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Common-rail Diesel

Diagnosis Training

High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail


Goals
Reduce unnecessary replacing of parts
(NTF parts reaches 70% in some cases)
Reduce troubleshooting time
Improve overall customer satisfaction

High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail


Objectives
Improve system knowledge
Learn DTC detection conditions
Implement structured and logic troubleshooting
procedures

History of Common-rail System


Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations

Diesel EFI

Common-rail

1st-generation
1st-generation
Common-rail
Common-rail
HP2
HP2 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Solenoid
Injector
Solenoid Injector

135 MPa
Max. Commonrail Pressure

2nd-generation
2nd-generation
HP3
HP3 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Discharge
Discharge Valve
Valve
Injector
Injector Compensation
Compensation
Code
Code

135 - 160 MPa

3rd-generation
3rd-generation
NSR
NSR +
+ DPNR
DPNR
Piezo
Piezo Injector
Injector

160 - 180 MPa

System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)
NE Signal
G Signal
Various
Signals
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU

EDU

Other Injectors
Pressure
Limiter
Common-rail

Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
SCV Fuel SystemFilter
Supply Pump
Warning Light

Fuel Tank

System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Engine
Front

Injection Pipe

Injector

Fuel Inlet Pipe

Common-rail

Supply Pump

SCV (Suction Control Valve)


Fuel Temp. Sensor

Fuel Pressure Sensor


Pressure Limiter

System Overview
Features of Common-rail System

Injection pressure, volume and


timing are controlled electrically

High accuracy engine control

High pressure fuel

Higher atomization of fuel

Stores high pressure fuel

High pressure injection in all


engine speed range

High performance and fuel economy


Low noise and vibration
Clean emission

System Overview
Sensors and Actuators

Air Flow Meter

Intake Restrictor
Valve (Step Motor)

Atmospheric
Temp. Sensor

Intake Air
Temp. Sensor

E-VRV (for EGR


Valve Control)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

VSV (for EGR


Valve Close)
Camshaft
Position Sensor
Injector
Crankshaft
Position Sensor

VSV (for Turbo


Pressure Sensor)
Glow Plug
Water Temp.
Sensor

Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120

ECD System Components


Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2

HP3

Type

HP2 (Outer Cam)

HP3 (Inner cam)

Generation

1st

2nd/3rd

SCV

2 (Time controlled)

1 (Duty-cycle)

Plunger

4 (Radial Type)

2 (Opposite type)

Weight [g (lb.)]

6040 (13.32)

3800 (8.38)

ECD System Components


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel flow

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components


Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components


Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure
[Fuel Pressure Control]
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

SCV
Controls
SCV
opening

Common-rail
pressure
(Feedback)

Calculation of
target injection
pressure
Engine ECU

Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor

ECD System Components


Supply Pump
SCV signals
HP3

ECD System Components


Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
Detects the fuel pressure in common-rail and
provides feedback
To Injector

From Supply Pump

Common-rail

[Fuel Pressure Sensor]


Sensor Tip

Common-rail
Pressure

Pressure
Limiter

ECD System Components


Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)

Output Voltage (V)

Output characteristic

4.2

1.0
0
160
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)

ECD System Components


Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization
Solenoid
Coil

From
Common-rail
Control
Chamber

Solenoid
Coil
Return to
Fuel Tank

Nozzle
Spring
Click!
Movie

Injector Hole
Injector Pressure
Voltage

Nozzle
Needle

Piston

Nozzle
Spring

6 or 8
135 180 MPa
150 V

Nozzle
Needle

ECD System Components


Injector
Small injection hall (0.14 mm)
[Top of Injector]

0.14 mm

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components


Injector
Difference in the injection of gasoline and common-rail
[Gasoline Engine]

[Common-rail Engine]
Engine
ECU

Engine
ECU

Constant Low
Pressure
[Approx. 0.3 MPa]

EDU

Variable High
Pressure
[30 160 MPa]

Injection Volume

Injection
Volume

High
Long
Electricity Time

Electricity Time

Common-rail
Pressure

ECD System Components


Injector
Injection volume correction
Injector compensation code
Injector
Compensation Code
QR Code

Injection Quantity

Compensation Code Type (QR Code)

