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Aerial and

Other Laws
Bringas, Jireh
Culajara, Jeserie
De Leon, Jea
Dizon, Roi
Endaya, AJ
Garcia, Thriza
Hipe, Dominick
Lledo, Jacob
Pablo, Jason
Pelausa, Steph
Vitorillo, Justine

Main Laws to be
discussed:
Philippine

Clean Air Act


Philippine Climate Change Act
Ecological Solid Waste Management
Toxic Substances and Hazardous and
Nuclear Wastes Law
Code on Sanitation
Indigenous People Rights Act

Important provisions related/applicable


to Philippine Natural Resources:
Public Land Act
Agrarian Reform Law
Local Government Code
Tax Laws Incorporated in Revised Forestry Code
Seed Industry Development Act
High Value Corps Development Act
Coconut Preservation Act
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act
The Philippine Archipelagic Doctrine
Renewable Energy Act
Biofuels Act

Aerial Laws
by: de Leon & Pablo

What is AIR POLLUTION?

It

occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or


odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that
makes it harmful to humans, animals and plant. This is
because the air becomes dirty (contaminated or unclean).
The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air (made up of
various gases) called the atmosphere
Any additional gas, particles or odours that are introduced
into the air (either by nature or human activity) to distort
this natural balance and cause harm to living things can be
called air pollution.

A thick blanket of smog covers an eastern


section of Manila AFP Files

8th Annual Clean Air Forum of the DENR


(June 14-15, 2016)
The discussion points to vehicle emission as the
leading factor that contributes 69% to the
countrys air pollution.
90% of which comes from Metro Manila.
Based on records of DENR, the current rate of air
pollution has declined by about 20%. However, it
is still more than the allowable level stated in the
Clean Air Act.
Based on records of the Land Transportation
Office, more than 6,000 vehicles have been added
on the road from 2012 to 2014.

Top Diseases Caused by Air pollution


Asthma

According to the Global Asthma Report (WHO, 2014), approximately 11


million or 1 out 10 Filipinos are suffering from asthma

COPD

14 percent of Metro Manilas population suffer from this debilitating illness,


two barangays in Nueva Ecija registered a 21 percent prevalence rate.
COPD prevalence rate in the Philippines is on the high side since the
prevalence rate for other parts of the world is about 10 percent, he said.
Nearly 30 percent of adult Filipinos smoke, but Trinidad said as many as 50
percent Filipinos minors and adults smoke and this has made COPD the
sixth or seventh cause of death in the country. (PCHRD, 2016)

Lung Cancer

Globally, the most common cause of cancer death is lung cancer (1.59
million deaths) followed by liver (745,000), stomach (723,000), colorectal
(694,000), breast (521,000) and oesophagel (400,000).
In the Philippines, lung cancer is also the top cause of cancer-related
deaths among men, and the third cause of cancer deaths among women,
outranked by breast and cervical cancer. Health experts estimate that 10
Filipinos die of smoking-related diseases every hour. Lung cancer deaths in
the Philippines numbered 8,518 in the country, (WHO, 2014)

LEGISLATION
In 1999 Environmental Legislation was passed
by the Philippine Congress
Provides for comprehensive air pollution
policy which will help save the air of the country
Primary focus : prevention of air pollution

OVERVIEW
The

Philippine Clean Air Act formulates a holistic


national program of air pollution that shall be
implemented by the government through proper
delegation and effective coordination of function and
activities;
Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among
citizen and industries through the application of
incentives market-based instruments;
Focus primarily on pollution prevention rather than on
control and provide for a comprehensive management
program on air pollution;

Promote

public information and education to


encourage the participation of an informed and
active public in air quality planning and
monitoring;
and
Formulate and enforce a system of
accountability for short and long term adverse
environmental impact of a project, program or
activity.
This shall include setting up of a funding or
guarantee
mechanism
for
clean-up
and
environmental rehabilitation and compensation for
personal damages.

RECOGNIZED RIGHTS

The right to breathe clean


air;

The right to utilize and


enjoy all natural resources
according to the principles
of sustainable development;

The right to participate in the


formulation,
planning,
implementation
and
monitoring of environmental
policies and programs and in
the decision-making process;
The right to participate in the
decision-making
process
concerning
development
policies, plans and programs
projects or activities that may
have adverse impact on the
environment
and
public
health;

The right to be informed of the


nature and extent of the
potential hazard of any activity,
undertaking or project and to
be served timely notice of any
significant rise in the level of
pollution and the accidental or
deliberate release into the
atmosphere of harmful or
hazardous substances

The right of access to public


records which a citizen may
need to exercise his or her rights
effectively under this Act

The right to bring action in


court or quasi-judicial bodies to
enjoin all activities in violation
of environmental
laws and
regulations, to compel the
rehabilitation and cleanup of
affected area, and to seek the
imposition of penal sanctions
against
violators
of
environmental laws

The right to bring action in


court for compensation of
personal damages resulting
from
the
adverse
environmental and public health
impact of a project or activity

Air Quality Monitoring and


Information Network
The

DENR shall prepare an annual National Air


Quality Status Report which shall be used as the
basis in formulating the Integrated Air Quality
Improvement Framework
The DENR, in cooperation with the National
Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), shall design
and
develop an information network for data
storage, retrieval and exchange.
The DENR shall serve as the central depository of
all data and information related to air quality

Integrated Air Quality


Improvement Framework
The

framework shall, among others, prescribe the


emission reduction goals using permissible
standards, control strategies and control measures
to undertaken within a specified time period,
including cost-effective use of economic incentives,
management
strategies, collective actions, and
environmental education and information.
The Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework
shall be adopted as the official blueprint with which
all government agencies must comply with to attain
and maintain ambient air quality standards

AIRSHEDS

Airsheds, which refers to


geographic
areas
with
similar
characteristics
pertinent to air quality, will
be defined for the purpose
of assessing and managing
air quality.

Non-Attainment areas
Airsheds,

or parts of airsheds, will be designated as


non-attainment areas when specific pollutants have
already exceeded ambient standards
In coordination with other appropriate government
agencies, the LGUs shall prepare and implement a
program and other measures including relocation,
whenever necessary, to protect the health and welfare
of residents in the area

Emission Discharge System

The

DENR, in case of industrial dischargers, and the


DOTC, in case of motor vehicle dischargers shall
impose on and collect regular emission fees from
said discharges as part of the emission permitting
system or vehicle registration renewal system, as the
case may be.
Industries, which shall install
pollution control
devices or retrofit their existing facilities with
mechanisms that reduce pollution shall be entitled to
tax incentives such as but not limited total credits
and/or accelerated depreciation deductions

Air Quality Management


Fund

An
air
Quality
Management Fund to be
administered
by
the
DENR as a special
account in the National
Treasury, and may be
allocated per airshed, is
hereby established to
finance:

Containment, removal, and cleanup of the Government in Air


pollution cases
Guarantee restoration of ecosystems
and rehabilitate areas affected by
the acts of violators of this act
Support research
Enforcement
and
monitoring
activities and capabilities of the
relevant agencies
Technical assistance to the relevant
agencies

The Fund shall be sourced from the


following:

Fines imposed and damages awarded to the


Republic of the Philippines
by the Pollution
Adjudication Board (PAB)
Proceeds of licenses and permits issued by the
Department under this Act
Emission fees
Donations, endowments and grants in the forms of
contributions * Contributions to the Fund shall be
exempted from donor taxes and all other taxes,
charges or fees imposed by the Government

Air Pollution Research


and Development
Program

The

research and development program shall develop air


quality guideline values and standards in
addition to
internationally-accepted standards. It shall also consider the
socio-cultural, political and economic implications of air
quality management and pollution control

PERMITS

The DENR shall have the authority to issue


permits as it may determine necessary for the
prevention and abatement of air pollution

Said permits shall cover emission limitations for


the regulated air pollutants to help attain and
maintain the ambient air quality standards. These
permits shall serve as management tools for the
LGUs in the development of their action plan

Pollution from Stationary


Sources

Pollutant
Antimony
compounds
Arsenic
compounds
Cadmium
compounds

and

and

and

Carbon Monoxide
Copper
and
compounds
Hydrofluoric Acids
Fluoride Compounds
Hydrogen Sulfide

Source
its Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air
pollutants
its Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air
pollutants
its Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air
pollutants
Any industrial source
its Any Industrial Source

and Any source other than the manufacture of


Aluminum from Alumina
Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air
pollutants
Lead
Any trade, Industry or Process
Mercury
Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air
pollutants
Nickel and its compounds Any trade, industry, process and fuel-burning
equipment or industrial plant emitting air

With respect to other stationary sources of pollution not


specifically included in the immediately preceding
number pollutants

Dust
Organic carbon
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen fluoride
Sulfur dioxide
Nitrogen oxides
Ammonia
Cadmium and its compounds
Thallium and its compounds
Mercury and its compounds

Antimony and its compounds


Arsenic and its compounds
Lead and its compounds
Chromium and its compounds
Cobalt and its compounds
Copper and its compounds
Manganese and its compounds
Nikel and its compounds
Vanadium and its compounds
Tin and its compounds

Such emission standards shall be based on mass rate


of emission for all stationary source of air pollution
based on internationally accepted standards, but not
be limited to, nor be less stringent than such
standards and with the standards set forth in this
section. The standards, whichever is applicable, shall
be the limit on the acceptable level of pollutants
emitted from a stationary source for the protection of
the publics health and welfare

Ban on Incineration
Local government units are hereby mandated to
promote, encourage and implement in their
respective
jurisdiction a comprehensive
ecological waste management that includes
waste segregation, recycling and composting

However, the prohibition shall not apply to traditional smallscale method of community/neighborhood sanitation siga,
traditional, agricultural, cultural, health, and food preparation
and crematoria.

