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2G RF OPTIM TRAINING

PT HNCI
YEHESKIA VANDI DWIPUTRA

What Is Optimisation?
Is an activity to improve the performance or
qulity of the Network

What is the Indicator?


Network Performance we can see from the KPI (Key
Performance Indikator). Such as CSSR, SDSR, HOSR,
CDR, Busy Hours, Traffic, Etc
Drive Test Statistical, RX Level (Power strenght level
dbm), SQI (Signal Quality, BER), LogFile drive test.

Optimisation we can see from:

From Cellular Technology:


2G Opiontimisation, 3G Optimosation, etc
From Cellular Network Hierarchy:
- RN Optimisation
- CORE:
PS CORE (Packet Switching for data)
CS CORE (Circuit Switching for Voice)

Concept of RN Optimization

Radio network optimization means network performance improvement


utilizing existing network resources.
Steps in general
Data collection and verification
Data analysis
Parameter and hardware adjustment
Optimization result confirm and reporting
The purpose is increasing the utilization of network resources and solving
the existing and potential problem on the network, identifying solutions for
future network planning.

Concept of RN Optimization

Capacity

Quality

Coverage

Optimize

Concept of RN Optimization
In the following case, the network should be optimized
New network or expansion on existing network
The network quality decreased seriously and there are many
complaints from subscribers.
An event occurs suddenly which affects the network
performance seriously.
The number of subscribers increased and affects the network
performance gradually.

Concept of RN Optimization
Input for Optimization
CUSTOMER
COMPLAINTS

OPTIMIZE
TRAFFIC
STATISTICS

DRIVE
TEST

KPI of Radio Network

Typical Radio Network KPI

KPI Parameter

Source

Call Drop Rate

OMC/Drive test

Congestion Rate

Drive test

Handover Success Rate

OMC/Drive test

Busy Hour Traffic

OMC

TCH Utilization

OMC

Call Setup success rate

OMC/Drive test

Coverage

Drive test

Quality

Drive test

BTS1

BTS3

BTS4

BTS2

Flow Chart of Network Optimization

Parameter Adjustment Principles


Parameter adjustment procedure

MONITOR
EFFECT

IDENTIFY
PROBLEM

MAKE
MAKE
CHANGES
CHANGES

Parameter Adjustment
Principles

Parameter Types

Radio Parameters Engineering Parameters


Antenna

Handover
Parameters
Handover
Parameters

D-tilt
Handover
Parameters

Antenna

Antenna

Height

Orientation

Parameter Adjustment Principles

Adjustment of cell data parameters


Adjust the cell parameters according to the features of actual radio
channel traffic and signaling load. The parameters are for cell select,cell
reselect,call setup, handover etc, so as to improve the overall network
performance and service quality to the end user.
Another basic principle of radio parameter adjustment is to maximize the
current network resource, traffic sharing in the the whole network,
increase the utilization of the equipment, so as to increase the profitinvestment ratio.

Common Problems of RN Optimization

The three most important performance criteria are coverage,


capacity and quality. they mainly correspond to the following
network problems:
Coverage
Congestion
Interference
Handover
TCH call drop
Dual-band network traffic distribution

Common Problems --Coverage

Coverage
Coverage hole
Coverage hole may exist when coverage areas of two BTS
do not overlap or there are some big obstacles in the
coverage area, this lead to no signal or very poor signal
level.
Over shooting
In the actual network, the high BTS antenna can propagate
far away along a road and serve in area which its not
suppose to serve in; which result in the "isolate Island"
problem.

Common Problems --Coverage

Check and solve the coverage problem:


Power control measurement Function ( Statistics)
Receiving Level Measurement Function ( Statistics)
Cell Measurement Function ( Statistics)
Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function ( Statistics)

Common Problems --Coverage

Coverage Problem Solution:


Adjust Radio parameters
Adjust antenna parameters
Use booster, low loss combiner and tower mount amplifier
Add new site (last resort)

Common Problems --Capacity

Capacity
TCH congestion
Check TCH congestion rate: attempted TCH seizers failure
for all (no radio resource available ) on OMC traffic statistics
data, or compare the busy hour traffic of each cell with the
calculated capacity in different GoS to judge the situation of
traffic congestion .
Traffic balance
Adjust the antenna height, downtilt, and change the TX
power of BTS and MS.
Adjust parameters for cell selection, cell reselection and
handover
Enable load handover and direct retry functions.

Common Problems --Interference

How to locate the interference


Ratio of handovers for uplink/downlink quality ( Statistics)
Receiving Quality Measurement (Statistics)
Call drop measurement function ( Statistics)
Too many handover failure and reestablishment failures
( Statistics)

Common Problems --Interference

Check and solve the interference problems


Check the place with interference and conversation quality by
drive test.
Use spectrum analyzer to find out the interference in the
frequency band.
Enable frequency hopping, DTX and power control functions.
Check and eliminate equipment problems (if any).

Common Problems --Interference

Means to decrease the interference :


Increase the reuse distance between the co-frequency and
adjacent frequencies.
Decrease the transmitting power of BTS.
Adjust the antenna height, azimuth, down-tilt.
Use the anti-interference technologies, such as frequency
hopping, power control, DTX, and so on.

Common Problems --Handover

Common handover problems:


Handover failure and handover delay lead to bad quality or
call drop.
Frequent handover decreases the conversation quality and
increases system signaling load.
Unreasonable proportion of outgoing inter-cell handover to
incoming inter-cell handover results in imbalanced traffic.

Common Problems --Handover

Check and solve handover problems:


Check the handover parameters (OMC)
Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics)
Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function (Statistics)
Outgoing Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function
(Statistics)
Incoming Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function
(Statistics)
TCH Measurement Function (Statistics)

Common Problems --Handover

Causes of abnormal handover and solutions:


The outgoing inter cell handover threshold is too low.
The adjacent cells is congested.
There are undefined adjacent cells relationship.
The handover hysteresis and handover priority are not reasonable.
The handover statistics times N and P are not set reasonable.
In HCS network coexisting with other vendors cells, the external
cells parameters (such as LAC, CI and BCCH) must be corrected.

Common Problems Call Drop

TCH call drop


During the GSM network operation, call drop is the main reason
the subscribers complain. It usually refers to the call dropped
after TCH channel seized or conversation connected, which can
be located via traffic statistics or drive test.
There are many call drop causes. Such as poor signal strength,
interference and improper parameters.
There are two important counters related call drop, radio link
timeout (RLT downlink) and SACCH multi-frame number
(uplink) sent in system information. These two counters should
be set properly according to the traffic and coverage.

Common Problems Dual-band Network

Optimization for dual-band network


Take the following special approaches when optimize the dualband network, most of the approaches are same as single-band
network optimization:
When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network belong to a
same LAC the features of two network are basically same.
Parameters such as CRO can be set flexibly according to
the traffic, thus can balance the traffic and avoid cell
congestion.
When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network has there own
location area code, CRH and CRO should be set properly to
avoid frequent location update.
Adjust layer thresholds to balance traffic between GSM 900
and GSM 1800

Common Problems Dual-band Network


Dual band network optimization elements

Cell select

Direct retry

Idle mode

Calling mode

Cell reselect

Hand over

Dedicate mode