Flow Analysis

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Flow Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Chapter 5

Flow Analysis

using

Control Volumes

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Introduction

contents of a finite region in space ( control volume ; CV )

Many important questions can be readily answered with finite control volume

analyses

The bases of this analysis method are some fundamental principles of physics,

applied to a CV namely,

Conservation of mass

Newtons second law of motion

The first and second1 laws of thermodynamics

The resultant techniques presented in this Chapter are powerful and applicable to

a wide variety of fluid mechanical circumstances that require engineering

judgment

Furthermore, the finite control volume formulas are easy to interpret physically

and thus are not difficult to use

In fluid mechanics, the control volume or Eulerian view is generally less

complicated and, therefore, more convenient to use than the system or

Lagrangian view

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

Introduction

The control volume formulas are derived from the equations representing basic

laws applied to a collection of mass (a system)

The concept of a control volume and system occupying the same region of space

at an instant (coincident condition) and use of the Reynolds transport theorem

(Eqs. 4.19 and 4.23) are key elements in the derivation of the control volume

equations

Integrals are used throughout the chapter for generality. Volume integrals can

accommodate spatial variations of the material properties of the contents of a

control volume

Control surface area integrals allow for surface distributions of flow variables

However, in this chapter, for simplicity we often assume that flow variables are

uniformly distributed over cross-sectional areas where fluid enters or leaves the

control volume

This uniform flow is called one-dimensional flow

In Chapters 8 and 9, when we discuss velocity profiles and other flow variable

distributions, the effects of non-uniformities will be covered in more detail

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

mass principle for a system is simply stated as

Time rate of change of the system mass = 0

DM sys

0

or

Dt

where Msys is the system mass, M sys dv

For a system and a fixed, non-deforming control volume that are coincident at an

instant of time, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eq. 4.19) with that B = Mass and b=

1, allows us to state

DM sys

D

dv

( 5.3 )

sys

CV dv CS V n dA

Dt

Dt

.

,

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

DM sys

Dt

b

dv

b dv b V n dA

sys

CV

CS

Dt

t

.

,

b dv

t CV

b V n dA

CS

Continuity Equation

/(Contd.)

CS

V n dA mout min

DM sys

In words, above Eqn states that to conserve mass the time rate of change of the

mass of the contents of the control volume plus the net rate of mass flow through

the control surface must equal zero

Actually, the same result could have been obtained more directly by equating the

rates of mass flow into and out of the control volume to the rates of accumulation

and depletion of mass within the control volume (See Section 3.6.2)

It is reassuring, however, to see that the Reynolds transport theorem works for this

simple-to-understand case

dv V n dA 0

CV

CS

t

Dt

(5.5)

Continuity Equation

/(Contd.)

Mass Flow Rate through a section of control surface having area A

and uniform properties of incompressible flow, is represented as

0

(5.6)

m Q AV

For compressible flow the density and velocity are not uniform.

For compressible flows, we will normally consider a uniformly

distributed fluid density at each section of flow and allow density

changes to occur only from section to section

(5.8)

CS b V n dA

V

Fixed, Non-Deforming Control Volume

In many applications of fluid mechanics, an appropriate

control volume to use is fixed and non-deforming

Several example problems that involve the continuity

equation for fixed, non-deforming control volumes (Eq. 5.5)

illustrates use of such CVs

See Examples 5.1 to 5.5 of text Book

Ex

Ex

10

11

12

where

13

Summary Observations on Application of Cont. Eqn. :

dv V n dA 0

CS

t CV

The vector Dot Product , V n has following sign convention :

+ve for flow out of CV

- ve for flow into CV

When the

flow is steady, the time rate of change of CV is zero, i.e

CV

dv 0

CSo is zero, i.e

o

CS V n dA mout min 0 or

For incompressible

the

density is constant thus

o

o

Q Q

out

in

out

min

dv

For Un-Steady Flows , but if cyclic, the term t CV

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

14

Summary Observations on Application of Cont. Eqn. :

dv V n dA 0

CS

t CV

For a fixed station

(cross section area; A), mass flow rate can be expressed as of 10

m AV

D flow :

, with the following understanding:

V is uniformly distributed and is taken as velocity component perpendicular to cross

section area A

For non uniform velocity, V is taken as the average value of velocity component

perpendicular to Cross section area A

For Steady0 Flow involving only one stream, flowing through CV at station 1 & 2 :

m 1 A1V1 2 A2V2

0

And for Incompressible Flows : m Q1 Q2 A1V1 A2V2

For Steady Flow involving more than one stream flowing through CV, we use the

o

o

expression

mout min

15

Moving, Non-deforming Control Volume

In many applications, Fluid Flow Analysis involves moving bodies, Gas Turbine

Engine of flying aircraft and we use relative velocity (W) in our analysis as discussed

in last chapter; Section 4.4.6

That is, V = W + VCV

Where V, is the fluid velocity seen by a stationary observer and W is relative velocity

For a system and a moving, non-deforming control volume that are coincident at an

instant of time, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eqn. 4.23, 5.5) for a moving control

volume leads to

DM sys

dv W n dA

(5.15)

CS

Dt

t CV

From Eqns. 5.1 and 5.15, we can get the control volume expression for conservation

of mass (the continuity equation) for a moving, non-deforming control volume,

namely,

dv W n dA 0

(5.16)

CV

CS

t

See Examples 5.6 & 5.7 for application of above equation (5.16) .