Pollution from motor


vehicles
The

PCAA provides for exhaust emission limits for gaseous


pollutants depending on the classification of the vehicles.
The motor vehicles are classified as light duty vehicles,
light commercial vehicles and heavy duty vehicles
The PCAA provides for exhaust emission limits for gaseous
pollutants depending on the classification of the vehicles.
The motor vehicles are classified as light duty vehicles,
light commercial vehicles and heavy duty vehicles

Powers of the DOTC

Inspect

and monitor the emissions


of motor vehicles;
Prohibit or enjoin the use of motor
vehicles or a class of motor
vehicles in any area or street at
specified times; and
Authorize private testing emission
testing centers duly accredited by
the DTI.

Duties of the DTI

Develop and implement standards and procedures for the


certification of training institutions, instructors and facilities
The licensing of qualified private service centers and their
technicians as prerequisite for performing the testing,
servicing, repair and the required adjustment to the vehicle
emission system
prescribe regulations requiring the disclosure of odometer
readings and the use of tamper-resistant odometers for all
motor vehicles including tamper-resistant fuel management
systems

FUELS, ADDITIVES AND


SUBSTANCES

The Department of Energy (DOE) will regulate fuel


specifications to address air pollution by attaining better fuel
quality. The Clean Air Act contains fuel specifications, which
shall be imposed to reduce and/or eliminate the toxicity of fuel.
With the phase out leaded gasoline, other fuel improvements
shall be imposed
The anti-knock index, Reid vapor pressure, volume of
aromatics and benzene in unleaded gasoline shall comply with
the fuel specifications
The sulfur content in diesel will also be gradually reduced
according to a time frame indicated in the PCAA.

Othe
r
Pollu
tants

Ozone
Depleting
Substances

Greenhouse
Gases

Persistent
Organic
Pollutants
(POP)

Radioactive
Emissions

synthetic chemical used in aerosol cans, plastic foams, refrigerants,


and certain solvents.
causes wide holes in the protective ozone layer, allowing harmful
ultraviolet rays to reach earths surface.
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), chlorofluoromethane, or halon.

absorbs infrared radiation (IR) and radiates heat in all directions


carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone and
sulfur hexafluoride.

organic compounds that are resistant to


environmental degradation through chemical,
biological and photolytic processes.
used aspesticides,solvents,pharmaceuticals, and
industrial chemicals.

three most common types of radioactive emissions are alpha


particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM

DENR

Primary government agency responsible


for the implementation and enforcement
of this Act
Established linkage mechanisms which
will be able to help them achieve its
goals and plans envisioned in this act
Consult, participate, cooperate and enter
into agreement with other government
agencies or with the affected nongovernmental
(NGOs)
or
people

Environmental and Natural


Resources Office
(ENRO)

counterpart of DENR in respective local government units.

Powers and duties:

Preparation of comprehensive air quality management programs,


plans and strategies
Providing technical assistance and support to other government
officials
Supervision or leading all the efforts concerning air quality
protection and rehabilitation within jurisdiction;
Coordination with other government agencies and nongovernmental organizations in the implementations of measures to
prevent and control air pollution;

Local Government Units


(LGU)

play

an important and vital role in the


implementation of Clean Air Act

To share the responsibility in the management and


maintenance of air quality within their respective
territorial jurisdiction

LGU PROJECTS
New

Comprehensiv
e AntiSmoking
Ordinance of
Davao City

Revised AntiSmoking
Ordinance of
Makati
(Smoke Free
Makati)

Anti-Smoke
Belching

Public Education and


Information Campaign
encouraging

the participation of other


government agencies and private sector
including NGOs, POs, environmental groups
and other private entities in multi-sectoral
information campaign

Shall

be promoted by:

DepEd
DECS
DILG
DA
PIA

ACTIONS

The

Department shall, either on its own instance or upon a


verified complaint by any person, shall institute
administrative proceedings against any person who violates
the standards or limitations provided in this Act, and to any
orders, rules and regulations issued by the Department.

Violation of
Standards for
Stationary
Sources
IN GENERAL:
Fines
Closure
Suspension

not more than Php


100,000.00 for every
day
of
violation
againstViolation
the owner
of
of Other
operator
Provisions
closure, suspension of
development,
fine of not less than Php
construction,
10,000 but not or
more
than Php 100,000, or
operations
6 months to 6 years
imprisonment, or
Both

Violation of
Standards for Motor
Vehicles
No motor vehicle shall be
registered with the DOTC
unless it meets the emission
standards
set
by
the
Department as provided in
Sec. 21
seminar
on
pollution
controlmanagement

First
Offense

Second
Offense

Third
Offense

Not
exceedin
g
Php
2,000
Not
less
than Php
2,000 but
not
exceeding
Php 4,000
1
year
suspensio
n of Motor
Vehicle
Registratio

FORMALITIES

SEC. 41 - Any citizen may file an appropriate civil, criminal or


administrative action in proper courts against;

(a) Any person who violates or fails to comply with the provisions of
this Act or its implementing rules and regulations; or
(b) The Department or other implementing agencies with respect to
orders, rules and regulations issued inconsistent with this Act; and/or
(c) Any public officer who willfully or grossly neglects the
performance of an act specifically enjoined as a duty by this Act; or
abuses his
authority in the performance of his duty; or, in any manner,
improperly performs his duties.

Within thirty (30) days, the court shall make a determination if


the compliant herein is malicious and/or baseless and shall
accordingly dismiss the action and award attorneys fees and
damages.

After the suit is filed, it shall be the duty of the investigating


prosecutor or the court, to immediately make a determination
not exceeding thirty (30) days whether the action filed is
meritorious or not.

Upon determination, through evidence gathered, the court shall


dismiss or upheld the case and award appropriate fines or
penalties found applicable.

Philippine
Climate
Change Act

What is Climate Change?


Climate change, also called
global warming, refers to the
rise in average surface
temperatures on Earth.

What are the causes of


Climate Change?
The

primary cause of
climate change is the
burning of fossil fuels,
such as oil and coal.

Other

human activities,
also contribute to the
proliferation of
greenhouse gases that
cause climate change.

Rationale of the Climate


Change Act
enacted

to protect the right of the


people to a balance and healthful
ecology

State Policy
to afford full protection and the
advancement of the right of the people to
a healthful ecology in accord with the
rhythm and harmony of nature.

The State adopts:


The

principle of protecting the climate


system for the benefit of humankind, on
the basis of climate justice or common
but differentiated responsibilities and

the

Precautionary Principle to guide


decision-making in climate risk
management

Economic and Non-Economic


Impacts of Climate Change

increasing temperatures will lead to changes in


many aspects of weather, such as wind patterns,
the amount and type of precipitation, and the
types and frequency of severe weather events
that may be expected to occur
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report)

Likely impacts of Climate Change:

Loss of fresh water


Decline in
agricultural output
Decreased soil
fertility and erosion
Pests and diseases
Sea-level rise
Increased occurrence
of extreme weather
events

The Climate Change


Commission (CCC)
An

attached agency to
the Office of the President
the lead policy making body on concerns
related to climate change
is tasked to coordinate, formulate, and
monitor and evaluate programs and
actions on climate change.

Composition of Climate
Change Commission
Chairperson: President of the Philippines
Three commissioners (to be apointed by
the President, one of whom shall serve as
the Vice Chairperson of the Commission)
Advisory Board

The advisory board shall


include:

(a) Secretary of the Department of Agriculture;


(b) Secretary of the Department of Energy;
(c) Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources;
(d) Secretary of the Department of Education;
(e) Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs;
(f) Secretary of the Department of Health;
(g) Secretary of the Department of the Interior and Local
Government;

(h) Secretary of the Department of National Defense, in his


capacity as Chair of the National Disaster Coordinating Council;
(i) Secretary of the Department of Public Works and Highways;
(j) Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology;
(k) Secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and
Development;
(l) Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry;
(m) Secretary of the Department of Transportation and
Communications;

(n) Director-General of the National Economic and


Development Authority, in his capacity as Chair of the
Philippine Council for Sustainable Development;
(o) Director-General of the National Security Council;
(p) Chairperson of the National Commission on the Role of
Filipino Women;
(q) President of the League of Provinces;
(r) President of the League of Cities;
(s) President of the League of Municipalities;
(t) President of the Liga ng mga Barangay;
(u) Representative from the academe;
(v) Representative from the business sector; and
(w) Representative from nongovernmental organizations.
At least one (1) of the sectoral representatives shall come from
the disaster risk reduction community.

Meetings of the Commission


The

Commission shall meet once every


three (3) months.
or as often as may be deemed
necessary by the Chairperson

Qualifications of Commissioners.
Filipino Citizens
Resident of the Philippines
at least thirty (30) years of age at the time of
appointment
with at least ten (10) years of experience on climate
change
and of proven honesty and integrity

(The Commissioners shall be experts in climate


change by virtue of their educational background,
training and experience)

Tenure of Commissioners
The

Commissioners shall hold office for


a period of six (6) years, and may be
subjected to reappointment

(provided that no person shall serve for


more than two (2) consecutive terms)

Formulation of Framework Strategy


and Program on Climate Change.
The

National Framework Strategy


on Climate Change (NFSCC) was
established to serve as the roadmap for
national programs and plans towards
more climate risk-resilient Philippines

Key Result Areas:


Agriculture
Biodiversity
Infrastructure
Energy

and population
Health and demography

MITIGATION
Mitigation strategies aimed to facilitate
the transition of the country towards low
greenhouse gas emissions for sustainable
development in the long run.

