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Fluid Mechanics - 1

Chapter 5
Flow Analysis
using
Control Volumes
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Introduction

Practical problems in fluid mechanics require analysis of the behavior of the


contents of a finite region in space ( control volume ; CV )
Many important questions can be readily answered with finite control volume
analyses
The bases of this analysis method are some fundamental principles of physics,
applied to a CV namely,
Conservation of mass
Newtons second law of motion
The first and second1 laws of thermodynamics

The resultant techniques presented in this Chapter are powerful and applicable to
a wide variety of fluid mechanical circumstances that require engineering
judgment
Furthermore, the finite control volume formulas are easy to interpret physically
and thus are not difficult to use
In fluid mechanics, the control volume or Eulerian view is generally less
complicated and, therefore, more convenient to use than the system or
Lagrangian view
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Introduction

The control volume formulas are derived from the equations representing basic
laws applied to a collection of mass (a system)
The concept of a control volume and system occupying the same region of space
at an instant (coincident condition) and use of the Reynolds transport theorem
(Eqs. 4.19 and 4.23) are key elements in the derivation of the control volume
equations
Integrals are used throughout the chapter for generality. Volume integrals can
accommodate spatial variations of the material properties of the contents of a
control volume
Control surface area integrals allow for surface distributions of flow variables
However, in this chapter, for simplicity we often assume that flow variables are
uniformly distributed over cross-sectional areas where fluid enters or leaves the
control volume
This uniform flow is called one-dimensional flow
In Chapters 8 and 9, when we discuss velocity profiles and other flow variable
distributions, the effects of non-uniformities will be covered in more detail
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation : Conservation of Mass

A system is defined as a collection of unchanging contents, so the conservation of


mass principle for a system is simply stated as
Time rate of change of the system mass = 0
DM sys
0
or
Dt
where Msys is the system mass, M sys dv

For a system and a fixed, non-deforming control volume that are coincident at an
instant of time, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eq. 4.19) with that B = Mass and b=
1, allows us to state
DM sys
D

dv

( 5.3 )
sys
CV dv CS V n dA
Dt

Dt

.
,
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation : Conservation of Mass


DM sys
Dt

b
dv

b dv b V n dA

sys
CV
CS
Dt
t

.
,

Discussion on basic element of above eqn

b dv
t CV
b V n dA
CS

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation

/(Contd.)

In other word, the integral over control surface is represented as

CS

V n dA mout min
DM sys

For conservation of mass (continuity eqn ),

In words, above Eqn states that to conserve mass the time rate of change of the
mass of the contents of the control volume plus the net rate of mass flow through
the control surface must equal zero
Actually, the same result could have been obtained more directly by equating the
rates of mass flow into and out of the control volume to the rates of accumulation
and depletion of mass within the control volume (See Section 3.6.2)
It is reassuring, however, to see that the Reynolds transport theorem works for this
simple-to-understand case

dv V n dA 0

CV
CS
t

Dt

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

thus eqn 5.1 becomes


(5.5)

Continuity Equation

/(Contd.)

Mass Flow Rate


Mass Flow Rate through a section of control surface having area A
and uniform properties of incompressible flow, is represented as
0
(5.6)
m Q AV
For compressible flow the density and velocity are not uniform.
For compressible flows, we will normally consider a uniformly
distributed fluid density at each section of flow and allow density
changes to occur only from section to section
(5.8)
CS b V n dA
V

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Fixed, Non-Deforming Control Volume
In many applications of fluid mechanics, an appropriate
control volume to use is fixed and non-deforming
Several example problems that involve the continuity
equation for fixed, non-deforming control volumes (Eq. 5.5)
illustrates use of such CVs
See Examples 5.1 to 5.5 of text Book

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Ex

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Ex

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

12

where

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Summary Observations on Application of Cont. Eqn. :

dv V n dA 0
CS
t CV

( to fixed, non-deforming Control Volumes)


The vector Dot Product , V n has following sign convention :
+ve for flow out of CV
- ve for flow into CV

When the
flow is steady, the time rate of change of CV is zero, i.e

CV

dv 0

Thus net mass flow rate through


CSo is zero, i.e
o
CS V n dA mout min 0 or
For incompressible
the
density is constant thus
o
o

