Sie sind auf Seite 1von 196

# Well Control

Principles
1

## Primary Well Control

Secondary Well Control
Tertiary Well Control
Hydrostatic Pressure
Formation Pressure
Porosity And Permeability
Kill Mud Density
Indications of Increasing Formation Pressure

## Well Control Principles

The function of Well Control can be subdivided
into 3 main categories:
Primary Well Control: is the use of the fluid to prevent
the influx of formation fluid into the well bore.

## Secondary Well Control: is the use of the BOP to

control the well if Primary WC can not be maintained.

## The Well is Balanced:

when Hydrostatic Pressure = Formation Pressure

## The Well is Under Balanced:

when Hydrostatic Pressure

## The Well is Over Balanced:

when Hydrostatic Pressure

## > Formation Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure
Because the pressure is measured in psi and depth is
measured in feet, it is convenient to convert Mud Weight
from ppg to a pressure gradient in psi/ft.
The conversion factor is 0.052
Fluid Density (ppg) x 0.052 = Pressure gradient (psi/ft)
Hydrostatic Pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of
fluid at rest, and is calculated by multiplying the gradient of
the fluid by the True Vertical Depth at which the pressure is
being measured:
Fluid gradient (psi/ft) x TVD = Hyd. Pressure(psi)

TVD

## You have to consider the vertical height or depth of the fluid

column, the shape of the hole doesnt matter.

## Normal Formation Pressure

Normal formation pressure
is equal to the hydrostatic
pressure of the water
occupying the pore
spaces from the surface to
the subsurface formation.
Native fluid is mainly
dependent on its salinity
and is often considered to
be:

0.465 psi/ft

## Abnormal Formation Pressure

Abnormal formation
pressures are any
formation pressures that
are greater than the
hydrostatic pressure of
the water occupying the
pore spaces.
Commonly caused by the
under-compaction of
shales, clay-stone or
faulting...

10

## Subnormal Pressure: is defined as any formation

pressure that is less than normal pressure.
It can be due to reservoir depletion,fault

## Transition Zone: is the formation in which the

pressure gradient begins to change from a
normal gradient to a subnormal gradient or, more
usually, to an abnormal gradient.

11

## UNDERCOMPACTED SHALES / SAND.

UNCONSOLIDATED
SHALE-DENSITY INCREASES WITH DEPTH - WATER ESCAPES
SAND WITH COMMUNICATION TO SURFACE

## ENCLOSED SAND LENS WITH FORMATION FLUID

12

GAS CAP

NORMAL FORMATION
PRESSURE ABOVE CAP
ROCK =0.465 PSI/FT

Ph

Pabnormal = Pf-Pg

Pf

Pg
GAS PRESSURE
GRADIENT = 0.1 PSI/FT

## COMMUNICATION BETWEEN FLUID AND GAS

13

SURCHARGED FORMATIONS

14

## NATURALLY SURCHARGED FORMATIONS

FAULT ZONE

Pf Pf

15

ARTESIAN WELL
NORMAL FORMATION
PRESSURE AT THE WELL
UNTILL BELOW THE CAP
ROCK

POROUS SANDSTONE
BELOW CAP ROCK

LAKE

HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE
FROM
FORMATION
WATER
COLUMN
16

SURFACE EROSION
ENCLOSED FORMATION
LEVEL CHANGE

H1
H3

Pf
H2

Pf

Pf

17

## Porosity & Permeability

The essential properties of reservoir rocks are:
- Their porosity and permeability.
The porosity provides the storage space for fluids and gases and is
the ratio of the pore spaces in the rock to the bulk volume of the rock.
This is expressed as a percentage. Reservoir rocks commonly have
porositys ranging from 5% to 30%.
Formation permeability is a measure of how easy the fluid will flow
through the rock. Permeability is expressed in Darcys, from a few
milliDarcys to several Darcys.
These properties will determine how much and how quick a kick will
enter into the well. Kicks will enter a wellbore faster from rocks having
high permeability.
18

Porosity

## Pores are connected for the

Permeability

19

Formation Pressure
When the well is shut in, Formation Pressure can be found with
the following formula:

## SIDPP + Hydrostatic pressure = Formation Pressure

SICP + Influx Hyd + Mud Hyd = Formation Pressure
SICP
SIDPP

Mud Hydrostatic

Mud Hydrostatic

Influx Hydrostatic
=
Formation Pressure
20

KICK
INDICATORS

21

## POSITIVE KICK SIGNS

Positive Indications of a kick:
- Flow from Well (pumps off)
- Increase in Flow from Well (pumps on)
- Pit Volume Gain

22

## KICKS WHILE TRIPPING

Incorrect Fill or Return Volumes
- Swabbing
- Surging
If any deviation, the FIRST action will be to install a
fully open safety valve and make a Flow-Check.
Remember: It is possible that the well will not flow
even if an influx has been swabbed in.

23

## Early Warning Signs

That the well MIGHT be going under-balanced

24

## Indications of Increasing Formation Pressure

Increase in Drilling Rate
Change in D - Exponent
Change in Cutting size and shape
Increase in Torque and Drag
Chloride Trends
Decrease in Shale Density
Temperature Measurements
Gas Cut Mud
Connection Gas

25

## Increase in Drilling Rate:

While drilling normally pressured shale and assuming a
fairly constant bit weight, RPM, and hydraulic program, a
normal decrease in penetration rate can be expected.
When abnormal pressure is encountered, differential
pressure and shale density are decreased causing a
gradual increase in penetration rate.

ROP

Depth

26

## Increase in Torque and Drag

Increase in torque and drag often occurs when drilling
under balanced through some shale intervals.
There is a build up of cuttings in the annulus and this may
be a sign that pore pressure is increasing.