ADAPTATION
Adaptation

strategies aimed to build the


adaptive capacity of communities and
to increase the resilience of natural
ecosystems to climate change in the
long run

Cross-cutting strategies:
Capacity

building
Knowledge management and
information, education and
communication (IEC)
Research and development (R&D)
Technology transfer

Implementation
Coordination,

financing and partnership


among national and local government
agencies and other stakeholders

Development of the National


Climate Change Action Plan
(NCCAP)
served

as the guide of the municipal


and city governments in drafting their
corresponding Local Climate Change
Action Plans (LCCAP)

Priority Programs and


Activities
Food

security
Water sufficiency
Ecosystem and environmental stability
Human security
Climate-smart industries and services
Sustainable energy
Knowledge and capacity development

Establishment of Peoples
Survival Fund
Established

to finance adaptation
programs and projects planned under
the NFSCC
Revised some provisions of the Climate
Change Act of 2009 with regard to funds

ECOLOGICAL SOLID
WASTE
MANAGEMENT OF
2000
Republic Act No. 9003

POLICY
To ensure the protection of the public health and environment.
It aims:
(1) to utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the
utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation
and recovery;
(2) to reduce solid waste through source reduction and waste
minimization measures, treatment and disposal of solid waste in
accordance with ecologically sustainable development principle;
(3) promote national research and development programs for
improved solid waste management and resource conservation
techniques;
(4) encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste
management as well as primary enforcement and responsibility with
local government units and NGOs

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Agricultural waste - waste generated from
planting or harvesting of crops, trimming or
pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials
from farms or fields.
Bulky wastes - waste materials which cannot be
appropriately placed in separate containers
because of either its bulky size, shape or other
physical attributes.
Composting - the controlled decomposition of
organic matter by micro-organisms, mainly
bacteria and fungi, into a humus-like product.

Ecological solid waste management - the


systematic administration of activities which
provide for segregation at source, segregated
transportation, storage, transfer, processing,
treatment, and disposal of solid waste and all
other waste management activities which do not
harm the environment.
Hazardous waste - solid waste management or
combination of solid waste which because of its
quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or
infectious characteristics

Controlled dump - a disposal site at which solid


waste is deposited in accordance with the
minimum prescribed standards of site operation.

Open dump - a disposal area wherein the solid


wastes are indiscriminately thrown or disposed of
without due planning and consideration for
environmental and Health standards.

Disposal - the discharge, deposit, dumping,


spilling, leaking or placing of any solid waste into
or in an land.

Receptacles - individual containers used for the


source separation and the collection of recyclable
materials.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Recycling - the treating of used or waste
Solid waste - all discarded household,
materials through a process of making them
commercial waste, non-hazardous institutional
suitable for beneficial use and for other
and industrial waste, street sweepings,
purposes, and includes any process by which
construction debris, agricultural waste, and
solid waste materials are transformed into new
other non-hazardous/non-toxic solid waste.
products in such a manner that the original
product may lose their identity, and which
Solid waste management - the discipline
maybe used as raw materials for the production
associated with the control of generation,
of other goods or services.
storage, collection, transfer and transport,
processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a
Re-use - the process of recovering materials
manner that is in accord with the best
intended for the same or different purpose
principles of public health, economics,
without the alteration of physical and chemical
engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and
characteristics.
other environmental considerations, and that is
also responsive to public attitudes.
Segregation - a solid waste management
practice of separating different materials found
Special wastes - household hazardous wastes
in solid waste in order to promote recycling
such as paints, thinners, household batteries,
and re-use of resources and to reduce the
lead-acid batteries, spray canisters and the like.
volume of waste for collection and disposal.

TYPE OF WASTE

According to Classification:
According to Source:
1. Household or Domestic
Waste
2. Commercial or Industrial
Waste

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Residual
Recycle
Biodegradable
Hazardous
Toxic

INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM
NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
COMMISSION

The Commissioner shall be composed of fourteen (14) members from the


government sector and three members from the private sector.
Government Sector:
(1) DENR
(2) DILG
(3) DOST
(4) DPWH
(5) DOH
(6) DTI
(7) DA
(8) MMDA
(9) League of provincial governors
(10) League of city mayors
(11) League of municipal mayors
(12) Association of barangay councils
(13) TESDA
(14) Philippine Information Agency

Private Sector:
(1) A
representative
from
nongovernment
organizations (NGOs) whose
principal purpose is to
promote recycling and the
protection of air and water
quality;
(2) A representative from the
recycling industry; and
(3) A representative from the
manufacturing or packaging
industry

THE NATIONAL ECOLOGY


CENTER
(a)facilitate training and education in integrated ecological solid waste
management;
(b)establish and manage a solid waste management information data base, in
coordination with the DTI and other concerned agencies:
(1) on solid waste generation and management techniques as well as the
management, technical and operational approaches to resource recovery;
and
(2)of processors/recyclers, the list of materials being recycled or bought by
them and their respective prices;
(c)promote the development of a recycling market through the establishment
of a national recycling network that will enhance the opportunity to
recycle;
(d)provide or facilitate expert assistance in pilot modeling of solid waste
management facilities; and
(e)develop, test, and disseminate model waste minimization and reduction
auditing procedures for evaluating options.

ROLE OF LGU
Primarily responsible for the implementation and
enforcement of the provisions of this Act within their
respective jurisdictions.
Segregation and collection of solid waste shall be
conducted at the barangay level specifically for
biodegradable, compostable and reusable wastes: Provided,
That the collection of non-recyclable materials and special
wastes shall be the responsibility of the municipality or city.

PROVINCIAL SOLID WASTE


MANAGEMENT BOARD
This shall be established in every province, to be chaired by the
governor.
It shall develop a provincial solid waste management plan from the
submitted solid waste management plans of the respective city and
municipal solid waste management boards herein created.
The Provincial Plans shall reflect the general program of action and
initiatives of the provincial government and implementing a solid waste
management program that would support the various initiatives of its
component cities and municipalities.

CITY AND MUNICIPAL SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT
BOARD

Shall prepare, submit and implement a City or Municipal Solid Waste


Management Plan that shall ensure the long-term management of solid
waste, as well as integrate the various solid waste management plans
and strategies of the barangays in its area of jurisdiction.
In the development of the Solid Waste Management Plan, it shall
conduct consultations with the various sectors of the community in
order to adopt measures to promote and ensure the viability and
effective implementation of solid waste management programs in its
component barangays.
In consequence, it shall adopt specific revenue-generating measures to
promote the viability of its Solid Waste Management Plan.

MULTI-PURPOSE ENVIRONMENT
COOPERATIVES OR
ASSOCIATION
Shall undertake activities to promote the implementation and/ or
directly undertake projects in compliance with the provisions of this Act
shall be encouraged and promoted in every LGU.

COMPREHENSIVE SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT
NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
STATUS REPORT
NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
FRAMEWORK
LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT PLANS

COMPREHENSIVE SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT

NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


STATUS REPORT

(a)Inventory
(b)General waste characterization
(c)Projection of waste generation;
(d)The varying regional geologic,
hydrologic, climatic, and other factors
vital in the implementation of solid
waste practices;
(e)Population density, distribution and
projected growth;
(f)The political, economic, organizational,
financial and management problems
affecting comprehensive solid waste
management;

(g)Systems and techniques of waste


reduction, re-use and recycling;
(h)Available markets for recyclable
materials;
(i)Estimated cost of collecting, storing,
transporting, marketing and disposal
of wastes and recyclable materials;
and
(j)Pertinent qualitative and quantitative
information concerning the extent of
solid waste management problems
and solid waste management activities
undertaken by local government units
and the waste generators.

COMPREHENSIVE SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT

NATIONAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


FRAMEWORK

(a) an analysis and evaluation of the current state,


trends, projections of solid waste management on
the national, provincial and municipal levels;
(b) an identification of critical solid waste facilities
and local government units which will need closer
monitoring and/or regulation;
(c) characteristics and conditions of collection,
storage, processing, disposal, operating methods,
techniques and practices, location of facilities
where such operating methods, techniques and
practices are conducted, taking into account the
nature of the waste; a waste diversion goal;
(d) a schedule for the closure and/or upgrading of
open and controlled dumps pursuant to Sec. 37 of
this Act;

(a) methods of closing or upgrading open


dumps for purposes of eliminating
potential
health
hazards;
practical
applications of environmentally sound
techniques of water minimization;
(b) a technical and economic description of
the level of performance that can be
attained by various available solid waste
management practices which provide for
the protection of public health and the
environment; appropriate solid waste
facilities and conservation systems;
recycling programs for the recyclable
materials.

COMPREHENSIVE SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT
LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT PLANS
Shall prepare its respective 10-year solid waste management plans
consistent with the national solid waste management framework:
Provided, That the waste management plan shall be for the re-use,
recycling and composting of wastes generated in their respective
jurisdictions: Provided, further, That the solid waste management plan of
the LGU shall ensure the efficient management of solid waste generated
within its jurisdiction.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT
The Commission shall publish guidelines for the identification of those areas
which have common solid waste management problems and are appropriate
units for clustered solid waste management services.
The guidelines shall be based on the following:
(a)the size and location of areas which should be included;
(b)the volume of solid waste which would be generated;
(c)the available means of coordinating local government planning between and
among the LGUs and for the integration of such with the national plan; and
(d)possible lifespan of the disposal facilities.
All provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays, through appropriate
ordinances, are hereby mandated to consolidate, or coordinate their efforts,
services, and resources for purposes of jointly addressing common solid waste
management problems and/or establishing common waste disposal facilities.

SEGREGATION OF
WASTES
(1) separate container for each type of waste from all sources:
Provided, That in the case of bulky waste, it will suffice that the same
be collected and placed in a separate designated area; and
(2) the solid waste container depending on its use shall be properly
marked or identified for on-site collection as "compostable", "nonrecyclable", "recyclable" or "special waste", or any other classification
as may be determined by the Commission.

COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT


OF SOLID WASTE
The plan shall define and identify specific strategies and activities
taking into account the availability and provision of properly designed
containers in selected collection points while awaiting collection and
transfer, segregation of different types of waste, hauling and transfer of
solid waste from collection points to final disposal sites, issuance and
enforcement of ordinances for effective implementation, and provision
of properly trained officers and workers. All personnel directly dealing
with collection of solid waste must be equipped with personal
protective gears for their protection.