Activation Pulse Correction TQ


Laser Marking

: Correction Point

ECD System Components


Voltage

EDU
Battery

EDU
+B

150V
0V
COM1

High
Voltage
Generation
Circuit

High
Voltage

IJT#1
IJT#2
IJT#3
IJT#4

Engine
ECU

Time

INJ#1
Control
Circuit

INJ#2
INJ#3
INJ#4

IJF

GND

GND

ECD System Components


EDU
Injector drive signals

IJT#1

IJF

COM1

INJ#1

ECD System Components


Overview ECU Inputs
Basic Parameters
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)

Injector

Correction Parameters

EDU

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)


Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)
Ignition Switch (STA)

Engine
ECU

EGR Valve

Blower Switch (BLW)


A/C Amplifier (AC)
Alternator (ALT)

DLC3

ECD System Components


Overview ECU Outputs

Injector (Timing and duration)


Suction Control Valve
Various Sensor

EDU (Power supply)

Engine
ECU

Intake Restrictor Valve


Glow Plug
EGR Valve
DLC3

ECD System Components


Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)

Crankshaft Position Sensor

ECD System Components


Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VPA, VPA2)
Magnets

Hall
ICs

ECD System Components


Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU
VSV (for Turbo
Pressure Sensor)

ECD System Components


EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
A quick response and high precise are realized by
driving a direct valve shaft

Intake Restrictor Valve


Position Sensor

Rotary Solenoid Type


Torque Motor

Magnet
Steel Layer
Hall IC
Magnet
Magnet

ECD System Components


EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
Intake restrictor shutter valve position sensor
Magnet
Output Voltage (V)

Hall IC
VC

Engine
ECU

VLU

E2

5
3.51

1
0.71
0

20
0
(Full Close)

Intake Shutter
Valve Position
Sensor

70
(Full Open)

Intake Shutter Valve


Opening Angle (deg)

100

Common-rail Control Systems


Overall
Consists mainly two parts, fuel metering part and fuel
supply part
[Electrical Part]

Various Sensor

Injection Volume Control


Injection Timing Control
Idle Speed Control
Fuel Pressure Control

Engine ECU

Injection rate Control


Turbo Control
EGR Control
Glow Control
Diagnosis
EDU

Supply Pump
Common-rail

[Mechanical Part]

Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume decision
Engine ECU compares the basic and maximum
injection volumes, and determine the smaller
calculated value to be the final injection volume

Fuel
Pressure

Basic Injection
Volume

EDU
Comparison

Maximum
Injection
Volume

Compensation
Value

Decision on
Duration

Injector
Feedback Value

Engine ECU
Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume

Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection
Volume
(Map Data in ECU)

Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

+
Basic Injection
Volume Correction

Engine ECU

Clutch Switch (CLSW)


Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)

ISC* Correction

*: Idle Speed Control

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume

[Basic Injection Volume Pattern]


: Amount of Accelerator
Pedal Effort (VPA)

Basic
Injection
Volume

100%
(Full Load)
50%

10%

20%

30%

Idle
Engine Speed

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)

Overheating Protection
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)

Basic/Maximum
Injection Volume
(Map Data in ECU)
Maximum
Injection Volume
Correction

Engine ECU

Fuel Pressure Sensor


(PC, VPC)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Air Flow Meter (VG)

Intake Air Mass

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume

[Maximum Injection Volume Pattern]


Injection
Volume

Intake Air
Volume-large

Varies by
Required Volume

Intake Air
Volume-small
Engine Speed

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 30% Selects basic injection volume
[Determining Injection Volume]
Injection
Volume

: Basic Injection Volume


: Maximum Injection Volume

Selects lowest

30% VPA

Engine Speed

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 100% Selects Max. injection volume
[Determining Injection Volume]
Injection
Volume

: Basic Injection Volume


: Maximum Injection Volume
Selects
lowest

100% VPA

Engine Speed

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by intake air

[Intake Air Pressure Correction]


Pressure Correction

[Intake Air Temp. Correction]

Overload Protection

Increase
Correction
Coefficient
1

Correction
Coefficient
Decrease
1

Decrease

3
Turbo Pressure Sensor Output (V)

40
Intake Air Temp. (deg)

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by fuel temperature

[Fuel Temp. Correction]

Increase

Correction
Coefficient
1
Decrease

40
Fuel Temperature (deg)

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by water temperature

[Water Temp. Correction]

Increase

Correction
Coefficient

40
Water Temperature (deg)

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration
Decides opening time of injector
by final injection volume