Q Q
out

in

out

min

dv
For Un-Steady Flows , but if cyclic, the term t CV

can be taken as zero or

steady flow, based on time averaged basis value

Its value is +ve when mass of CV in increasing and is ve when it decreases


Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

14

Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Summary Observations on Application of Cont. Eqn. :

dv V n dA 0
CS
t CV

( to fixed, non-deforming Control Volumes)


For a fixed station
(cross section area; A), mass flow rate can be expressed as of 10
m AV
D flow :
, with the following understanding:
V is uniformly distributed and is taken as velocity component perpendicular to cross
section area A
For non uniform velocity, V is taken as the average value of velocity component
perpendicular to Cross section area A

For Steady0 Flow involving only one stream, flowing through CV at station 1 & 2 :
m 1 A1V1 2 A2V2
0
And for Incompressible Flows : m Q1 Q2 A1V1 A2V2
For Steady Flow involving more than one stream flowing through CV, we use the
o
o
expression
mout min

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Moving, Non-deforming Control Volume
In many applications, Fluid Flow Analysis involves moving bodies, Gas Turbine
Engine of flying aircraft and we use relative velocity (W) in our analysis as discussed
in last chapter; Section 4.4.6
That is, V = W + VCV
Where V, is the fluid velocity seen by a stationary observer and W is relative velocity

For a system and a moving, non-deforming control volume that are coincident at an
instant of time, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eqn. 4.23, 5.5) for a moving control
volume leads to
DM sys
dv W n dA
(5.15)
CS
Dt
t CV
From Eqns. 5.1 and 5.15, we can get the control volume expression for conservation
of mass (the continuity equation) for a moving, non-deforming control volume,
namely,

dv W n dA 0
(5.16)

CV
CS
t

See Examples 5.6 & 5.7 for application of above equation (5.16) .
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Continuity Equation /(Contd.)


Deforming Control Volume
Occasionally, a deforming control volume can simplify the solution of a problem. A deforming
control volume involves changing volume size and control surface movement
Thus, the Reynolds transport theorem for a moving control volume can be used for this case,
and Eqs. 4.23 and 5.1 lead to
DM sys
(5.17)
dv W n dA 0
CV
CS
Dt
t
The time rate of change term, (1st Term on RHS) is usually nonzero and must be carefully
evaluated because the extent of the control volume varies with time
The second term on RHS (mass flowrate term), must be determined with the relative velocity, W,
the velocity referenced to the control surface.

Since the control volume is deforming, the control surface velocity (VCS) is not necessarily
uniform and identical to the control volume velocity, as was true for moving, non-deforming
control volumes
For Deforming CV, the absolute velocity is : V = W + VCS
where VCS is the velocity of the control surface as seen by a fixed observer. The relative
velocity, W, must be ascertained with care wherever fluid crosses the control surface
See examples 5.8 & 5.9 illustrating the use of Eqn 5.17
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Linear Momentum

Newtons second law of motion for a system is

Since momentum is mass times velocity, thus the momentum of a small particle of
mass dv is V dv
Thus, the momentum of the entire system is sys V dv and Newtons law can be
written as
V dv F

sys

sys

Any reference or coordinate system for which this statement is true is called
inertial
A fixed coordinate system is inertial
A coordinate system that moves in a straight line with constant velocity and is
thus without acceleration is also inertial
We proceed to develop the control volume formula for this important law
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Linear Momentum /(Contd.)

When a control volume is coincident with a system at an instant of time, the forces
acting on the system and the forces acting on the contents of the coincident control
volume (see Fig ) are instantaneously identical, that is,

For a system and fixed coincident non-deforming CV


the Reynolds transport theorem for (Velocity and System
Momentum) can be written as

dv

V dv V V n dA
CS
Dt sys
t CV

(5.21)

or

For Fixed CV, the above can be written in following form and is called as Linear
Momentum Equation (5.22):
V dv V V n dA Fcontent of coin. CV

CV
CS
t
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Linear Momentum /(Contd.)