RECYCLING PROGRAM
LGUs are mandated to establish Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in
each barangay or cluster of barangays designed to receive, sort, process
and store compostable and recyclable materials efficiently.
The residual wastes shall then be transferred to a long-term storage or
disposal facility or sanitary landfill.
All solid waste disposal facilities or sites in the country shall be published
by the Department of Natural Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR).
No open dumps nor any practice or disposal of solid waste that constitutes
open dumps for solid waste shall be allowed. The Act further provides for
conversion of existing open dumps to controlled dumps within three (3)
years.

INCENTIVES
Incentives comprises of rewards, monetary or otherwise.
Given to individuals, private organizations and entities, including
NGOs, that have undertaken outstanding and innovative projects,
technologies, processes and techniques or activities in re-use,
recycling and reduction.
An incentive scheme is provided for the purpose of encouraging
LGUs, enterprises, or private entities, including NGOs, to develop or
undertake an effective solid waste management, or actively participate
in any program geared towards the promotion thereof.

THE FIVE INCENTIVE SCHEMES


1) Fiscal Incentives this is in accordance with the Omnibus Investments Code, which grants
the following tax incentives:
a) Tax and Duty Exemption on Imported Capital Equipment and Vehicles.
b) Tax Credit on Domestic Equipment.
c) Tax and Duty Exemption of Donations, Legacies and Gift.
2) Non- Fiscal Incentives these are incentives given to businesses and industries that are
engaged in the recycling of wastes. Such incentives shall include simplified procedures for the
importation of equipment, spare parts, new materials, and supplies, and for the export of
processed products.
3) Financial Assistance Program - Government financial institutions such as DBP, LBP and
GSIS shall accord high priority to extend financial services to individuals, enterprises, or
private entities engaged in solid waste management.
4) Extension of Grants to LGUs- Provinces, cities and municipalities whose solid waste
management plans have been approved programs may be entitled to receive grants for the
purpose of developing their technical capacities toward actively participating in the program
for effectively and sustainable solid waste management
5) Incentives to Host LGUs. - Local government units who host common waste management
facilities shall be entitled to incentives.

FINANCING SOLID WASTE


MANAGEMENT Funds collected shall be
A special account in the National
Treasury known as the Solid Waste
Management Fund is created to be
administered by the Commission.
The fund herein shall be sourced from the
following:
a) Fines and penalties imposed,
proceeds of permits and licenses
issued by the Department under
this Act, donations, endowments,
grants and contributions from
domestic and foreign sources.
b) Amounts specifically appropriated
for the Fund under the annual
General Appropriations Act

used to finance the


following:
a) products, facilities,
technologies and
processes to enhance
proper solid waste
management
b) awards and incentives
c) research programs
d) information, education,
communication and
monitoring activities
e) technical assistance
f) Capability of building
activities

PENAL PROVISIONS
Some of the prohibited acts:
a) Littering, throwing, dumping of
waste matters in public places, such
as roads, sidewalks, canals, esteros
or parks, and establishment, or
causing or permitting the same
b) The open burning of solid waste
c) Open
dumping,
burying
of
biodegradable or non-biodegradable
materials in flood prone areas
d) The manufacture, distribution or use
of non-environmentally acceptable
packaging materials
e) Importation of consumer products
packaged in non-environmentally
acceptable materials
f) Importation of toxic wastes
misrepresented as "recyclable" or
"with recyclable content;

Provides for sanctions if the offender is


committed by a corporation, partnership, or
other juridical identity duly recognized in
accordance with the law, the chief executive
officer,
president,
general
manager,
managing partner or such other officer-incharge shall be liable for the commission of
the offense.
If the offender, is an alien, he shall, after
service of the sentence prescribed above, be
deported without further administrative
proceedings
Administrative Sanctions will befall Local
government officials and officials of
government agencies concerned who fail to
comply with and enforce rules and
regulations promulgated relative to this Act

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 52. Citizens Suit - Any citizen may file an appropriate civil, criminal or
administrative action in the proper courts/bodies against any person who violates or
fails to comply with the provisions of this Act its implementing rules and
regulations.
Section 54. To Research on Solid Waste Management - Encourages and renders
financial and other assistance as needed in the conduct and promotion of researches,
experiments, and other studies on solid waste management.
Section 55. Public Education and Information - various agencies such as TESDA,
CHED and DILG shall conduct an education and information campaign on solid
waste management that aims to develop public awareness of the ill-effects of and
the community based solutions to the solid waste problem; Concentrate on activities
which are feasible and which will have the greatest impact on the solid waste
problem of the country
Section 56. Environmental Education in the Formal and Non-formal Sectors which focuses on Environmental Education in the formal and non-formal sectors.
The purpose of which is to strengthen the integration of environmental concerns in
school curricula at all levels, with particular emphasis on the theory and practice of
waste management principles like waste minimization, specifically resource
conservation and recovery, segregation at source, reduction, recycling, re-use,and
composing, in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the
citizenry.

CONCLUSION
Everyone must practice proper solid waste management to prevent the
depletion of the environment due to improper handling of wastes and
to ensure that not only this generation would be able to use and enjoy
the environments resources but also for the benefit of future
generations to come.

Toxic substance,
Hazardous and
Nuclear Waste
Control Act
R.A. 6969

News related
In

2003, Tons of imported Canadian


rubbish has been sent to a northern
Philippines landfill.
Canadian's defense
Two questions remaining.

Introduction
Industrialization resulted in generation of
industrial wastes, including hazardous
wastes
Ongoing exposure to these materials can
have significant health effects on people,
many of which remain unknown and can
cause death or injury to living creatures
ways on how to prevent these effects to
occur in our body system

Legal Framework

P.D. 1152, the Philippine Environmental


Code which took effect in 1977
In 1990, the Philippine Congress enacted the
Toxic substance, Hazardous and Nuclear
Waste Control Act, commonly known as R.A.
6969
of R.A. 6969, hazardous waste management
must also comply with the other
requirements of other specific environmental
laws

Policy of the State

to regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation,


manufacture, processing, sale, distribution, use
and disposal of chemical substances and
mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or
injury to health or the environment
to prohibit the entry, even in transit, of
hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal
into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever
purpose; and to provide advancement and
facilitate research and studies on toxic
chemicals.

Scope

It shall cover the importation, manufacture,


processing, handling, storage,
transportation, sale, distribution, use and
disposal of all unregulated chemical
substances and mixtures in the Philippines,
including the entry, even in transit, as well
as the keeping or storage and disposal of
hazardous and nuclear wastes into the
country for whatever purpose

Implementing Rules and


Regulation (DAO 2013-22)
Overview

of the Manual
Purpose of the Manual

Classification of Hazardous
Waste

(1) waste with cyanide


(2) acid waste
(3) alkali waste
(4) waste with inorganic chemicals
(5) reactive chemical wastes
(6) inks, dyes, pigments, latex, adhesive, organic sludge
(7) waste organic solvents
(8) organic waste
(9) oil
(10) containers
(11) Stabilized wastes
(12) miscellaneous waste.

Classification of Hazardous
Waste
Exempted:
household wastes such as garbage under RA 9003 except
special wastes, industrial and commercial wastewaters which
are disposed of on-site through the sewerage system
industrial and commercial solid wastes which do not contain
hazardous wastes
materials from building demolition except those containing
asbestos, septic tank effluents and associated sullage
wastewaters
untreated spoils from mining, quarrying and excavation
works but not materials in the nature of tailings,
commercially treated materials and mine facility
consumables

Waste Generators

(1) Designate a full-time Pollution Control Officer (PCO)


(2) Register online and disclose to the Department the type
and quantity of waste generated then submit all the
required documentary requirements and pay the
prescribed fee to the Environmental Management Bureau
(EMB) Regional Office having jurisdiction over the waste
generator.
(3) Until such time that an integrated environmental
database is developed, submit online the Hazardous Waste
Management portion of the company's Self-Monitoring
Report, which shall include the type and quantity of waste
generated and transported offsite for treatment or storage.

Waste Generators

(1) Waste storage requirements


(2) Pre-Transport Requirements
(3) Use of registered waste transporters and
TSD facilities
(4) Use of the Online Hazardous Waste
Manifest System in Transporting Hazardous
Waste for Offsite Treatment, Storage, and
Disposal and
(5) Confirmation of Treatment or Disposal
Completion

1. Pre-Transport Requirements

Waste generator whose wastes are transported


outside its premises shall comply with the
packaging and labelling requirements appropriate
to the wastes being transported.
Waste generator shall prepare a spill response plan
specific to the wastes being transported. The spill
response plan includes the following instructions
to the waste transporter in the event of an
accident: (a) Immediate reporting to the EMBDENR (b) Securing or containing the affected area
(c) Cleaning up spilled or leaked hazardous waste

2. Used of Registered Waste


Transporters and TSD Facilities
Waste

generator is required to avail of


the services of waste transporters and
TSD facilities that are duly registered by
EMB Central Office and whose permits
are valid within the period that the
wastes are being transported are
treated, stored, or disposed of.

3. Hazardous Waste Storage


and Labelling
Requirements

of storage facilities
labelling requirements
placards accompanying the label
packaging requirements.

4. Hazardous Waste Transport


Record (Manifest System)
An

online hazardous waste manifest


system is a online tracking and
database for real time tracking of the
wastes from the point of generation to
the point of ultimate treatment, storage,
or disposal and for timely and easy
access of hazardous waste management
information

5. Confirmation of Treatment or
Disposal Completion
TSD

facility shall issue Certificate of


Treatment within 45 days after the
wastes are received for treatment.
The waste generator shall secure the
original copy from the TSD facility and
include copy of this document as part of
the quarterly reporting to EMB. Original
copy shall be maintained at all times in
the facility.