Torque

Depth

27

Change in d Exponent:
d is an indication of drill ability and ROP, RPM, WOB, bit
size are used to calculate its value.
Trends of d normally increase with depth, but in
transition zones, it may decrease with lower than expected
value.

Depth

28

## Normally pressured shale:

Abnormally pressured shale:
cuttings are small with rounded
cutting are long and splintery with
edges, generally flat.
angular edges.
As differential between the pore pressure and bottom pressure is reduced, the cuttings have a
tendency to explode of bottom.
29

Chloride Trends:
The chloride content of the mud filtrate can be monitored
both going into and coming out of the hole.
A comparison of chloride trends can provide a warning or
confirmation signal of increasing pore pressure.

Chloride

Depth

30

## Decrease in Shale Density:

Shale density normally increases with depth but decreases
as abnormal pressure zones are drilled.
When first deposited, shale has a high porosity. During
normal compaction, a gradual reduction in porosity occurs
with an increase of the overlaying sediments.

Shale
Density
Depth

31

Temperature Measurements:
The temperature gradient in abnormally pressured
formations is generally higher than normal.

Temp.

Depth

32

## Gas Cut Mud

The presence of gas cut mud does not indicate that the well is kicking ( gas
may have been entrained in the cutting ). However, the presence of gas cut
mud must be treated as an early warning sign of a potential kick.

- Gas cut mud only slightly reduces mud column pressure, when it is close to
surface.
- Drilled cuttings from which the gas comes may compensate for the decrease.
33

Connection Gas
Connection gas are detected at the surface as a
distinct increase above the background gas, as
bottom up is circulated after a connection.
Connection gases may indicate a condition of
near balance.
If connection gas is present, limiting its volume by
controlling the drilling rate should be considered.

34

SYSTEM
PRESSURE LOSSES

35

Objectives
Identify the different pressures
losses in the system
Identify which one influence bottom
hole pressure
Convert this pressure to an
equivalent mud weight
36

## Mud System Pressure Losses

Pumping through a pipe with a
mud pump at 80 spm, with
gauges mounted on the
discharge of the pump and at the
end of the pipe.
The gauge on the pump reads 100
psi.
The gauge on the end of the pipe
It can be assumed from this
information that the 100 psi drop
in pressure through the pipe is
the result of friction losses in the
pipe as the fluid is pumped
through it.

100 psi

80 SPM

0 psi

100 psi

37

500 psi

80 SPM

400 psi

100 psi

400 psi
0 psi

38

1000 psi

80 SPM

900 psi

100 psi

400 psi
500 psi

500 psi

0 psi

39

2300 psi

80 SPM

2200 psi

100 psi

400 psi
1800 psi

500 psi
1300 psi

1300 psi
0 psi
40

2600 psi

2500 psi
0 psi

80 SPM

100 psi

400 psi

Pressure

300 psi

Annular

500 psi

Losses
1300 psi

2100 psi

1600 psi
300 psi
41

## Mud System Pressure

Losses
0 psi

APL EXAMPLE
A well has been drilled to
10,000 ft.
The mud weight is 10 ppg.
To find our Hydrostatic
pressure we use the
following formula;
Mud Wt x 0.052 x TVD 10 x
0.052 x 10,000 = 5,200psi.
The gauge on the drawing
shows bottom hole
hydrostatic pressure.

0 psi

0 psi

0 psi
0 SPM
MUD WT = 10 ppg

0 psi
10,000 ft TVD
0 psi

5200 psi
42

Losses
2600 psi
2600 psi

APL EXAMPLE

100 psi

0 psi

MUD WT = 10 ppg
10,000 ft TVD

1300 psi

2100 psi

500 psi

80 SPM

400 psi

## If we now start to circulate at

80 spm through our system
with the same pressure losses
as before.
As you can see from this
example the bottom hole
pressure has increased by 300
psi.
This increase is due to the
Annular Pressure Losses (APL)
acting down on the bottom of
the well and is usually called
Bottom Hole Circulating
Pressure (BHCP)

300 psi

2500 psi

1600 psi

5500 psi
43

## Equivalent Circulating Density

The APL while circulating has the same effect on
bottom hole pressure as increasing the mud
weight.
This theoretical increase in mud weight is called
the Equivalent Circulating Density or Equivalent
Mud Weight.
It can be calculated by using the following
formula:
_____APL(psi) __ + Original Mud Weight
TVD x 0.052
44

Summary:
Annular Pressure Losses are the pressure
losses caused by the flow of fluid up the
annulus and are the only losses in the system
that affect BHP.
Equivalent Circulating Density is the effective
density at any depth created by the sum of the
total hydrostatic plus the APL.

45

Exercise

40 SPM

300 psi

- Hydrostatic Pressure?
600 psi

MD = 9,550 ft

1200 psi

800 psi

TVD = 8,000 ft

450 psi

MUD WT = 12 ppg

- A P L?
- ECD at 40 SPM?

46

EFFECTS ON
PRESSURES
47

2600 psi

## A well is being drilled

using 10 ppg mud. At
80 spm the total
circulating system
pressure losses are
2600 psi.
It is decided to
increase the mud
weight to 11 ppg.

80
spm
Mud wt 10
ppg
48

## MUD WEIGHT CHANGE

It is a good drilling practice to
calculate the new circulating
pressure before changing the
mud weight.
The way we calculate this change in
pressure is to use the following
formula;
New Mud ppg x Old psi.
Old Mud ppg
11 ppg
10 ppg

2860 psi
80 spm

Mud wt 11 ppg

x 2600 = 2860psi

## The new pump pressure would be

approximately 2860 psi.