NE Signal
G Signal

Engine
ECU

Controls opening
timing of injector

EDU

Various
Signals
Common-rail
From
Supply Pump

Fuel Pressure Sensor

Pressure
Limiter

Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration

Fuel
Pressure

Basic Injection
Volume

Comparison
Volume

Maximum
Injection
Volume

INJ Time
Calculation

Injector
Compensation
Value

EDU

Injector
Feedback Value

Engine ECU
Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume control during starting
Increase
Correction
Coefficient

Starting Injection Volume


Basic Injection
Volume

1
40
Water Temperature (deg)

Ignition Switch (STA)

Corrections

Water Temp. Sensor


Crankshaft Position Sensor

Engine ECU

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Timing Control
Basic injection timing
(injection timing control after started)
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection Timing

+
Injection Timing
Correction

Engine ECU

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)


Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
EDU
Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing control during starting

Crankshaft Position Sensor


(Ne)
Target Injection
Timing Correction

Ignition Switch (STA)


Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Engine ECU

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing corrections
Target injection timing = Basic timing + corrections
[Intake Air Pressure Correction]
[Basic Target Injection Timing]
BTDC
(deg)

: Amount of Accelerator
Pedal Effort (VPA)

: Engine Speed

Timing
Advance
(CA)

High rpm
Low
rpm

Full Load
Intake Air Pressure (PIM)
[Water Temp. Correction]
15
Light Load

: Water Temp.

Timing
Advance
(CA)

COLD
HOT

Engine Speed (rpm)


Engine Speed (rpm)

Common-rail Control Systems


Idle Speed Control
Target idle speed control

Accelerator Pedal Position


Sensor (VPA)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Target Engine Speed
Calculation

Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)


Ignition Switch (STA)
A/C Amp. [Idle-up Signal] (ACT)

Comparison

Injector
Volume
Correction

Actual Engine
Speed

Engine ECU

Electric Load

Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)

Common-rail Control Systems


Idle Speed Control
Feedback correction
Idle speed fluctuations are detected by comparing
t values
360CA

Crankshaft Position
Sensor Signal (Ne)

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure
[Fuel Pressure Control]
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

SCV
Controls
SCV
opening

Common-rail
pressure
(Feedback)
Calculation of
target injection
pressure

Engine ECU

Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor

Common-rail Control Systems


Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure
To control target fuel pressure in common-rail by
SCV

: Calculated Final Injection Volume


MAX
Target Injection Fuel
Pressure

MIN

Engine Speed (rpm)

Common-rail Control Systems


Injection Rate Control
Injection rate control
TDC

Small Injection
Amount Prior to
Ignition

Combustion
Process

Injection
Rate

Heat
Generation
Rate

High
Injection
Rate

Improvement [Pilot Injection]

Heat Large
Pre-mixture
Combustion
(NOx, Noise)

Ignition Delay

[Delta Injection]

Small
Pre-mixture
Combustion

Common-rail Control Systems


Injection Rate Control
Pilot injection

Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)

Basic Pilot Timing

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)


Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Correction

Pilot Injection
(Volume, Timing, Interval)

Engine ECU

Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

EDU
Injector

Common-rail Control Systems


Injection Rate Control
Main injection timing

Camshaft Position
Sensor Signal (G)
Injection Timing

Pilot Injection

Fuel Quantity

Main
Injection

Common-rail Control Systems


Other System Operation
EGR control system
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor

Intake
Restrictor
Valve

Intake Restrictor
Valve Control Motor

EGR Valve
Position
Sensor

Engine
ECU
Vacuum
Pump

Vacuum
Damper
EGR Valve

Engine

E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)

Atmospheric
Pressure
Sensor

Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor
Water Temp.
Sensor
Turbo Pressure
Sensor
Intake Air Temp.
Sensor

Common-rail Control Systems


Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system

Reduction Gears

Air Out

Intake
Restrictor Valve

Air IN
Step Motor
Throttle Valve Fully Opened Switch

Common-rail Control Systems


Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system

Intake Restrictor
Valve Control
Motor

Engine
ECU
Intake Restrictor
Valve Position
Sensor

Crankshaft Position Sensor


(Ne)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor
(THA)
Accelerator Pedal Position
Sensor (VPA)

Intake
Restrictor Valve

Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)


Ignition Switch (STA)

Common-rail Control Systems

After Glow Time (sec.)

Other System Operation


Glow control system

Ignition ON
Switch
OFF
120
Glow
Plug

20
(68)

40
(104)

Engine Coolant Temp. [C (F)]

Engine
Speed
(rpm)

ON
OFF

After Glow Time

0
Starting Engine