Import of Recyclable Materials


Containing Hazardous Substances
and Export of Hazardous Wastes

Importation of recyclable materials containing hazardous substances,


shall be allowed only upon obtaining prior written approval from the
Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources or
his duly authorized representative, and in accordance with the rules
and regulations.
Hazardous Waste are allowed to be exported for recovery, treatment
and final disposal and to countries which are Parties to the Basel
Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and
their Disposal or to countries with existing bilateral, multilateral and
regional agreements as provided for in Article 11 of the Convention.

Additional Requirement
(DAO No. 2007-23)

This Order applies to all importer-distributors


and importer-user-manufacturers/usermanufacturers of chemicals and chemical
substances listed under the Revised Priority
Chemical List except, chemicals that are
already covered by Chemical Control Orders for
Mercury and Mercury Compounds (DAO 199738), Cyanide and Cyanide Compounds (DAO
1997-39), Asbestos (DAO 2000-02),
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DAO 2004-01) and
Ozone Depleting Substances (DAO 2004- 18).

CODE ON
SANITATION OF
THE
PHILIPPINES

1. Enumerated the Functions of the Department of Health which


Functions
of the Department of Health
included the following:

Promotion and preservation of the health and the


health standards;
(b) Extend maximum health services to the people
in rural areas and provide medical care to those
who cannot afford it by reason of poverty;
(c) Develop, administer and coordinate various
health activities and ;
(a)

(d) Upgrade the standards of medical practice, the


quality of health services and programs;
(e) Assist local health agencies in developing public
health programs;
(f) Issue permits to establish and operate
government and private hospitals, and other paramedical course
(g) Prescribe standard rates of fees for health,
medical, laboratory, and othe public health
services; and
(h) Performs such other functions as may be
provided by law.

2. Gave authority and responsibilities to the


following officers of the DOH:
Secretary
Bureau

of Directors
Regional Directors
Health Officers

3.
Recognized
international
treaties,
agreements and conventions on public health,
provided for the delegation of power and
assignment of duty, assigned the medium or
language
required
in
all
forms
of
documentation, provided for rules on mailing
of notices, the condemnation and seizure of
property and command responsibility.

4. Provided for Regulations on Water


Supply
a.
b.

Prescribed Standards and Procedures


Prohibited acts to protect drinking water

5. Regulated Food Establishments


a. Sanitary Permit and Health Certificate

6. Provided Rules for Markets and


Abattoirs
a.

b.

The construction of markets and abattoirs


shall conform to standards prescribed by
the Department
Responsibilities of the Local Health
Authority
On Markets
On Abattoirs

7. Rules on Public Laundry

a.
b.

Sanitary Permit and General


Requirements
The construction and operation of a
public laundry shall be governed by the
following:
Structural Requirements
Sanitary Requirements

8. School Sanitation and Health


Services
9. Industrial Hygiene

Indigenous Peoples Rights Act

Indigenous Peoples Rights Act


of 1997
Treated

as an Environmental Law by virtue


of its provisions protecting the ancestral
domains and imposing the requirement
upon project proponents to secure Free
Prior and Informed consent of the
affected Indigenous Peoples before the
utilization of natural resources over their
ancestral domains can be made.

The State shall consider the customs, traditions, beliefs, and


interests of national cultural communities in the formulation and
implementation of state policies.(Sec. 11. Art. XV,1973 Constitution)
The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural
communities within the framework of national unity and
development.(Section 22, Art. II, 1987 Constitution)
The State, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national
development policies and programs, shall protect the rights of
indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure
their economic, social, and cultural well-being.
The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws
governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership
and extent of ancestral domain(Section 5, Art. XII, 1987
Constitution.)

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8371


AN

ACT TO RECOGNIZE, PROTECT AND PROMOTE


THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS CULTURAL
COMMUNITIES/INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, CREATING
A NATIONAL COMMISSION ON INDIGENOUS
PEOPLES, ESTABLISHING IMPLEMENTING
MECHANISMS, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR,
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Indigenous Concept of
Ownership
The

indigenous concept of ownership


generally holds that ancestral domains
are the ICC's/IP's private but community
property which belongs to all
generations and therefore cannot be
sold, disposed or destroyed.

Environmental Consideration
The

ICCs/IPs concerned shall be given


the responsibility to maintain, develop,
protect and conserve such areas with
the full and effective assistance of the
government agencies.

Rights Over Ancestral Domain


1)

The right to claim ownership over lands, bodies of water traditionally and
actually occupied by ICCs/IPs, sacred places, traditional hunting and fishing
grounds, and all improvements made by them at any time within the
domains

2)

Right to Develop Lands and Natural Resources

3)

Right to Stay in the Territories

4)

In case displacement occurs as a result of natural catastrophes, the State


shall endeavor to resettle the displaced ICCs/IPs in suitable areas where
they can have temporary life support system: Provided, That the displaced
ICCs/IPs shall have the right to return to their abandoned lands until such
time that the normalcy and safety of such lands shall be determined.

5)

Right to Regulate Entry of Migrants

6)

Right to Safe and Clean Air and Water

7)

Right to Claim Parts of Reservations

Responsibilities of ICCs/IPs to
their Ancestral Domains
Maintain

Ecological Balance
Restore Denuded Areas
Observe Laws

Points to Ponder
REGALIAN
DOCTRINE
The King
owns
everything

NATIVE
TITLE
DOCTRINE
Time
Immemorial
Possession

JURISPRUDENCE
CARIO V. INSULAR GOVERNMENT
212 US 449 [1909]

Recognition of Native Title


when, as far back as testimony or memory
goes, the land has been held by individuals
under a claim of private ownership, it will be
presumed to have been held in the same way
from before the Spanish conquest, and never
to have been public land

JURISPRUDENCE
BAGUIO

CITY VS. MASWENG


578 SCRA 88

Functions

of the NICP
Responsible for the formulation and
implementation of policies, plans and
programs to protect and promote the
rights and well being of indigenous cultural
communities/indigenous peoples (ICCs/IPs)
and the recognition of their ancestral
domains as well as their right thereto.

JURISPRUDENCE
PROVINCE OF NORTH COTABATO V. GRP PEACE
PANEL
506 SCRA 402

Free and Prior Informed Consent


Even the more specific provisions of the UN DRIP are
general in scope, allowing for flexibility in its
application by the different States. RA No. 8371 or
the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 provides
for clear-cut procedure for the recognition and
dilatation of ancestral domain, which entails, among
other things, the observance of the free and prior
informed consent of the Indigenous Cultural
Communities/ Indigenous Peoples.

CHALLEGES
OF NCIP
NATIONAL

OFFICIAL LEGAL
SYSTEM
PERSPECTIVES ON
LAND AND
VERSUS
RESOURCES
INDIGENOUS
PEOPLES
WORLDVIEW ON
LAND AND
RESOURCES

CHALLEGES OF NCIP
Harmonization of
IPRA with other laws

Administrative
mess/ NCIPs lack of
political will

Obstacles in
IPRA
implementation
Constitutional
challenge

Overlapping
instruments and
resource
competition

Protection

or Harm? The
Indigenous Peoples rights Act
of 1997 and its Implementation

Talaandig tribe organization called PanalsalanDagumbaan-Tribal-Association (PADATA) in


Bukidnon, Mindanao

Non-recognition /ancestral domains, natural


resources & self-determination as established in
the law

Other
Provisions of
Laws

PUBLIC LAND ACT or


COMMONWEALTH ACT 141

Brief History
The

public land act or Commonwealth


Act 141 is an amendment or revision
and compilation of past and old laws
about the disposition and alienation of
laws of the public domain. Old laws
include the Friar Lands Act, The
Cadastral Land Act, Act No 926 and Act
No 2874.

To review, what is a public


land?
Lands

of the public domain are classified


into agricultural, forest or timber,
mineral lands and national parks.

May public lands be alienated?


Generally,

lands.

no, except for agricultural

Purpose of the Public Land Act


To

systemize or consolidate all laws


which relate to public land which exist
during the time of the laws enactment.

Provisions of the Act related to the


preservation of the environment

Sec 106
X X X in accordance with this Act, it appears
that the land applied for is necessary, in the
public interest, for the protection of any
source of water or for any work for the
public benefit that the Government wishes
to undertake the Secretary of Agriculture
and Natural Resources may order the
cancellation of the application or the nonissuance of the patent X X X

Section 109
In

no case shall any land be granted


under the provisions of this Act when
this affects injuriously the use of any
adjacent land or of the waters, rivers,
creeks, foreshore, roads, or roadsteads,
or vests the grantee with other valuable
rights that may be detrimental to the
public interest.

Section 113
The

beneficial use of water shall be the


basis, the measure, and the limit of all
rights thereto, and the patents herein
granted shall be subject to the right of
the Government to make such rules and
regulations for the use of water and the
protection of the water supply, and for
other public purposes, as it may deem
best for the public good. xxx

Section 114
xxx PROVIDED, FURTHER, That with respect to the flow
of water, except for converting the same into power
exceeding fifty horse power, said grantee shall be
entitled to the same use of the water flowing through
or along his land that other private owners enjoy under
the law, subject to the governmental regulation
provided in the previous section. Water power
privileges in which the convertible power at ordinary
low water shall exceed fifty horse power shall be
disposed of only upon terms established by Act of the
Legislature concerning the use, lease, or acquisition of
such water privilege.

Agrarian
Reform Law
AN ACT STRENGTHENING
THE COMPREHENSIVE
AGRARIAN REFORM
PROGRAM (CARP),
EXTENDING THE
ACQUISITION AND
DISTRIBUTION OF ALL
AGRICULTURAL LANDS,
INSTITUTING NECESSARY
REFORMS, AMENDING FOR
THE PURPOSE CERTAIN
PROVISIONS OF REPUBLIC
ACT NO. 6657, OTHERWISE
KNOWN AS THE
COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN
REFORM LAW OF 1988, AS
AMENDED, AND
APPROPRIATING FUNDS

Declaration of State
Policies and Principles
The

agrarian reform program is founded on the right of


farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own
directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of
other farm workers, to receive a just share of the fruits
thereof.
It is the policy of the State to pursue a Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The welfare of the
landless farmers and farmworkers will receive the highest
consideration to promote social justice and to move the
nation toward sound rural development and
industrialization, and the establishment of owner
cultivatorship of economic-size farms as the basis of
Philippine agriculture.