49

## Final Circulating Pressure

The formula that was just used to calculate
the pressure change due to a change in
mud weight, is also the formula used to
calculate the Final Circulating Pressure.
Kill Mud wt
Old Mud wt

50

## PUMP STROKE CHANGE

A well is being drilled using
10 ppg mud. At 80 spm the
total circulating system
pressure losses are 2600 psi.
It is decided to increase the
pump speed from 80 spm to
100 spm.

2600 psi

80 spm

Mud wt 10 ppg

51

## It is a good drilling practice to

calculate the new circulating
pressure before changing the pump
speed.
The way we calculate this change
in pressure is to use the following
formula;
New SPM 2
Old
psi x Old SPM
2600 x 100 spm 2
80 spm = 4063 psi
The new pump pressure would be
approximately 4063 psi.

4063 psi

100 spm

Mud wt 10 ppg

52

Preparation
and
Prevention
53

## Preparation and Prevention

Barite and Mud chemical stocks
Equipment line up for shut-in
Slow circulating rates
MAAS P
Well Control Drills
Flow Checks
Safety Valves and Float Valves
54

FLOWPATH

LINE UP FOR
HARD SHUT IN

55

FLOWPATH
HARD SHUT IN
1

Observe pressure

5
1

2
3

56

FLOWPATH

LINE UP FOR
SOFT SHUT IN

57

FLOWPATH
SOFT SHUT IN
1

Observe pressure

5
1

2
4

58

## Slow Circulating Rate

A Slow Circulating Rate ( SCR) is
the reduced circulating pump rate
that is used when circulating out
a kick.
It is called Dynamic Pressure
Losses ( PL ) on the kick sheet
59

## Slow Circulating Rate

Well Control Operations are conducted at reduced
circulating rates in order to:
Minimise Excess of annulus pressure
Allows for more controlled choke adjustments
Allows for the weighting up and degassing of
the mud and disposal of the influx
Reduce the chance of choke erosion
Reduce risk of over pressuring system if
plugging occurs
60

## If practical, at the beginning of every tour

Any time the mud properties are changed
When a bit nozzle is changed.
When the BHA is changed.
As soon as possible after bottoms-up from
any trip
At least every 1000 feet (305m) of new hole

61

## Slow Circulating Rate

A minimum of 2 (two) circulating rates should be
obtained for all pumps.
The pressure must be recorded using the gauges
that will be used during well kill operations
The SCR pressure will be recorded on the IADC
report

62

## Formation Strength Test or LOT

A leak off test (LOT) determines the pressure at which
the formation begins to take fluid.
This test is conducted after drilling out about 10 to 15
ft of new hole below the shoe.
Such a test will establish the strength of the formation
and the integrity of the cement job at the shoe.

## The test pressure should not exceed 70% of the

minimum yield of the weakest casing.
63

LOT
Use a high pressure, low volume pump
(0.25 - 0.5 bbl/min.) such as a cement
pump or a test pump using intermittent or
continuous method of pumping.
Rig pumps are not suitable to perform leak
off tests.
The objective of the above test is not to
fracture the formation, but rather to
identify the formation intake pressure.
This intake pressure is identified as that
point where a deviation occurs between
the trends of the final pump pressure
curve and the static pressure curve. Once
the formation intake pressure has been
reached, further pumping should be
avoided.
64

LOT
The total pressure applied at
the shoe is the sum of the
surface pressure from the
pump and the hydrostatic
pressure for the shoe depth.

Surface
Casing
Pressure
+ Hydrostatic
Pressure

## This total pressure is applied

to the formation.
=
Pressure at
Shoe

65

LOT
720 psi
720 psi
+
3,000

9.6
ppg

1498 psi

2218
psi

## This total pressure is applied to the formation.

66

MAMW
The Maximum Available Fluid
Density (MAMW).
This is the total pressure,
represented as fluid density,
above which leak off or
formation damage may occurs
with no pressure on surface.

0 psi

3,000

## MAMW = 14.2 ppg

2218 psi

MAMW=

2218
3000 x 0.052
67

The fracture gradient of the
formation will be:
0 psi

0.052
3,000

= 0.7384 psi/ft
therefore:

2218 psi

0.052
68

## Maximum Allowable Annular Surface pressure

MAAS P
MAASP is defined as the surface pressure which,
when added to the hydrostatic pressure of the existing
mud column, results in formation breakdown at the
weakest point in the well.

69

On Kill Sheet

## Write leak off test pressure here

Write mud weight used for the test

and Insert here

## Calculate current MAASP and insert here

70

Drills

Pit drill
Trip drill
Abandonement drill
Strip drill

71

Actions
Upon
Taking a Kick
72

## Causes for the Loss of Primary Well Control

Kick Size and Severity
Kick Detection
Recording Pressures
Drilling With Oil Base Mud
Hard Shut-in
Soft Shut-in
Height and Gradient of a Kick

73

## Causes for the loss of Primary Well Control

Failure to Fill The Hole Properly While Tripping
Swabbing / Surging
High pulling speed
Mud properties
Tight annulus clearance
Well Geometry
Formation Properties

Lost Circulation
Insufficient Drilling Fluid Density
74

## Kick Size and Severity

Minimizing kick size is fundamental for the safety of a Well
Control operation.Smaller Kicks: Provide lower choke or
annulus pressure both upon initial closure and later when the kick is
circulated to the choke.
Controllable Parameters:

## You can influence on:

Degree of underbalance

Mud Weight

time

time

## Kick detection + shut-in

Wellbore diameter

Hole size

Non-controllable Parameters
Formation permeability and type of influx

75

Kick Detection
While Drilling:

## Drilling breaks: They will be flow checked. Circulating B/up is advisable

if F/C is negative. Tool pusher must be informed for all.
Increase in flow rate: First positive indicator.
Increase in pit volume: Positive indicator. Anyone influencing the active
system must communicate with the Driller.
Variation in Pump speed and Pressure: (U-tube)
Well flowing during a Connection: ECD to ESD
Change of drilling fluid properties: Gas cut or fluid contaminated.
While Tripping:
Improper fill-up: swabbing or surging

76

## Shut- in Procedure: HARD SHUT-IN

Stop rotation
Pick up the drill string to shut-in position (subsea to hang off
position)
Stop the pump
Flow check

Close

BOP

## Open remote control choke line valve

Notify Tool Pusher and OIM
Record time, SIDPP, SICP and pit gain
77

## Shut- in Procedure: SOFT SHUT-IN

Stop rotation
Pick up the drill string to shut-in position (Subsea to hang
off position)
Stop the pump
Flow check

Open

## remote control choke line valve

Close BOP
Close choke
Notify Tool Pusher
Record time, SIDPP, SICP and pit gain
78

## Close-in Methods specified by

American Petroleum Institute

## Soft close-in procedure

For a soft close-in, a choke is left open
at all times other than during a well
control operation. The choke line valves
are aligned such that a flow path is
open through the choking system, with
the exception of one choke line valve
located near the blow out preventer.
When the soft close-in procedure is
selected for closing in a well the:
1
choke line valve is opened.
2
Blow out preventer is closed.
3
Choke is closed.
This procedure allows the choke to be
closed in such a manner to permit
sensitive control and monitoring of
casing pressure buildup during closure.

## Hard close-in procedure

For a hard close-in, the chokes remain
closed at all times other than during a
well control operation. The choke line
valves are aligned such that a flow path
is open through the choking system with
the exemption of the choke(s) itself and
one choke line valve located near the
blow out preventer stack. When the hard
close-in procedure is selected for
closing in a well, the blow out preventer
is closed. If the casing pressure cannot
be measured at the well head, the choke
line valve is opened with the choke or
adjacent high pressure valve remaining
closed so that pressure can be
measured at the choke manifold. This
procedure allows the well to be closed in
the shortest possible time, thereby
minimising the amount of additional
influx of kicking fluid to enter the well
bore.
79

80

81

82

Water Base Mud

Easier to detect

Expansion:

Expansion:

the bubble point
83

## Height and Gradient of a Kick

84

Well Kill
Techniques

85

Drillers Method
Wait and Weight Method
Volumetric Method

86

87

## Drillers Method : 1 st Circulation

The original mud weight is used to
circulate the influx
- Reset the stroke counter.
- Bring the pump up to kill speed while
holding the casing pressure constant.

## - Maintain DP pressure constant until the

influx is circulated out from the well

BHP

88

## The maximum shoe pressure is

when the top of the influx
reaches the shoe

89

## Drillers Method : 1 st Circulation

When the influx is passing the
casing shoe, the shoe pressure will
decrease.

90

## When the influx is above the casing

shoe, the shoe pressure will remain
constant.

91

## Drillers Method : 1 st Circulation

- Surface casing pressure is
increasing as the influx is
circulated up the well.
- Pit volume is raising.

92

## Drillers Method : 1 st Circulation

- The maximum surface casing
pressure is reached when the top of
the influx is at surface.
- It will be the maximum increase in pit
level.

93

## Drillers Method : 1 st Circulation

- As the influx is passing through
the choke, the surface casing
pressure will decrease.
- The pit volume will decrease.

94

## If all the influx is successfully

circulated from the well and the
pump is stopped,
SIDPP = SICP

95

## Drillers Method : 2 nd Circulation

- Line up the kill mud.
- Reset the stroke counter.
- Bring the pump up to kill speed while holding
the casing pressure constant.

## - Reset the stroke counter after pumping the

surface line volume.
- Keep the casing pressure constant until KMW
reach the bit.
( Or follow the calculated DP pressure drop
schedule from ICP to FCP.)

## Pit volume has increased due to the weighting

material added in the system.

96

## When kill mud enters the annulus,

maintain FCP constant until kill mud
is at surface.

97

First Circulation
Drillers
Method

Drillers

Drill Pipe

Casing

Method

98

Second Circulation
Drillers

Drill Pipe

Method

Drillers

Casing

Method

99

Drillers Method
- Can start circulating right away
- Able to remove influx even if not enough barite on board
- Less chance of gas migration
- Less calculation

- Higher surface pressure
- In certain situation, higher shoe pressure
- Two circulation, more time through the choke

100

## Wait and Weight

-The kill mud weight is used to circulate the
influx
-Reset the stroke counter
- Bring the pump up to kill speed while Holding
the casing pressure constant.

## - Reset the stroke counter after pumping the

surface line volume.
-Pump kill mud from surface to bit while
following a calculated DP pressure drop
schedule.

BHP

101

## Wait and Weight

When kill mud enters the annulus,
maintain FCP constant until kill mud
is at surface.

