needed

No

Setup Fail UL
return
Channel
Yes

UL power
congestion
?
No
Check CE
resource usage
at BH

Lack of CE mainly problem for UL return DCH


For HSDPA CE reserved per scheduler
For associated DCH on DL just 1 CE per user

Soc Classification level


83
NSN Siemens Networks

No

Setup Fail Iub


Transport
Yes
Check AAL2 Iub
resource
congestion

No

No
Setup Fail UE
Yes
Check RB
reconfiguration
Failure rate

Setup Fail
RNC internal
Yes
Check RNC
Unit load
(DMPG) and
faulty alarms

No

Setup Fail Too


Many Users
Yes

Check number of
simultaneous
HSDPA users

HSDPA setup analysis process


Failure cause example
Many HSDPA setup failure causes
due to UE, Iub and UE

Soc Classification level


84
NSN Siemens Networks

HSDPA setup analysis process


1. Identify main failure contributor
2. If too many HSDPA users

Use licence for more users

Use dedicated instead of shared scheduler

3. If due to UL DCH

Monitor UL load

Check PrxTarget and PrxNoise settings

Check for intermodulation

4. If due to UE

Check RB reconfiguration failure rate

Check air interface performance

Check ICSU log for UE type troubleshooting

Soc Classification level


85
NSN Siemens Networks

HSDPA setup analysis process


5. If due to BTS

Lack of UL channel resources

Check for SHO overhead (all branches must have enough CE capacity if UE is in SHO when HS-DSCH
shall be allocated)

6. If due to Iub transport

Evaluate number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission

Check for SHO overhead (all inter-BTS branches must have enough capacity for associated DCH)

Check for number of individual AAL connections

Check for frame delay or even frame loss due to congestion

Soc Classification level


86
NSN Siemens Networks

HSDPA setup optimization


Direct resource allocation
With RU20 HSPA transport channels can be allocated directly to users in
Cell_FACH or Cell_DCH, without waiting for capacity request

UE must support HSDPA and HSUPA transport channels

HSDPA and HSUPA must be enabled in cell

Direct resource allocation always used when F-DPCH allocated to UE

Prior to RU20 for NRT user allocation of DCH 0/0 by AC

After receiving capacity request, RNC selects channel type

If no capacity request received by RNC, UE moved to Cell FACH

Soc Classification level


87
NSN Siemens Networks

Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

Soc Classification level


88
NSN Siemens Networks

HSDPA drop analysis process


Flow chart
No

High drop
ratio
Top N cells

No action
needed

Yes
No
Pre-emption

No
Transition to
DCH due to
mobility
Yes

Yes

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

HSDPA drop = soft drop


RNC tries to shift UE to Cell_FACH
RNC tries to keep RAB running

Soc Classification level


89
NSN Siemens Networks

Transition to DCH
due to other
reason (e.g. type
of RAB)

No

No
Drop due to
radio
Yes

Yes

Normal Release
(No action
needed)

Drop due to
other reason
Yes

High SCC Failure


Rate

No
Check CQI distribution
and Ec/Io distribution for
coverage issue

Check RB reconfiguration failure


rate (UE response with failure or
no response at all)
Check ICSU log (UE type)

Yes
Check HSDPA mobility
settings (SHO and SCC
parameter)

HSDPA drop analysis process


Failure cause example
Majority of DCH drops due
to radio

Soc Classification level


90
NSN Siemens Networks

Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)

Soc Classification level


91
NSN Siemens Networks

Serving Cell Change SCC successful procedure


Signalling and trigger for inter BTS SCC
U
E

BTS
Targe
t

BTS
Source

RN
C

RRC: Measurement Report (e.g. Ec/Io)


NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready
ALCAP: Establish Request
ALCAP: Establish Confirm
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

Soc Classification level


92
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC successful procedure


Signalling and trigger for intra-BTS SCC
U
E

RN
C

BTS
Source

RRC: Measurement Report (e.g. Ec/Io)


NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready

ALCAP: Establish Request

Setup of transport
resources only needed in
case of inter-WAM
mobility

ALCAP: Establish Confirm

NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit


RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

Soc Classification level


93
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC window settings


SCC with associated DCH

HSDPAServCellWindow

EC/I0

RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 2 dB

Drop
window
6dB

Addition
window

CPICH 1 R99
CPICH 2 R5/6

4dB
Addition Time
SHO for A- Periodic
DCH initiated reports

CPICH 2 active

94

Nokia Siemens Networks

periodic reports as
long UE in SHO area
Serving cell change
initiated

time

CPICH 1 not
active anymore

SCC window settings


SCC with F-DPCH
HSDPAServCellWindow
RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 2 dB

HSDPASRBWindow

EC/I0

Modified (smaller) SCC


window used, as no SHO
with event 1A yet

RNC, 0..6, 0.5, 1 dB

CPICH 1
CPICH 2

Addition
window

Addition Time
Just periodic
reports

periodic reports as
long UE in SHO area
Serving cell change AND
active set update initiated

CPICH 2 NOT CPICH 2 active


active yet
together with SCC

95

Nokia Siemens Networks

time

SCC analysis process


Flow chart

No

High SCC failure


rate

Top N cells

No action
needed

Yes
No
SCC Fail BTS

Yes

No
SCC Fail AC

Yes

Check BTS HW
DL power
congestion
?

SCC Fail
Transmission
Yes

Check AAL2 Iub


resource
congestion

No

Channelization
No
code
congestion ?