Important Terms/Definitions
Agrarian Reform means redistribution of lands, regardless of crops or
fruits produced, to farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless.
Agricultural Land refers to land devoted to agricultural activity as
defined in this Act and not classified as mineral, forest, residential,
commercial or industrial land.
Farmer refers to a natural person whose primary livelihood is
cultivation of land or the production of agricultural crops
Farmworker is a natural person who renders service for value as an
employee or laborer in an agricultural enterprise or farm
Cooperatives shall refer to organizations composed primarily of small
agricultural producers, farmers, farmworkers, or other agrarian
reform beneficiaries who voluntarily organize themselves for the
purpose of pooling land, human, technological, financial or other
economic resources

Coverage

a)
b)
c)
d)

The following are lands covered under the CARL:


All alienable and disposable lands of the public
domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture.
All lands of the public domain in excess of the
specific limits as determined by Congress.
All other lands owned by the Government
devoted to or suitable for agriculture.
All private lands devoted to or suitable for
agriculture regardless of the agricultural
products raised or that can be raised thereon.

Retention/Limits
In

no case shall retention by the


landowner exceed five (5) hectares.
Three (3) hectares may be awarded to
each child of the landowner, subject to
the following qualifications: (1) that he
is at least fifteen (15) years of age; and
(2) that he is actually tilling the land or
directly managing the farm.

Exemptions/ Exclusions

Lands actually, directly and exclusively used and found to


be necessary for parks, wildlife, forest reserves,
reforestation, fish sanctuaries and breeding grounds,
watersheds, and mangroves, national defense, school sites
and campuses including experimental farm stations
operated by public or private schools for educational
purposes, seeds and seedlings research and pilot
production centers, church sites and convents appurtenant
thereto, mosque sites and Islamic centers appurtenant
thereto, communal burial grounds and cemeteries, penal
colonies and penal farms actually worked by the inmates,
government and private research and quarantine centers
and all lands with eighteen percent (18%) slope and over.

Special Areas of Concern


Subsistence

Fishing. Small fisherfolk, including seaweed


farmers, shall be assured of greater access to the utilization of
water resources.
Logging and Mining Concessions. Subject to the requirement
of a balanced ecology and conservation of water resources,
suitable areas, as determined by the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), in logging, mining
and pasture areas, shall be opened up for agrarian settlements
whose beneficiaries shall be required to undertake
reforestation and conservation production methods. Subject to
existing laws, rules and regulations, settlers and members of
tribal communities shall be allowed to enjoy and exploit the
products of the forest other than timer within the logging
concessions.

Republic Act
No. 7160
AN ACT
PROVIDING
FOR A LOCAL
GOVERNMEN
T CODE OF
1991
This Code shall apply to all provinces,
cities, municipalities, Barangays, and
other political subdivisions as may be
created by law, and, to the extent
herein provided, to officials, offices, or
agencies of the national government.

DENR

PHILIPPINES

CONSERVATION

MANAGEMANT

DENR
DENR

DEVELOPMENT

PROPER USE

Environment and Natural Resources

LGUs AS ENVIRONMENTAL PARTNERS

LGUs AS

BARANG
BARANG
AY
AY
ENVIRONMENTAL

SEC. 389

Baranga
Baranga
y
y
Captain
Captain
s
s

MUNICIPAL
MUNICIPAL
ITY
ITY

SEC. 447

Sangguni
Sangguni
ang
ang
Bayan
Bayan

LGU
LGU

PARTNERS

CITY
CITY
Officers
Officers
appointe
appointe
d
d by
by
Mayor
Mayor

PROVIN
PROVIN
CES
CES

SEC. 458
Sangguni
Sangguni
ang
ang
Sections from RA N0. 7160
Panlalawi
Panlalawi
gan
gan

SEC. 454

JURISPRUDENCE
SC

Declares GRP-MILF MOA-AD Unconstitutional


RA 7160 (the Local Government Code of 1991)
CONSULTATION BEFORE IMPLEMENTATION

Requires all national offices to conduct consultations before any


project or program critical to the environment and human ecology
including those that may call for the eviction of a particular group of
people residing in such locality, is implemented therein. The MOA-AD is one
peculiar program that unequivocally and unilaterally vests ownership of a
vast territory to the Bangsamoro people, which could pervasively and
drastically result to the diaspora or displacement of a great number of
inhabitants from their total environment.

Republic Act No. 7161

AN ACT INCORPORATING CERTAIN SECTIONS


OF THE NATIONAL INTERNAL REVENUE
CODE OF 1977, AS AMENDED, TO
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 705, AS
AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE
"REVISED
FORESTRY
CODE
OF
THE
PHILIPPINES",
AND
PROVIDING
AMENDMENTS THERETO BY INCREASING
THE FOREST CHARGES ON TIMBER AND
OTHER FOREST PRODUCTS.

Introduction

Forest is regarded as an important resource for


development in the Philippines. Its vast expanse
provides a vital economic base for a large
portion of the population. It is also home to a
wide range of flora and fauna. As a result of the
governments
conservation
policy,
the
Philippines is now a net importer of wood
products, having previously had an exportoriented forestry sector for many years. (Food
and Agriculture of the United Nation)

Forest Statistics

As of 2000, forestlands in the Philippines comprised 15.8


million ha or 53 percent of the total area of the country.
Alienable and disposable lands make up the remaining
14.2 million ha or 47percent of the land area.

The latest statistics estimate the countrys forest area at


5.4 million ha or roughly 18 percent of the total land area.

Species of Flora and Fauna in 1 ha of Philippine forests is


equivalent to the species of entire Europe.

The Role of Forests in Climate


Change

Forest is not just a resource but a biodiversity area and part of the
terrestrial system of the earth

Trees are generally 20% carbon by weight

Forests can store 15 tons of carbon per hectare per year in their biomass
and wood

The value of a 50-year-old tree is P9M

Sustainable managed forests produce wood fuels as carbon neutral


alternative to fossil fuels. Trees are considered carbon neural.

Deforestation and forest degradation contributed around 17% of global


carbon emissions in the last 20 years

Definition of Terms

Public forest is the mass of lands of the public domain which has not
been the subject of the present system of classification for the
determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes and which
are not.

Alienable and disposable lands refer to those lands of the public


domain which have been the subject of the present system of
classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes.

Forest lands include the public forest, the permanent forest or forest
reserves, and forest reservations.

Forest product means timber, pulpwood, firewood, bark, tree top, resin,
gum, wood, oil, honey, beeswax, nipa, rattan, or other forest growth such
as grass, shrub, and flowering plant, the associated water, fish,

The following are the amended forest charges on


timber and other forest products:
A) Charges on Timber cut in forestland

There shall be collected charges on each cubic meter of


timber cut in forestland, whether belonging to the first,
second, third or fourth group, twenty-five percent (25%) of
the actual FOB market price based on species and grading:
Provided, however, That, in the case of pulpwood and
matchwood cut in forestland, forest charges on each cubic
meter shall be ten percent (10%) of the actual FOB market
price (Section 3)

B) Charges on Firewood, Branches


Recoverable Wood Wastes of Timber.

and

Other

There shall be collected forest charges on each cubic meter


of firewood cut in forestland, branches and other
recoverable wood wastes of timber, such as timber ends,
tops and stumps, when used as raw materials for the
manufacture of finished products, Ten pesos (P10.00),
except for all mangrove species whose cutting shall be
banned

Only third or fourth group wood can be taken for firewood.


However, if jointly authorized by the Secretary of both the
Departments of Environment and Natural Resources, and
Agriculture, first and second group woods may be removed
for firewood purposes from land which is more valuable for
agricultural than for forest purposes. (Section 4)

C) Charges on Minor Forest Products

All other forest products of forestland which are not


covered by the preceding sections shall be exempt rattan,
gums and resins, beeswax, guta-percha, almaciga resin
and bamboo which shall be charged at ten percent (10%)
of the actual FOB market price. (Section 5)

D)
Application
of
Forest
Charges
and
Determination of Market Price of Forest
Products
The

actual FOB market price of forest products shall


be justly determined once a year by the Secretary of
Environment and Natural Resources (Sec 6)

SEED INDUSTRY
DEVELOPMENT
ACT OF 1992
Republic Act No. 7308

POLICY
(1) conserve, preserve and develop the plant genetic
resources of the nation;
(2) encourage and hasten the organization of all sectors
engaged in the industry, integrate all their activities and
provide assistance to them;
(3) consider the seed industry as a preferred area of
investment;
(4) encourage the private sector to engage in seed research
and development and in mass production and distribution of
good quality seeds; and
(5) provide the local industry protection against unfair
competition from imported seeds.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Seed - plant material used for the


production of food, forage, fibers, industrial
crops, oil, flowers, grasses, herbs and
aquatic plants, including but not limited to
meristem, and clonal propagules such as
tubers, corns, and micro-propagated
plantlets.

Seed Lot - a definite quantity of seeds


identified by a lot number or other
identification marks, or every portion of the
bag or any container, the contents of which
uniformly represent the factors which appear
in the label within allowable tolerance.

Seed

Industry

- the different
components of the chain of activities
undertaken by an individual, association,
cooperative, corporation or firm, academic
institution, public agricultural research
institute in the production, processing,
testing,
handling,
grading,
storage,
distribution, and marketing of seeds for
agricultural production with economic
benefits.

Seed Control - the regulation of seed


marketing
through
registration
of
seed
merchants/dealers compulsory labeling, and
establishment of minimum standards of seed
quality.

Seed Testing - the accurate and prompt


analysis of a seed sample based on methodologies
prescribed by the Council to determine its quality.