Application of the Linear Momentum Equation

t CV

V dv V V n dA Fcontent of coin. CV
CS

The forces involved in Eq. 5.22 are body and surface forces that act on what is contained in
the control volume
The only body force we consider in this chapter is the one associated with the action of gravity.
We experience this body force as weight.
The surface forces are basically exerted on the contents of the control volume by material just
outside the control volume in contact with material just inside the control volume. For example,
a wall in contact with fluid can exert a reaction surface force on the fluid it bounds
Similarly, fluid just outside the control volume can push on fluid just inside the control volume at
a common interface, usually an opening in the control surface through which fluid flow occurs
An immersed object can resist fluid motion with surface forces
The linear momentum equation for an inertial control volume is a vector equation (Eq. 5.22)
In engineering applications, components of this vector equation resolved along orthogonal
coordinates, for example, x, y, and z (rectangular coordinate system) or r, and x (cylindrical
coordinate system), will normally be used
A simple example involving steady, incompressible flow is considered first,(see Ex 5.10& 5.11)
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Examples 5.12 to 5.17

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation

Using Newtons second law of motion, we studied a useful relationship between


forces and linear momentum flow.
Now, by forming the moment of the linear momentum and the resultant force
associated with each particle of fluid with respect to a point in an inertial coordinate
system, we will develop a moment-of-momentum equation that relates torques
and angular momentum flow for the contents of a control volume
When torques are important, the moment-of-momentum equation is often more
convenient to use than the linear momentum equation.
Application of Newtons second law of motion to a particle of fluid yields
D
V dv Fparticles
(5.30)

Dt sys
If we form the moment of each side of Eq. 5.30 with respect to the origin of an
inertial coordinate system,Dwe obtain
rx

Dt

V v r x Fparticle

Where r is the position vector from origin of inertial coordinate system to the fluid
The above can be rearranged as
D
r x V v r x Fparticle
(5.35)
Dt
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation /(Contd.)

For a system (collection of fluid particles) we need to use sum of both sides of Eqn.
D
5.35, i.e.
(5.39)
r x V v r x Fsys

Dt sys

r x F

where
or

particle

r x F r x F
sys

CV

Further, for the system and the contents of the coincident control volume that is
fixed and non-deforming, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eq. 4.19) when applied
to LHS of above Eqn, leads to
D

r
x
V

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA
Dt sys
t CV

r x V v r x V v.n dA r x F CV
Thus Eqn 5.39 becomes: t CV
cs

; (5.42)

or

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation /(Contd.)


Application of Moment-of-Moment Equation

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA r x F CV
t CV

An important category of fluid mechanical problems that is readily solved with the
help of the moment-of-momentum equation (Eq. 5.42) involves machines that rotate
or tend to rotate around a single axis
Examples of these machines include rotary lawn sprinklers, ceiling fans, lawn mower
blades, wind turbines, turbochargers, and gas turbine engines. As a class, these
devices are often called turbo-machines
Eqn. 5.42 can be simplified in several ways :
We assume that flows considered are one-dimensional (uniform distributions
of average velocity at any section)

Steady or steady-in-the-mean cyclical flows i.e. t r x V v 0


CV
We work only with the component of Eq. 5.42 resolved along the axis of
rotation
Using above simplifications, we will see how it looks like and is applied to various
situations
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation /(Contd.)

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA r x F CV
t CV

Each term on both sides of eqn can be written as follows by applying the said
simplifications :
For steady Flow : t r x V v 0
CV
For rotating body/system : r x F CV o Tshaft
o

r
x
V

v
.
n
d
A

rV
m

v
.
n
d
A

m
& r xV rV

For 1-D flow :


; as
cs
cs
Thus above equation becomes:

Tshaft min rin Vin mout rout V out

(5.50)

where the sign for r xV is taken as per Right-hand-Rule


o
o
Now note that shaft Power is related to shaft Toque as; W shaft T shaft
Thus above equation becomes Wo shaft moin rin V moout rout V

or (see next slide)


o
o
o
in

out

W shaft min U in Vin mout U out Vout

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation /(Contd.)

W shaft min rin Vin mout rout V out

Now relating angular velocity () with equivalent Linear Velocity (U)


as U = r , we can write last equation as

W shaft min U in Vin mout U out V out

We also know that from conservation of mass, min mout thus the
specific shaft power can be written as
o

w shaft U in Vin U out V out

Sign of the identity is taken as per Right Hand Rule


Example 5.18 & 5.19
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Example 5.18

Solution

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Example 5.18 /Contd.