102

Wait
&
Weight

Drill Pipe

Wait
&
Weight

Casing

103

## - Can generate lower pressure on formation near the casing shoe

- In most situation generate less pressure on surface equipment
- With a long open hole, less chance to induce losses
- One circulation, less time spent circulating through the choke

- Longer waiting time prior to circulate the influx
- Cutting could settle down and plug the annulus
- Gas migration might become a problem
- Need to have enough barite to increase the mud weight
- More Calculations
104

## Differences between W&W and Drillers methods

h'i

h'i

hm

hm

W & W Method
Gas at Casing Shoe,
kill mud in drill string

Drillers Method
Gas at Casing Shoe
105

## Differences between W&W and Drillers methods

h'i

h''i
hm

Drillers Method
Gas at Casing Shoe

hm

W & W Method
Gas at Casing Shoe,
Kill mud in annulus

hkm

106

Gas Behavior

Free

gas expansion

No gas expansion
Volume to bleed off to
maintain BHP constant

107

## Free Gas Expansion

Gas may be swabbed into a well and remain at TD. The influx will expand as it
moves up the annulus when circulation is started. The amount of expansion can
easily be calculated. If undetected, free gas expansion can cause a serious well
control problem.
108

D=10,000ft

## Free Gas Expansion

A column of 10,000ft of mud,
Gm=0.5psi/ft compresses one
barrel of gas at TD.
Gm = 0.5 psi/ft

Gas
D
P
Vg
CST

10,000
5,000
1
5,000

## The pressure in the gas is;

10,000 x 0.5 = 5,000 psi

109

D=5,000ft

## Free Gas Expansion

The gas has risen so that the
top of the bubble is at 5,000ft
from the surface.

## The pressure in the gas is;

5,000 x 0.5 = 2,500 psi

Gm = 0.5 psi/ft

D
P
Vg
PVg

10,000
5,000
1
5,000

5,000
2,500
2
5,000

## Using the constant, the

volume of gas is found:
5,000 / 2,500 = 2 barrels
110

D=2,500ft

## The top of the bubble

is at 2,500ft from the
surface.
The pressure in the
gas is;
2,500 x 0.5 = 1,250
psi

Gm = 0.5 psi/ft

D
P
Vg
PVg

10,000
5,000
1
5,000

5,000
2,500
2
5,000

2,500
1,250
4
5,000

## The volume of gas is

found:
5,000 / 1,250 = 4
barrels
111

D=1,250ft

At 1,250ft
from the
surface.
Pressure;
1,250 x 0.5 =
625 psi

Gm = 0.5 psi/ft

D
P
Vg
PVg

10,000
5,000
1
5,000

5,000
2,500
2
5,000

2,500
1,250
4
5,000

1,250
625
8
5,000

Volume of
gas;
5,000 / 625 =
8 barrels
112

Gm = 0.5 psi/ft

D
P
Vg
PVg

10,000
5,000
1
5,000

5,000
2,500
2
5,000

2,500
1,250
4
5,000

1,250
625
8
5,000

0
14.7
341
5,000
113

No Gas Expansion
0 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

5,000 ft

7,500 ft
1 bbls
10,000 ft

5,200 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

1 bbl gain

114

No Gas Expansion
0 psi

1,300 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

5,000 ft

7,500 ft

1 bbls
1 bbls

10,000 ft

5,200 psi

6,500 psi

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

115

No Gas Expansion
0 psi

1,300 psi

2,600 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

1 bbls

5,000 ft

7,500 ft

1 bbls
1 bbls

10,000 ft

5,200 psi

6,500 psi

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

7,800 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

1 bbl gain

116

No Gas Expansion
0 psi

1,300 psi

2,600 psi

3,900 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

1 bbls

1 bbls

5,000 ft

7,500 ft

1 bbls
1 bbls

10,000 ft

5,200 psi

6,500 psi

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

7,800 psi

9,100 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

117

No Gas Expansion
0 psi

1,300 psi

2,600 psi

3,900 psi

5,200 psi

0 ft
1 bbls
2,500 ft

1 bbls

1 bbls

5,000 ft

7,500 ft

1 bbls
1 bbls

10,000 ft

5,200 psi

6,500 psi

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

7,800 psi

9,100 psi

10,400 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

118

## Volume to bleed off to keep BHP constant

500 psi

1800 psi

500 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

5,000 ft

5700 psi
7,500 ft

4400 psi
1.3bbls

1bbls

P1V1 = P2V2
V2 = 5700 x 1 / 4400

1 bbls

V2 = 1.29 bbls

10,000 ft

5,700 psi

7000 psi

5,700 psi

1 bbl gain

1 bbl gain

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

119

## Volume to bleed off to keep BHP constant

500 psi

1800 psi

500 psi

0 ft

2,500 ft

3100 psi
4400 psi
5,000 ft

1.84bbls

1.3bbls

P1V1 = P3V3
V3 = 5700 x 1 / 3100

7,500 ft

1.3 bbls

V3 = 1.84 bbls
5000 x .52 = 2600 psi

10,000 ft

5,700 psi

7,000 psi

5,700 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

120

## Volume to bleed off to keep BHP constant

500 psi

1800 psi

500 psi

0 ft

3100 psi
2,500 ft

1.8bbls

1800 psi
3.16bbls

P1V1 = P4V4
V4 = 5700 x 1 / 1800

5,000 ft

V4 = 3.16 bbls

1.8 bbls

7,500 ft

10,000 ft

5,700 psi

7,000 psi

5,700 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

121

## Volume to bleed off to keep BHP constant

500 psi

1800 psi

500 psi
1800 psi

500 psi
P1V1 = P5V5

0 ft
3.16 bbls
2,500 ft

11.4bbls

V5 = 5700 x 1 / 500
V5 = 11.4 bbls

3.16 bbls

5,000 ft

7,500 ft

10,000 ft

5,700 psi

7,000 psi

5,700 psi

Gm = 0.52 psi/ft

## 3.16 bbl gain

122

WELL # 1
HOLE SIZE
HOLE DEPTH TVD/MD
CASING 9-5/8 TVD/MD
DRILL PIPE CAP.
HEAVY WALL DRILL PIPE
CAPACITY
DRILL COLLARS 6-1/4
CAPACITY
DRILLING FLUID DENSITY
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/COLLARS
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/DRILL PIPE-HWDP
CAPACITY CASING/DRILL PIPE
FRACTURE FLUID DENSITY
SIDPP
SICP
PUMP DISPLACEMENT
RRCP 30 SPM
PIT GAIN