Soc Classification level


96
NSN Siemens Networks

Check
Maximum
number of
HSDPA users

No

No

No
SCC Fail UE

Yes

Check RB
reconfiguration
Failure rate

SCC Fail
Others
Yes

Check RNC
internal transport
resources (DMPG)
ICSU
troubleshooting

SCC Fail
Prevention
timer
Yes

Check
HSDPACellChange
MinInterval
parameter

SCC analysis process


Failure cause example

Many serving cell change failure


causes due to AC

HSPA started
Soc Classification level
97
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC analysis process


1.

Determine main failure cause contributor

2.

Check HSDPA setup performance of target cells if SCC failure rate of source
cell is high

3.

If high SCC failure rate due to admission control

4.

In case of power congestion check HSDPA power settings (in case of dynamic power R99
should not throw out HSDPA completely)

Otherwise check number of HSDPA users

If high SCC failure rate due to BTS

Usually NOT lack of CE (associated DCH already in SHO before SCC, for HSDPA CE
reserved per scheduler)

Check radio link reconfiguration failure causes of target cells

Check BTS hardware

Soc Classification level


98
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC analysis process


5.

6.

7.

If high SCC failure rate due to UE

Check RB reconfiguration failure rate

Check air interface performance

Check ICSU log for UE type monitoring

If high SCC failure rate due to transport

Evaluate number of reconfiguration failure due the transmission

Check for number of individual AAL connections

Check for frame delay or even frame loss due to congestion

If high SCC failure due to other reason

Check RNC internal transport resources usage (DMPG)

Requires ICSU troubleshooting

Soc Classification level


99
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC RU30 Enhancements


RU20 (standard feature)
In SHO area HS UE sends periodic measurement reports to RNC
RNC evaluates reports to decide about serving cell change
Problems

High signaling traffic due to periodic reporting


If F-DPCH used, serving cell change command of RNC might not be decoded by UE, as SRB on
HS-PDSCH less robust than on DPDCH

RU30 (enhanced feature)


No periodic reporting in SHO area any more, but serving cell change triggered by event 1D
Better robustness for SRB on HS-PDSCH

RNC sends pre-information about potential target cells during active set update already
Serving cell change commands transmitted both in source and target cell

Soc Classification level


100
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC RU30 Enhancements


Pre-configuration
Serving cell change command transmitted both in source and target cell

In source cell via HS-PDSCH


In target cell via HS-SCCH
UE informed during active set update about
Codes used for HS-SCCH in target cell
Activation time offset (time to monitor target cell after sending event 1D report)

UE

Source Node B

Target Node B

SRNC

RRC: Measurement Report (event 1a or 1c)


NBAP: Radio Link Setup (Pre-configuration Info)
RRC: Active Set Update (Pre-configuration Info)
RRC: Active Set Update Complete
RRC: Measurement Control

Soc Classification level


101
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC RU30 Enhancements


Execution
Serving cell change initiated by UE with event 1D report (then UE starts to monitor target

cell)
After both source and target cell are prepared for serving cell change, to the UE are sent
RRC radio bearer configuration from RNC as usual (via HS-PDSCH in source cell)
HS-SCCH order from target Node B (via HS-SCCH in target cell)
If UE detects HS-SCCH order only, it still goes to target cell
The UE informs the RNC about the completion of the process with RRC radio bearer
reconfiguration complete

Soc Classification level


102
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC RU30 Enhancements


UE

Source Node B

Target Node B

SRNC

SCC Evaluation
RRC: Measurement Report (event 1d, CFN)
SCC Decision
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Preparation
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Preparation
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
L1: HS-SCCH Order
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
UE moves to Target Cell
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

Soc Classification level


103
NSN Siemens Networks

RNC re-directs application data

SCC RU30 Enhancements


Event 1D
UE uses event 1D to inform RNC that there has been a change of the best cell in the active

set
Event 1D triggered if following equation satisfied during time interval defined by time-totrigger

MeasNotBest + CIONotBest MeasBest + CIOBest + Hyst / 2


If equation simultaneously fulfilled for more than one primary CPICH, UE reports only one
event 1D, triggered by best primary CPICH

Measured EC/I0
CPICH 1

Hyst / 2
Cell individual
offset CIO

CPICH 2

Time to
trigger

Event 1D Serving cell


report
change executed
Soc Classification level
104
NSN Siemens Networks

time

SCC RU30 Enhancements


Event 2D and 2F
Usually events 1F and 1E to initiate and cancel HHO process due to lack of RSCP or EC/I0

With SHO events and events 1F and 1E already maximum number of intra-frequency events
allowed by 3GPP achieved, so that event 1D cannot be offered any more
Events 1F and 1E therefore replaced by events 2D and 2F

Events 2D and 2F triggered by intra-frequency measurements, but nevertheless classified


as inter-frequency events
Event 2d: Estimated Quality of the current RF carrier is below a Threshold
Event 2f: Estimated Quality of the current RF carrier is above a Threshold
Measured EC/I0

Event 2F
One active cell acceptable again
Leave compressed mode

2F threshold

2D threshold
Event 2D
ALL active cells bad
Enter compressed mode
time
Soc Classification level
105
NSN Siemens Networks

SCC User data over Iur


Previous releases up to RU10
Inter-RNC HS-DSCH serving cell change and relocation at the same time
No flow of user data over Iur
Switch back to DCH not required, but nevertheless interruption of HSDPA service by the
mobility procedures

Since RU20
First inter-RNC serving cell change, then relocation
Flow of user data over Iur, when inter-RNC neighbour becomes new serving cell
HSDPA service not interrupted by the mobility procedures

AS={A,B,C}
Normal SHO
for A-DCH

AS={C}
Trigger
relocation

AS={A,B,C}
C= best cell,
HS-DSCH data
over Iur

C
A

Soc Classification level


106
NSN Siemens Networks

B
RNC

RNC