(a) RPM = 0

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Example 5.18 /Contd.


(b) RPM = 500

Note that Torque is Smaller than when sprinkler is rotating at 500 RPM

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Moment-of-Momentum Equation /(Contd.)


Example 5.19

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Energy Equation


First Law of Thermodynamics
In words, it can be written as :

In symbolic form :

o
o
D

dv

Q
in out

sys
Dt


o
D
o

dv

net in
net in

Dt sys

sys

Win Wout

where e = u+V2/2 + g z, where u is internal energy per unit mass

Now Reynolds Transport


e) we have
e dvTheorem

e(replacing
dv eb
V by
n dA
Dt sys

CS

o
values in RTT, we get o

Putting the above


CV e dv CS e V n dA Qnet Wnet

t CV

in

in

CV

(5.59)

Work transfer rate is also called Power and is considered -ve when work is done
on the system / CV by the surroundings
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Energy Equation /(Contd.)

Also note that work is transferred to and from system/CV through Rotating Shaft,
Normal and tangential Stresses / Pressure, where = -P

Eqn 5.59 is valid for inviscid flow as it derivation did not account for fluid viscosity or
Work Done by system to overcome viscous effects / stresses

For viscous flow the eqn can be modified


as :
o
o

e dv e V n dA Qnetin Wnetin
P V n dA

CS
t CV
2
CV CS
o

V
P
o

dv

gz

dA

net
net
CS
in
in
t CV
2

or

(5.64)

CV

The above eqn is also valid for compressible flows

For a flow having uniform flow properties across any cross section area, the
nd
integrant
of LHS) is

V(22 term P
V2
P o
V2
P o

CS

gz

V n dA u
gz m u
gz m
2

flow
flow

out

in

For a single2 stream of flow (with on exit2 and one entryo point to CV)
and it reduces
to
2
o

CS

V
P
V
P
gz V n dA u
gz
2

V
P
mout u
gz
2

out

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

min

in

38

The Energy Equation /(Contd.)

Thus for a steady 1-D mean flow in channel, the energy equation (5.65) can be
written aso
2
2
o
o
P
P
V V
m uout uin

out

in

g zout zin

out

Qnet Wnet
in
in

in

o
Vout Vin

m hout hin
g zout zin Qnetin Wnetin
2

(5.69)

CV

This equation is often used for solving compressible flow problems

Examples 5.20 and 5.21 illustrates the use of above equations

Thus for a steady


1-D mean
flow2 with no work, Eqn 5.67 can be written
as
2
o
o

P
V Vin
m uout uin out
g zout zin
2

out

in

Qnet
in

Comparing and re-arranging


it in the
form of Continuity
Eqn, we get :
P V2

P V2

where

(5.67)

Using definition of enthalpy


[ h2 = u + pv ] , it can also be written as
2

CV

gz

out

gz

losses uout uin qnetin

See Examples 5.20 to 5.25

losses

in

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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The Energy Equation /(Contd.)


Application of Energy Eqn to Non-Uniform Flow
o

V2
P
o

dv

gz

dA

net
net
CS
in
in
t CV
2

CV

For this
type of flow, the only part in above equation which require attention is
.
V2
V terms
n dA would remain same and can be simplified as done earlier for particular
The
CS 2other
applications
For one stream entering and leaving CV, we define the following expression for above
o V 2
integrant as
V2
inVin2
out out

V n dA m

2
2

where is Kinetic Energy Coefficient and V is average velocity as defined earlier in eqn. 5.7
CS

At any cross section area A, the above eqn is


V2
A 2 V n dA

o V 2
m
2

o
V
V2

n
dA

A 2
2

Thus

= 1 for Uniform flows and is always > 1 for non-uniform flows


Examples 5.26, 5.27 & 5.28
Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Irreversible Flow
Second Law of Thermodynamics

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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Assignments / Self Study

By now you must have solved and


understood Examples 5.1 to 5.29
Complete Solving at least 40 (out of 136)
problems from Chapter 5 of text book

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

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