8-1/2
11536
9875
0.01741
600
0.00874
880
0.00492
14.0
0.03221
0.04470
0.04891
16.9
530
700
0.1019
650
10.0

INCH
FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
PSI
PSI
BBL/STRK
PSI
BBL
123

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

0
1489

SHUTTING
IN
WELL

MAASP

700

530
O

7189

7889

## Ph= 8398 psi

Pf= 8928 psi

124

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30
1489

REACHING
ICP
KEEP CONSTANT
CASING PRESSURE
WHILE BRINGING
PUMPS UP
PUMPS UP AND
PRESSURE STABILISED
KEEP CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

22

MAASP

700

1180
O

7889

125
Pf= 8928 psi

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS IN OPEN HOLE

CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

1489

310

MAASP

740

1180
O

GAS EXPANDING
CASING PRESSURE
INCREASE

7929

SHOE PRESSURE
INCREASE
MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

126

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS REACH SHOE

CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

1489
470

MAASP

775

1180
O

GAS EXPANDING
CASING PRESSURE
INCREASE

7964

SHOE PRESSURE
INCREASE TO MAX
MAASP CONSTANT

127
Pf= 8928 psi

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS MOVES INSIDE

CASING
CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

1685

620

MAASP

785

1180
O

GAS EXPANDING
7718

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASE
SHOE PRESSURE
DECREASE
MAASP INCREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

128

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS MOVING INSIDE

CASING

2020

2300

MAASP

1120

1180

CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

GAS EXPANDING
7718

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASE
SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

MAASP INCREASING
Pf= 8928 psi

129

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS REACH CHOKE

CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

2480

4800

MAASP

1580

1180
O

GAS EXPANDING
CASING PRESSURE
INCREASE TO MAX

7718

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP
INCREASE TO MAX

130
Pf= 8928 psi

DRILLERS METHOD
1st CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## GAS OUT OF WELL

CONSTANT
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

1489

5400

MAASP

530

1180
O

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING TO SIDPP
SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

7718

MAASP DECREASING
TO ORIGINAL VALUE
BHP= 8928 PSI
Pf= 8928 psi

131

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

START PUMPING
KILL MUD 14.9 PPG

1489

5400

MAASP

530

1180

CASING PRESSURE
CONSTANT

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

7718

MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

132

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

DRILL PIPE

1489

6306

MAASP

530

936

CASING PRESSURE
CONSTANT

DECREASING

7718

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP CONSTANT
BHP= 8928 PSI
Pf= 8928 psi

133

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

BIT

1489

7212

MAASP

530

692

CONSTANT CASING
PRESSURE

## DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

DECREASING TO FCP

7718

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

134

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

## KILL MUD REACH

SHOE
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

1489

7832

MAASP

469

692
O

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING

7657

SHOE PRESSURE
DECREASING
MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

135

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

CASING

1253

10202

MAASP

233

692

CONSTANT

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING

7657

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP DECREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

136

DRILLERS METHOD
2nd CIRCULATION
DP

CSG

30

KILL MUD AT
SURFACE

1020

12600

MAASP

692

## DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

CONSTANT

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING TO ZERO

7657

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP DECREASING
TO NEW MAASP w/KMW

## BHP= 8928 PSI

Pf= 8928 psi

137

WELL # 1
HOLE SIZE
HOLE DEPTH TVD/MD
CASING 9-5/8 TVD/MD
DRILL PIPE CAP.
HEAVY WALL DRILL PIPE
CAPACITY
DRILL COLLARS 6-1/4
CAPACITY
DRILLING FLUID DENSITY
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/COLLARS
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/DRILL PIPE-HWDP
CAPACITY CASING/DRILL PIPE
FRACTURE FLUID DENSITY
SIDPP
SICP
PUMP DISPLACEMENT
RRCP 30 SPM
PIT GAIN

8-1/2
11536
9875
0.01741
600
0.00874
880
0.00492
14.0
0.03221
0.04470
0.04891
16.9
530
700
0.1019
650
10.0

INCH
FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
PSI
PSI
BBL/STRK
PSI
BBL
138

DP

CSG

0
1489

SHUTTING
IN
WELL

MAASP

700

530
O

14.9 PPG
7189

7889

Pf= 8928 psi

139

## WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD

DP

CSG

30

REACHING
ICP

1489
22

MAASP

700

1180

KEEP CONSTANT
CASING PRESSURE
WHILE BRINGING
PUMPS UP
PUMPS UP AND
PRESSURE STABILISED
KEEP DRILL PIPE
PRESSURE ON
SCHEDULE

7889

Pf= 8928 psi

140

DP

CSG

30

1489
310

DECREASING

MAASP

740

1097
O

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING
7929

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
INCREASING
MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

141

DP

CSG

30

## GAS REACH SHOE

DRILL PIPE PRESSURE
DECREASING

1489
470

MAASP

775

1053
O

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING
7964

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
INCREASE TO MAX
MAASP CONSTANT

Pf= 8928 psi

142

DP

CSG

30

CASING

1685
620

MAASP

785

1013

DECREASING

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING

7718

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
DECREASING
MAASP INCREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

143

DP

CSG

30

## KILL MUD AT BIT

GAS INSIDE CASING

1950
1812

MAASP

1050

692

DECREASE TO FCP

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING

7718

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP INCREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

144

DP

CSG

30

## KILL MUD AT SHOE

GAS INSIDE CASING

1980
2432

MAASP

1080

692

CONSTANT

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING

7641

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
DECREASING
MAASP INCREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