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

16

Deforming Control Volume

Occasionally, a deforming control volume can simplify the solution of a problem. A deforming

control volume involves changing volume size and control surface movement

Thus, the Reynolds transport theorem for a moving control volume can be used for this case,

and Eqs. 4.23 and 5.1 lead to

DM sys

(5.17)

dv W n dA 0

CV

CS

Dt

t

The time rate of change term, (1st Term on RHS) is usually nonzero and must be carefully

evaluated because the extent of the control volume varies with time

The second term on RHS (mass flowrate term), must be determined with the relative velocity, W,

the velocity referenced to the control surface.

Since the control volume is deforming, the control surface velocity (VCS) is not necessarily

uniform and identical to the control volume velocity, as was true for moving, non-deforming

control volumes

For Deforming CV, the absolute velocity is : V = W + VCS

where VCS is the velocity of the control surface as seen by a fixed observer. The relative

velocity, W, must be ascertained with care wherever fluid crosses the control surface

See examples 5.8 & 5.9 illustrating the use of Eqn 5.17

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

18

Since momentum is mass times velocity, thus the momentum of a small particle of

mass dv is V dv

Thus, the momentum of the entire system is sys V dv and Newtons law can be

written as

V dv F

sys

sys

Any reference or coordinate system for which this statement is true is called

inertial

A fixed coordinate system is inertial

A coordinate system that moves in a straight line with constant velocity and is

thus without acceleration is also inertial

We proceed to develop the control volume formula for this important law

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

21

When a control volume is coincident with a system at an instant of time, the forces

acting on the system and the forces acting on the contents of the coincident control

volume (see Fig ) are instantaneously identical, that is,

the Reynolds transport theorem for (Velocity and System

Momentum) can be written as

dv

V dv V V n dA

CS

Dt sys

t CV

(5.21)

or

For Fixed CV, the above can be written in following form and is called as Linear

Momentum Equation (5.22):

V dv V V n dA Fcontent of coin. CV

CV

CS

t

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

22

Application of the Linear Momentum Equation

t CV

V dv V V n dA Fcontent of coin. CV

CS

The forces involved in Eq. 5.22 are body and surface forces that act on what is contained in

the control volume

The only body force we consider in this chapter is the one associated with the action of gravity.

We experience this body force as weight.

The surface forces are basically exerted on the contents of the control volume by material just

outside the control volume in contact with material just inside the control volume. For example,

a wall in contact with fluid can exert a reaction surface force on the fluid it bounds

Similarly, fluid just outside the control volume can push on fluid just inside the control volume at

a common interface, usually an opening in the control surface through which fluid flow occurs

An immersed object can resist fluid motion with surface forces

The linear momentum equation for an inertial control volume is a vector equation (Eq. 5.22)

In engineering applications, components of this vector equation resolved along orthogonal

coordinates, for example, x, y, and z (rectangular coordinate system) or r, and x (cylindrical

coordinate system), will normally be used

A simple example involving steady, incompressible flow is considered first,(see Ex 5.10& 5.11)

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

23

27

Moment-of-Momentum Equation

forces and linear momentum flow.

Now, by forming the moment of the linear momentum and the resultant force

associated with each particle of fluid with respect to a point in an inertial coordinate

system, we will develop a moment-of-momentum equation that relates torques

and angular momentum flow for the contents of a control volume

When torques are important, the moment-of-momentum equation is often more

convenient to use than the linear momentum equation.

Application of Newtons second law of motion to a particle of fluid yields

D

V dv Fparticles

(5.30)

Dt sys

If we form the moment of each side of Eq. 5.30 with respect to the origin of an

inertial coordinate system,Dwe obtain

rx

Dt

V v r x Fparticle

Where r is the position vector from origin of inertial coordinate system to the fluid

The above can be rearranged as

D

r x V v r x Fparticle

(5.35)

Dt

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

28

For a system (collection of fluid particles) we need to use sum of both sides of Eqn.

D

5.35, i.e.