Unlawful Seed Lots - those seed lots


displayed for sale infected with pests and/or
diseases, seed lots sold by dealers with false
documents and certification consistent with the
objectives of the Key Commercial Crops
Development Program of the DA, or from the
Bureau of Plant Industry, or imported seeds
without the proper phytosanitary documents and
customs clearances. (Sec. 20, Art. 5, IRR)

Unfair Competition - biased or prejudiced


conditions describing a trade transaction as
evidenced by the dumping of sale subsidized seeds
and planting material. (Sec. 17, Art. 5, IRR)

NATIONAL SEED INDUSTRY COUNCIL


(COUNCIL)
a)to formulate policies
b)to encourage to adopt systems and practices which
improve the quality of seeds for distribution to farmers;
c)to promote the establishment of infrastructures and other
support services in priority areas geared toward the
development of the seed industry;
d)to formulate a comprehensive medium and long-term
national seed industry development program;
e)to grant awards, subsidies and other forms of assistance to
seed or plant breeders;
f)to formulate policies that will stimulate plant breeding
activities; and
g)to promulgate rules and regulations to implement the
provisions of this Act.

SEED INDUSTRY
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
(PROGRAM)
The DA shall be the overall responsibility of directing and
coordinating the activities of the component agencies in
accelerating the development of the seed industry. It shall
finalize the Program through a process of consultations with
the public and private sector participants in the seed industry,
including both seed users and producers.

NATIONAL SEED QUALITY CONTROL


SERVICES (SERVICES)
a) formulate plans and programs on
seed quality control services and
activities on seed testing, plant/seed
material certification and other
quality control schemes to be
developed;
b) sample and conduct seed analysis
and issue the corresponding report of
analysis of samples drawn from
locally produced and imported seed
within the purview of this Act;
c) conduct field inspections of seed
crops, seed storage and processing
facilities and other activities required
for seed/plant material certification
and issue the corresponding report of
inspection within the purview of this
Act;

d) conduct other related functions


like seed research and seed
technology training for its clientele;
e) collect reasonable fees for testing
of seeds, inspection of crop fields
and facilities and for issuance of
permits and licenses in relation to
the activities of the Services;
f) supervise and coordinate all
official seed testing laboratories in
the regions and provincial satellite
laboratories and seed certification
in all provinces and sub-provinces;
g) accredit private seed testing
laboratories; and
h) perform such other functions as
the Council may direct.

TECHNICAL
SECRETARIAT
Shall establish seed standards and formulate
systems and procedures for varietal identification,
evaluation, nomination, review and approval for
registration,
commercial
release
and
discontinuation of crop cultivars or varieties in the
National Agricultural Crop Production and
Development Program

PROHIBITED ACTS
a) Importation in commercial quantities of species of seeds that
are being produced locally, except seeds difficult to grow under
ordinary conditions or when allowed by the Council;
b) The importation of seed varieties identified under Heading
Number 12.09, Chapter 12 of Presidential Decree No. 34 as
amended, otherwise known as the Tariff and Customs Code of the
Philippines, shall be allowed at a three (3) percent tariff rate,
consistent with the objectives of the Key Commercial Crops
Development Program of the DA;
c) Exportation of rare species, varieties, lines and strains of plants
from the country except for scientific or international exchange
purposes which shall be determined by the Council; and
d) The exportation of endangered species, varieties, lines, and strains
of plants such as those listed under the Convention of
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

AUTHORITY TO SEARCH AND CONDEMN


UNLAWFUL SEED LOTS

The Executive Director of the Council is hereby authorized


to search and seize seed lots labeled, identified or
imported in violation of this Act: Provided, That a search
warrant shall first be secured from the proper court and the
same shall be served/enforced with the assistance of the
Philippine National Police (PNP) or the National Bureau of
Investigation (NBI).

PENALTY
Any person, firm, or association who shall violate
any provision of this Act or the implementing rules
and regulations promulgated pursuant to this Act,
shall, upon conviction, be punished with a fine of not
more than Ten Thousand pesos (P 10,000.00) or
imprisonment of not more than five (5) years, or
both, in the discretion of the court: Provided, That in
the case of a firm or association, the penalty of
imprisonment shall be imposed upon the officer(s)
who knowingly participated, abetted or consented to
the commission of such punishable acts.

AN ACT TO PROMOTE THE PRODUCTION,PROCESSING,


MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-VALUED CROPS,
PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7900

REPUBLIC ACT NO.


7900
High

value crops command a high price


both on local market and overseas. They
are in such demand that farmers should
consider and encourage growing these
crops.

REPUBLIC ACT NO.


7900
The

State shall be guided by the


principles that land has a social function
and land ownership has a social
responsibility. As such, owners and
lessees of agricultural land, being
stewards, have the obligation to
cultivate the lands they own or lease
and make the land economically
productive on a sustainable and
environmentally friendly manner.

REPUBLIC ACT NO.


7900
The

State shall effect an efficient use of


land and other productive resources
with due regard to ecological
balance and environmental
protection, rural development, equity
consideration, mobilization of human
resources, and increased agro-industrial
production for the alleviation of poverty
and sustainable growth objectives

RA 8048, as amended by RA 10593


"Coconut Preservation Act of 1995"

State Policy
It

is the policy of the


State to provide for
the regulation of the
cutting of coconut
trees as well as to
promote the growth
of the industry by
embarking on a
sustainable and
efficient replanting
program.

Prohibitions

No coconut tree or trees shall be cut unless a permit therefore, upon due application being
made, has been issued by the PCA pursuant to Section 6 of this Act.

(a) When the tree is sixty (60) years old in the case of tall varieties, and at least forty (40)
years old for dwarf varieties.

(b) When the tree is no longer economically productive

(c) When the tree is severely disease-infested and beyond rehabilitation.

(d) When the tree is severely damaged by typhoon or lightning.

(e) When the agricultural land devoted to coconut production shall have been converted in
accordance with law into residential, commercial or industrial areas

(f) When the land devoted to coconut production shall be converted into other agricultural
uses or other agriculture-related activities in pursuance to a conversion duly applied for by
the owner and approved by the proper authorities:
Provided, That no conversion shall be allowed by the PCA until after it shall have been
verified and certified that for a period of at least three (3) years the majority of the coconut
trees have become senescent and economically unproductive or where the coconut farm is
not adaptable to sound management practices on account of geographical location,
topography, drainage and other conditions rendering the farm economically unproductive

(g) When the tree would cause hazard to life and property.

Permit To Cut

No coconut tree or trees shall be cut unless a permit


therefore, upon due application being made, has
been issued by the The Philippine Coconut Authority

The applicant shall pay an application fee in the


amount of One hundred pesos (P100.00) for every
tree intended to be cut payable to the PCA.
Forty pesos (P40.00) of the fee shall accrue in favor
of the PCA;
Forty pesos (P40.00) in favor of the municipal
government concerned; and
Twenty pesos (P20.00) in favor of the barangay unit
concerned.

Replanting Program

Replanting program refers to the program formulated by


the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) to replenish the
coconut trees which have been permitted to be cut by the
PCA.
Such replanting, however, shall not apply to areas
converted into industrial, commercial or residential sites or
land transformed in accordance with law, into other
agricultural purposes

Police Powers

(a) Investigate suspected violations of this Act


(b) Arrest and apprehend any person actually committing or attempting
to commit an offense under this Act
(c) Arrest and apprehend possessor of coconut lumber without the
necessary permit as required under this Act
(d) Search and seize a moving vehicle with illegally cut, gathered,
collected or removed coconut lumber: Provided, That probable cause for
the search is established
(e) Stop the transport and/or shipment of coconut lumber without
authority or without legal documents in accordance with pertinent laws,
regulations or policies on the matter
(f) Confiscate and forfeit in favor of the government the illegally cut,
gathered, collected, removed, possessed or abandoned coconut lumber,
as well as the machinery, equipment, implements and tools illegally
used in the commission of the offense and to dispose of the same in
accordance with pertinent laws, regulations or policies on the matter
(g) Seek the assistance of other law enforcement agencies for the
efficient and effective implementation of this Act.

REPUBLIC ACT 8435


AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES
MODERNIZATION ACT OF 1997

Presented by: PABLO, Jason Kervy D.

Overview
a policy instrument
defining measures to
modernize Philippine
agriculture for the country
to compete in the global
market.
The underlying principle
behind this policy is to
improve the living
conditions of farmers and
fisherfolk and increase
their productivity amidst
the growing needs of the
markets (local and abroad)

Agriculture and Fisheries


Modernization Act of 1997
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

production and marketing support


services;
human resource development;
research development and extension;
rural nonfarm employment;
trade and fiscal incentives; and
general provisions.

Production and Marketing


Support Services
Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones
(SAFDZ)
to ensure that lands are efficiently and sustainably
utilized for food and nonfood production and agro
industrialization
formulation and implementation of a mediumand long
term comprehensive Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization
Plan (AFMP)
access to credit by small farmers, fisherfolk, particularly
the women involved in the production, processing and
trading of agriculture and fisheries products and the small
and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) and industries
engaged in agriculture and fisheries.

Developments
irrigation systems that are effective, affordable,
appropriate and efficient
market information system through the establishment of a
National Information Network designed to benefit the farmers
and fisherfolk, cooperatives, traders, processors and local
government units
product standards to ensure consumer safety and promote
the competitiveness of agriculture and fisheries products
rural infrastructure like farmtomarket roads, fishports,
seaports and airports, rural energy, water supply system,
postharvest facilities, public markets and abattoirs, water
supply system, agricultural machinery and communication
infrastructure

Human Resource
Development
National

Agriculture and Fisheries Education System

(NAFES)

Education Program for Elementary and Secondary Levels


PostSecondary Education Program for Agriculture and
Fisheries

Establishment

of Network of National Centers of


Excellence in Agriculture and Fisheries Education
National Integrated Human Resource Development
Plan in Agriculture and Fisheries

overall direction in setting priorities in curricular


programs, enrollment, performance targets, and
investment programs

Research and Development

Consolidation of the National Research and


Development System in Agriculture and Fisheries
by concerned agencies notably the

Department of Agriculture and


the Department of Science and Technology.