145

DP

## KILL MUD INSIDE

CASING
GAS REACH CHOKE
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

CSG

30
2178
4800

MAASP

1278

692
O

CASING PRESSURE
INCREASING

7641

GAS EXPANDING
SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

MAASP INCREASING

146

DP

CSG

30

## KILL MUD INSIDE

CASING
GAS OUT OF WELL
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

1204
5360

MAASP

180

692
O

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING

7641

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP DECREASING

Pf= 8928 psi

147

## WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD

DP

CSG

30

KILL MUD AT
SURFACE
DRILL PIPE PRESSURE
CONSTANT

1027
7200

MAASP

692
O

CASING PRESSURE
DECREASING TO ZERO

7641

SHOE PRESSURE
CONSTANT
MAASP DECREASING
TO NEW MMASP w/KMW

## BHP= 8928 PSI

Pf= 8928 psi

148

WELL # 1
HOLE SIZE
HOLE DEPTH TVD/MD
CASING 9-5/8 TVD/MD
DRILL PIPE CAP.
HEAVY WALL DRILL PIPE
CAPACITY
DRILL COLLARS 6-1/4
CAPACITY
DRILLING FLUID DENSITY
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/COLLARS
CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/DRILL PIPE-HWDP
CAPACITY CASING/DRILL PIPE
FRACTURE FLUID DENSITY
SIDPP
SICP
PUMP DISPLACEMENT
RRCP 30 SPM
PIT GAIN

8-1/2
11536
9875
0.01741
600
0.00874
880
0.00492
14.0
0.03221
0.04470
0.04891
16.9
530
700
0.1019
650
10.0

INCH
FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
BBL/FEET
PPG
PSI
PSI
BBL/STRK
PSI
BBL
149

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
MIGRATION
MIGRATIONDISTANCE
DISTANCE
P2 - P1
GMD

MIGRATION
MIGRATIONRATE/HRS
RATE/HRS
GMD x 60
GMR
GMR== ------------------------------------------------T2 - T1
150

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
KEY POINT:
EVERY BARREL OF MUD IN THE WELLBORE REPRESENT
A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Ph

Ph

151

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
CHOKE PRESSURE
SICP + SAFETY FACTOR + WORKING RANGE

PRESSURE/BARREL
PSI/BBL = ---------------------------CAPACITY

14.88

14 x 0.052
= ---------------------------0.04891

WORKING RANGE
50 PSI
W.R.
VOLUME TO BLEED =-------------------PSI/BBL
50
3.36 BBL =----------------------------14.88

152

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
300 psi

PA

12.5 ppg
10000 ft

GMD

P 2 - P1
= -------------------------MWG

GMR

GMD
= -------------------------T 2 - T1

Where:

GAS

## GMD = Gas migration distance

MWG = Mud gradient
P1 = Surface pressure at time T1
P2 = Surface pressure at time T2
GMR = Gas migration rate ( feet per hour)
T1 = Time 1 (hour)
T2 = Time 2 (hour)

6500 psi

153

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
300 psi

PA

12.5 ppg
10000 ft

GMD

P 2 - P1
= -------------------------MWG

GMR

GMD
= -------------------------T 2 - T1

Where:

GAS

## GMD = Gas migration distance

MWG = Mud gradient
P1 = Surface pressure at time T1
P2 = Surface pressure at time T2
GMR = Gas migration rate ( feet per hour)
T1 = Time 1 (hour)
T2 = Time 2 (hour)

6500 psi

154

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
5

BOP

HALLIBURTON

PA
2

KILL LINE

3
4
PUMP
GAS

155

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
BOP
HALLIBURTON

Vm

PA
Vm

KILL LINE

GAS

3
P3

Vm
P3
Vm
4

P3
5

P3
6

Pa

P1
1
5

GAS

GAS

S
I
C
P
BLEED OFF

3
2

GAS
GAS

GAS

LUBRICATE

P3
P1

BHP

156

VOLUMETRIC METHOD
PRESSURE

## Gas bubble pressure

Bottom hole pressure
Annular pressure
Drill pipe pressure

BLEED OFF

LUBRICATE

TIME

157

Involves forcing formation fluids back into the
formation using surface hydraulics
Usually considered if:
1 Formation fluid cannot be safely handled on surface (eg with H2S)
2 If anticipated formation pressures exceed what can be safely handled

158

## Tertiary well control Methods

Cement Plug
Barite plug
Gunk plug

159

Shallow Gas
Evaluation & Planning
Drill a pilot hole
Heavy mud in ready(1-2 ppg higher)
Controlled ROP
Use of Viscous pills instead of weighted pills
High circulation rates
Float in string
160

## Open vent line

INTERLOCKED
Close Diverter
Switch suctions to heavy mud
Increase pump speed to maximum
Circulate heavy mud round
Flow check
If still positive continue pumping.( if mud finished
continue with water)

161

Well Control
Complications

162

163

## WELL CONTROL COMPLICATIONS

164

Lost Circulation
Formation breakdown
Fractures and Fissures

165

Loss Circulation
Categories:

## Seepage losses (<2bbl/Hr)

Partial losses
(5-50 bbl/Hr)
Severe losses
(>50bbl/Hr)
Complete losses (unable to maintain fluid
level at surface with desired mud weight)
166

Hydrates

Hydrates

167

Hydrates
What are hydrates?
Hydrates are a solid mixture of water and natural gas
(commonly methane).
Once formed, hydrates are similar to dirty ice .

