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Achassis consists of an internalvehicle frame that supports a manmade object in its

construction and use. It is analogous to ananimal'sskeleton . An example of a chassis is
the underpart of amotor vehicle , consisting of the frame (on which the body is


What is DTMF?

DTMF is the acronym for Dual tone modulation frequency. Itis a signalling system for
identifying the keys or better say the number dialled on apushbutton or DTMF

DTMF is a multi frequency tone dialling system used by the push button keypads in
telephone and mobile sets to convey the number or key dialled by the caller.

This has eliminated the need of telecom operator between the caller and the callee and
evolved automated dialling in the telephone switching centres.

DTMF(Dual tone multi frequency) as the name suggests uses acombination of

two sine wave tonesto represent a key. These tones are called row and column
frequencies as they correspond to the layout of a telephone keypad.

DTMF keyboard layout

Working principle of DTMF

ADTMF keypad(generator or encoder) generates a sinusoidal tone which ismixture

of the row and column frequencies. The row frequencies are low group frequencies.
The column frequencies belong to high group frequencies. This prevents
misinterpretation of the harmonics. Also the frequencies forDTMFare so chosen that
none have a harmonic relationship with the others and that mixing the frequencies
would not produce sum or product frequencies that could mimic another valid tone.

When a key is pressed from our mobile, it generates a tone combination of two
frequencies from our keypad. In the two frequencies, one is high frequency and another
one is low frequency. This frequency can be decoded by the decoder IC into binary

Material Needed




Jumper wires

MT8870 IC

2 mobile phones(1 transmitter+ 1 receiver)

Earphone jack

12 v battery for designing power circuit of bot

Motor driver(L293D)

How cell phone controlled Bot works?

Cell phone operated Robot is a Robot whose movement can be controlled by pressing
the number of cell phone. The robot can move forward, backward, right or left which
depends on the numbers you are pressing. The property of Robot to operate by the
cell phone helps you to operate the robot from some distance The Cell Phone
controlled Robot uses DTMF (Dual tone-multi frequency) module. It is capable of
receiving a set of command (instructions) in the form of DTMF (Dual tone multiple
frequency) tones and performs the necessary actions. The robot is controlled by
making call to the mobile connected to the robot. The robot performs various
operations like moving forward, backward etc. if any key is pressed in the course of
the call, by hearing at the other end of the call (i.e. at the mobile connected to the
robot ). Each key corresponds to a particular frequency which is decoded by the DTMF
decoder & processed by logic circuit by giving each key a particular operation like
moving forward, backward, right, left etc. The benefit is that we can operate the robot
by using any mobile with the working range as large as the coverage area of the
service provider.

Block diagram

DTMF decoder

DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) decodercircuit identifies thedial tonefrom

the telephone line anddecodesthe key pressed on the remote telephone.

Basically it decodes the message encrypted in the signals sent by mobile receiver to it.
And then it generates a 4 bit output which helps motor driver in controlling motors.

MT8870 IC

Pin Description of MT8870

1 IN+ :This pin is input to the non-inverting terminal of

internal op-amp.

2 IN-:This pin is input to the inverting terminal of internal

op-amp. Input signal from the mobile is applied to this pin
using 3.5mm connector pairs and aux cable.

3 GS :Gain selector, This pin provides feedback to the opampcircuitry. Feedback resistor of appropriate value is
connected between this pin and input signal. Value of
resistor decides the gain of amplification.

4 Vref :Reference Voltage, This is output pin. Op-amp is

configured in differential amplifier mode and both the
inputs are bias in mid-rail range so for that generally Vcc/2
voltage is apply to non-inverting terminal hence Vref is
connected to IN+ i.e. pin no 1.

5 INH :Inhibit, This is active high input pin. If you dont

want to decode A,B,C,D then connect this pin to Vcc and if
you want to decode them then connect it to ground,
internally it is pulled down.

6 PD :Power down, This is also active high input pin. Vcc

supply (High) at this pin enables the power down mode and
in power down mode oscillator and internal filters stops
functioning and IC goes to stand by mode.

10 TOE :Three state output enable, This is active high

input pin. +Vcc at this pin will allow output Q1, Q2, Q3 and
Q4 to latch data from internal latch circuitry. When this pin
is connected to ground output Q1 to Q4 will not latch
decoded DTMF code. This pin also pulled up internally.

11 to 14 Q1 to Q4: four output bits, When TOE is

connected to Vcc this will represents the DTMF code as per
valid DTMF tone and when TOE is connected to ground this
pins are remain in high impedance state

15 StD: Delayed steering, This is output pin. When DTMF

tone received, decoded and latched by the output pins Q1
to Q4 then Std will goes high and when voltage on pin no
17 i.e St/Gt falls below threshold voltage Vtst then Std
again fall down to low.

16 ESt: Early steering, This is output pin. If valid DTMF

tone is received then this pin goes high and remains high
till any loss of signal occurs however Loss of signal make
this pin to go logic low.

17 St/Gt: This is dual purpose pin and performed

bidirectional operation i.e St Steering input as input and
Gt Guard time as output. When voltage greater Vtst
appears at St, it causes latch to register new output data.
GT is used to configure time constant of Est pin


A motor driver is a little current amplifier; the function of motor drivers is to take a
low-current control signal and then turn it into a higher-current signal that can
drive a motor.


How controlling occurs in DTMF?