Multidisciplinary and shall involve farmers,


fisherfolk and their organizations, and those
engaged in food and nonfood production and
processing, including the private and public
sectors

Rural NonFarm
Employment
Basic

Needs Program

education and training


rural industrialization and industry
dispersal
Financing
health and nutrition
basic infrastructure and food security

Rural NonFarm
Employment

Rural Industrialization and Industry Dispersal


Program
Board of Investments (BOI) is mandated to
grant highest priority on fiscal incentives to
business and industries with linkages to
agriculture
Government agencies shall provide integrated
services to prospective enterprises in the
formulation of investment priorities in the
rural area
Participating agencies may avail of free
training, technical and advisory services from
any government agencies

Trade and Fiscal


Incentives
provide an enabling policy for Philippine agriculture
and fishery products to gain competitive edge in
both the domestic and global market
mandates providing small farmers and fisherfolk with
priority access to credit and promotion of
strengthened cooperativebased marketing system.
granting of tariff exemptions to agribusiness
enterprises for the importation of all types of
agriculture and fisheries inputs, equipment and
machinery including fishing equipment and parts
thereof.

The Philippine
Archipelagic
Doctrine
Rudyard Dominick M. Hipe

Bar Question
What

do you understand by
the archipelagic doctrine? Is
this reflected in the 1987
Philippine Constitution?

Suggested Answer

The ARCHIPELAGIC DOCTRINE emphasizes the


unity of land and waters by defining an
archipelago either as a group of islands
surrounded by waters or a body of waters
studded with islands. For this purpose, it
requires that baselines be drawn by connecting
the appropriate points of the "outermost islands
to encircle the islands within the archipelago.
The waters on the landward side of the
baselines regardless of breadth or dimensions
are merely internal waters.

Suggested Answer
Yes,

the archipelagic doctrine is reflected in


the 1987 Constitution. Article I, Section 1
provides that the national territory of the
Philippines includes the Philippine
archipelago, with all the islands and waters
embraced therein; and the waters around,
between, and connecting the islands of the
archipelago, regardless of their breadth and
dimensions, form part of the internal waters
of the Philippines.

The Philippines as an
Archipelago

Historical
Origin
The territorial limits and
boundaries of the
Philippines were defined by:

the Treaty of Paris between


the United States and Spain
on December 10, 1898;
the Treaty of Washington
between Spain and the
United States on November
7, 1900; and
the treaty between Great
Britain and the United
States on July 2, 1930.

Article I: National Territory

The national territory comprises the Philippine


archipelago, with all the islands and waters
embraced therein, and all other territories over
which the Philippines has sovereignty or
jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and
aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the
seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
submarine areas. The waters around, between,
and connecting the islands of the archipelago,
regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form
part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

Baselines
Baselines

are reference lines


drawn by a coastal or
archipelagic State using
different methods. They are
used to measure the breadth
of the territorial sea (12nm),
contiguous zone (24 nm), EEZ
(200nm) and continental shelf
(up to 350nm). Also, the
waters enclosed by the
baselines are called
archipelagic waters over
which an archipelagic State
exercises sovereignty.

According

to the UNCLOS, there are


three methods that can be employed in
determining a States baselines, namely:

1. Normal Baseline
according

to Art. 5, is the low-water


line along the coast as marked on largescale charts officially recognized by the
coastal State.

2. Straight Baseline
according

to Art. 7, can be employed if


ever the coastlines are indented and
cut into or there is a fringe of islands
along the coast in its immediate
vicinity.

3. Archipelagic Baseline
according

to Art. 47, is a method of joining the


outermost points of the outermost islands and drying
reefs of an archipelago provided that within such
baselines are included the main island and an area in
which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of
the land, including atolls, is between 1:1 and 9:1.

Territorial Waters

Internal Water
Archipelagic Waters
Territorial Sea
Contiguous Zone
Exclusive Economic Zone

Renewable
Energy Act of
2008

Introduction
Fossil fuel- power plants tend to produce
GHGs
Air pollution
Water pollution
Wildlife and habitat loss
Damage to public health

R.A. No. 9513


To effectively reduce harmful emissions and achieve
economic development while protecting health and
environment
to switch to the utilization of renewable energy
resources in the country.
Part of the low emission development strategy and
is vital to addressing challenges of climate change,
energy security, and access to energy.
On-Grid Renewable Energy Development
Incentives
Fund

REPUBLIC ACT
No. 9367
BIOFUELS ACT
OF 2006
By: de Leon, Jea Belinda
B.

OVERVIEW

Develop and utilize homegrown and


renewable alternatives to oil

Mitigate toxic and greenhouse gas emissions

Reduce dependence on imported fuels to:

Protect public health


Protect the environment and natural ecosystems
Promote economic growth

Refers

to bioethanol and
biodiesel and other fuels made
from biomass and primarily used
for motive, thermal and power
generation, with quality
specifications in accordance
with the PNS
can be solid, gaseous or liquid
two types of biofuels:
1. Primary
2. Secondary

Primary biofuels, such as fuel wood, wood


chips and pellets, are organic materials and
are being used in an unprocessed form,
primarily for cooking or electricity production

Secondary biofuels are the result of


processing of biomass and include liquid
biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel that
can be used in vehicles and industrial
processes.

INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM

the government agencies shall work together to implement


and achieve up its end the provisions mandated in this act

DOLE

DENR

DOE

DOF
DOST

ADVANTAGES

Incentives for Biofuel


Producing Firms

zero tax on some imported


biofuel components
no vat on local biofuel raw
materials
some waters exempted from
wastewater charges

Conservation of Biodiversity
preserve fossils and environment
by utilizing crops that can be
replanted and reused

Promotion of public health

Engine Efficiency and Increased Mileage

reduces hydrocarbon emissions thereby enhancing


engine function

Over-All Economic Facelift


o
o
o

Transport sector: better vehicle performance, increased


engine power, and higher mileage;
Environment: cleaner emissions that meet clean air
standards; and
For the agriculture sector: additional 3.5M jobs for
coconut farmers and 87,000 jobs for sugar planters and
manufacturers.

DISADVANTAGES
Increased Pace of Environment Deterioration
carbon dioxide emitted will still be absorbed by the
plants and released in the atmosphere; only
sugarcane is proven to be beneficial in combatting
greenhouse effect (others are least helpful)

Increase in Food Prices


due to possible food shortage due to limited water and
land supply that will be utilized for planting biofuel raw
materials instead of food

The Perennial Oil Price Hike

competition between foreign and local oil suppliers

PROHIBITED ACTS
(Sec. 12)

a) Diversion of biofuels, whether locally produced or imported,


to purposes other than those envisioned in this Act;
b) Sale of biofuel-blended gasoline or diesel that fails to comply
with the minimum biofuel-blend by volume in violation of the
requirement under Section 5 of this Act;
c) Distribution, sale and use of automotive fuel containing
harmful additives such as, but not limited to, MTBE at such
concentration exceeding the limits to be determined by the
NBB
d) Noncompliance with the established guidelines of the PNS
and DOE adopted for the implementation of this Act; and
e) False labeling of gasoline, diesel, biofuels and biofuel
blended gasoline and diesel.

PENALTIES
(Sec. 13)

The

DOE may impose administrative fines,


suspend the operation of businesses and
confiscate and dispose any amount of products
prohibited under RA 9367 and its implementing
issuances.

Violators

of RA 9367 are likewise penalized with


one year to five years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from a minimum of one million pesos (P1
million) to five million pesos (P5 million).

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION

Biofuels and Water Resources


The availability of water resources, limited by
technical and institutional factors, will constrain the
amount ofbiofuel feed stock production in countries that
would otherwise have a comparative advantage in their
production
Freshwater is increasingly in short supply in many
regions in the Philippines. Irrigation for agriculture is
already the largest single use of water by societies
globally. Using irrigation to grow biofuel crops will
aggravate these shortages, reducing water available for
other uses and further impacting freshwater ecosystems.

Producing

morebiofuel crops will affect water


quality as well as quantity. Converting pastures
or woodlands into maize fields, for example,
may exacerbate problems such as soil erosion,
sedimentation and excess nutrient (nitrogen
and phosphorous) runoff into surface waters,
and infiltration intogroundwater from increased
fertilizer application.

Biofuels and Air Pollution


Air pollution from the burning of sugar cane before
manual harvest contributes smoke, fine particles, and
nitrogen gases to the atmosphere, causing acid rain
and a variety of human health impacts.
Ethanol and biodiesel can reduce the emissions of
some pollutants from vehicle exhaust, but tends to
increase other pollutant emissions such as nitrogen
gases.

Biofuels and Biodiversity


Biodiversity is greatly threatened by the expansion
of biofuels production because land suitable for food,
biofuel production and conservation is a finite
resource. Hence, the expansion of biofuels in a world
with a growing demand for food necessarily leads to
increased deforestation and conversion of grasslands
and savannas to biofuel crops.
The effects however have substantial uncertainty
over the magnitude of lands that could be farmed in
sustainable, environmentally beneficial way for
biofuels.

Biofuels and Soil Resources


There can be grave effects of biodiesel fuel on
environment if deforestation and monoculture farming
techniques are used to grow biofuel crops.
It may damage the ecosystems and biodiversity and
increase the emission of climate change gases rather
than helping controlling them.
To meet the demand for cheap oil from the tropical
region, the amount of arable land is being extended in
order to increase production at the cost of tropical
rainforest.
Tropics forests are being cleared to make room for oil
palm plantations.
These can lead to serious biodiesel fuel
environmental effects as deforestation can be
threatening many species of unique plants and animals.