168

Hydrates
Why are they important?
Hydrates can cause severe problems by
forming a plug in Well Control equipment, and
may completely blocking flow path.
One cubic foot of hydrate can contain as much
as 170 cubic feet of gas.
Hydrates could also form on the outside of the
BOP stack in deepwater.
169

Hydrates
Where do they form?
In deepwater Drilling

170

Hydrates
How to prevent hydrates?
Good primary well control = no gas in well bore
Composition of Drilling Fluid by using OBM or
Chloride (Salt) in WBM.
Well bore temperature as high as possible
Select proper Mud Weight to minimize wellhead
pressure.
injecting methanol or glycol at a rate of 0.5 - 1 gal per
minutes on the upstream side of a choke
171

Hydrates

172

173

Tripping Dry

## When a length of pipe is

pulled from the hole, the
mud level will fall.

174

Tripping Dry
The volume of fall is equal
to the volume of steel
pulled from the hole.
The trip tank is then used
to fill up the hole.
If 1 barrel of steel is
removed from the hole,
then using the trip tank, we
have to add 1 barrel of
mud.

175

Tripping Dry
1- Calculate the volume of steel
pulled:
Length x Metal Displacement
Example:
DP Metal Disp = 0.00764 bbls/ft
Length Pulled 93 feet
Volume Of Steel Pulled:
93 x 0.00764 = 0.711 bbls

176

Tripping Dry

## 2- Fill up the hole:

You must pump 0.711 barrel of
mud from the trip tank.
You must investigate ( flow
check) if more mud or less mud
is needed.

177

Tripping Dry

3- NO FILL UP:
If you fail to fill up the hole, the
mud level will drop by the
volume of steel pulled.
It will drop inside the pipe and
in the annulus.

178

Tripping Dry
3- NO FILL UP:
Example:
Volume Of Steel Pulled:
93 x 0.00764 = 0.711 bbls

## DP Capacity: 0.01776 bbl/ft

Annular Capacity: 0.0504 bbl/ft
The mud will drop inside the pipe
and the annular:
0.01776 + 0.0504 = 0.06816 bbl/ft

179

Tripping Dry
3- NO FILL UP:
Example Contd:
The volume of drop is 0.711 bbls and will
drop in a volume of
0.06816 bbl / ft,
then the length of drop will be:
0.711 / 0.06816 = 10.4 feet.
If 93 feet (1 stand) are pulled with no fill
up, the mud level will drop by 10.4 feet.

180

Tripping Wet

## When a length of pipe is

pulled from the hole, the
mud level will fall.

181

Tripping Wet
The volume of fall is equal
to the volume of steel
pulled from the hole plus
the volume of mud inside
this pipe.
The trip tank is then used
to fill up the hole.
If 3 barrels of steel and
mud are removed from the
hole, then using the trip
tank, we have to add 3
barrels of mud.
182

Tripping Wet
1- Calculate the volume of steel
pulled:
Length x Metal Displacement
Example:
DP Metal Disp = 0.00764 bbls/ft
Length Pulled 93 feet
Volume Of Steel Pulled:
93 x 0.00764 = 0.711 bbls

183

Tripping Wet
2- Calculate the volume of mud
pulled:
Length x DP Capacity
Example:
DP Capacity = 0.01776 bbls/ft
Length Pulled 93 feet
Volume Of Mud Pulled:
93 x 0.01776 = 1.65 bbls

184

Tripping Wet

## 3- Calculate the total volume of

steel and mud pulled:
1.65 + 0.711 = 2.36 barrels

185

Tripping Wet

## 4- Fill up the hole:

You must pump 2.36 barrels of
mud from the trip tank.
You must investigate ( flow
check) if more mud or less mud
is needed.

186

Tripping Wet

5- NO FILL UP:
If you fail to fill up the hole, the
mud level will drop by the
volume of steel and mud pulled.
It will drop inside the annulus.

187

Tripping Wet
5- NO FILL UP:
Example:
Volume Of Steel and Mud Pulled:
93 x (0.00764+0.01776) = 2.36 bbls

## Annular Capacity: 0.0504 bbl/ft

The mud will drop inside the
annular by:
2.36 / 0.0504 = 46.9 feet

188

Pumping a Slug
It is usefull to pump a slug before tripping.
The slug weight being heavier than the mud, a length of pipe will be
empty.

## The HP is not reduced because the heavier mud will

compensate for the empty pipe.
189

Pumping a Slug
The total HP is the same on both sides of the pipe.

HP kmw

HP mud

HP mud

190

Pumping a Slug
Example:
If 20 bbls of 12 ppg slug are pumped in a 10,000 ft hole containing
10 ppg mud, what will be the height of empty pipe?
DP capacity = 0.01776 bbl/ft
1- Calculate the height of the slug:

20 / 0.01776 = 1126 ft

191

Pumping a Slug
2- Calculate the HP of the slug:
1126 x 12 x 0.052 = 702.6 psi

702.6 psi

192

Pumping a Slug
2- Calculate the HP of the mud in the annulus:
10,000 x 10 x 0.052 = 5,200 psi

702.6 psi

5,200 psi

193

Pumping a Slug
3- The total hydrostatic beeing the same on both sides,
calculate the HP of the mud below the slug:
5,200 - 702.6 = 4497.4 psi

702.6 psi

5,200 psi

4497.4 psi

194

Pumping a Slug
4- Calculate the height of mud needed to give 4497.4 psi as
a HP:
TVD = 4497.4 / ( 10 x 0.052 ) = 8648.8 feet

1,126 ft

10,000 ft

8648.8 ft

195

Pumping a Slug
4- Calculate the height of empty pipe
10,000 - 8648.8 - 1,126 = 225.2 ft

225.2 ft
1,126 ft

10,000 ft

8648.8 ft

196