(5.39)

r x V v r x Fsys

Dt sys

r x F

where

or

particle

r x F r x F

sys

CV

Further, for the system and the contents of the coincident control volume that is

fixed and non-deforming, the Reynolds transport theorem (Eq. 4.19) when applied

to LHS of above Eqn, leads to

D

r

x

V

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA

Dt sys

t CV

r x V v r x V v.n dA r x F CV

Thus Eqn 5.39 becomes: t CV

cs

; (5.42)

or

29

Application of Moment-of-Moment Equation

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA r x F CV

t CV

An important category of fluid mechanical problems that is readily solved with the

help of the moment-of-momentum equation (Eq. 5.42) involves machines that rotate

or tend to rotate around a single axis

Examples of these machines include rotary lawn sprinklers, ceiling fans, lawn mower

blades, wind turbines, turbochargers, and gas turbine engines. As a class, these

devices are often called turbo-machines

Eqn. 5.42 can be simplified in several ways :

We assume that flows considered are one-dimensional (uniform distributions

of average velocity at any section)

CV

We work only with the component of Eq. 5.42 resolved along the axis of

rotation

Using above simplifications, we will see how it looks like and is applied to various

situations

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

30

r x V v cs r x V v.n dA r x F CV

t CV

Each term on both sides of eqn can be written as follows by applying the said

simplifications :

For steady Flow : t r x V v 0

CV

For rotating body/system : r x F CV o Tshaft

o

r

x

V

v

.

n

d

A

rV

m

v

.

n

d

A

m

& r xV rV

; as

cs

cs

Thus above equation becomes:

(5.50)

o

o

Now note that shaft Power is related to shaft Toque as; W shaft T shaft

Thus above equation becomes Wo shaft moin rin V moout rout V

o

o

o

in

out

31

as U = r , we can write last equation as

We also know that from conservation of mass, min mout thus the

specific shaft power can be written as

o

Example 5.18 & 5.19

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

32

Example 5.18

Solution

33

(a) RPM = 0

34

(b) RPM = 500

Note that Torque is Smaller than when sprinkler is rotating at 500 RPM

35

Example 5.19

36

First Law of Thermodynamics

In words, it can be written as :

In symbolic form :

o

o

D

dv

Q

in out

sys

Dt

o

D

o

dv

net in

net in

Dt sys

sys

Win Wout

e) we have

e dvTheorem

e(replacing

dv eb

V by

n dA

Dt sys

CS

o

values in RTT, we get o

CV e dv CS e V n dA Qnet Wnet

t CV

in

in

CV

(5.59)

Work transfer rate is also called Power and is considered -ve when work is done

on the system / CV by the surroundings

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

37

Also note that work is transferred to and from system/CV through Rotating Shaft,

Normal and tangential Stresses / Pressure, where = -P

Eqn 5.59 is valid for inviscid flow as it derivation did not account for fluid viscosity or

Work Done by system to overcome viscous effects / stresses

as :

o

o

e dv e V n dA Qnetin Wnetin

P V n dA

CS

t CV

2

CV CS

o

V

P

o

dv

gz

dA

net

net

CS

in

in

t CV

2

or

(5.64)

CV

For a flow having uniform flow properties across any cross section area, the

nd

integrant

of LHS) is

V(22 term P

V2

P o

V2

P o

CS

gz

V n dA u

gz m u

gz m

2

flow

flow

out

in

For a single2 stream of flow (with on exit2 and one entryo point to CV)

and it reduces

to

2

o

CS

V

P

V

P

gz V n dA u

gz

2

V

P

mout u

gz

2

out

min

in

38

Thus for a steady 1-D mean flow in channel, the energy equation (5.65) can be

written aso

2

2

o

o

P

P

V V

m uout uin

out

in

g zout zin

out

Qnet Wnet

in

in

in

o

Vout Vin

m hout hin

g zout zin Qnetin Wnetin

2

(5.69)

CV

1-D mean

flow2 with no work, Eqn 5.67 can be written

as

2

o

o

P

V Vin

m uout uin out

g zout zin

2

out

in

Qnet

in

it in the

form of Continuity

Eqn, we get :

P V2

P V2

where

(5.67)

[ h2 = u + pv ] , it can also be written as

2

CV

gz

out

gz

losses

in

39

Application of Energy Eqn to Non-Uniform Flow

o

V2

P

o

dv

gz

dA

net

net

CS

in

in

t CV

2

CV

For this

type of flow, the only part in above equation which require attention is

.

V2

V terms

n dA would remain same and can be simplified as done earlier for particular

The

CS 2other

applications

For one stream entering and leaving CV, we define the following expression for above

o V 2

integrant as

V2

inVin2

out out

V n dA m

2

2

where is Kinetic Energy Coefficient and V is average velocity as defined earlier in eqn. 5.7

CS

V2

A 2 V n dA

o V 2

m

2

o

V

V2

n

dA

A 2

2

Thus

Examples 5.26, 5.27 & 5.28

Fluid Mechanics - I : Chapter 5

40

Irreversible Flow

Second Law of Thermodynamics

41

understood Examples 5.1 to 5.29

Complete Solving at least 40 (out of 136)

problems from Chapter 5 of text book

42

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