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CHAPTER 1

Engineering Ethics

Objective

To understand the
philosophy of engineering
ethics and to use it in
solving the morals issues
encountered in
engineering practices.
2

Topic Outcomes

It is expected that
students will be able to:
Explain the scope of
engineering ethics.
Define the function of
engineering technologist in
society.
3

What is the
Engineering Ethics
engineering ethics ?
Why study the
engineering ethics ?

Introduction: some cases


Boeing 787 vs Airbus 380

Spot
the
differences

Engineering?
Engineering is the practical application of
science and math to solve problems, and it is
everywhere in the world around you.
From the start to the end of each day,
engineering technologies improve the ways
that we work, communicate,
travel, stay healthy, and
entertain ourselves.

Ethics
Definitions:

the moral codes of practice,


values
system of moral principles

by which we are expected to live or


practice a profession

rules of conduct and character


the science of the morally right.

Ethics
System
Ethics

Moral values
Principles
Guideline

To conduct
judgments

Ethics
Source:
Primary sources
~ the family
~ friends
~ religion,.

Secondary sources
~ formal education
~ training,

Important of ethics: Case Study


In an exam situation, Student A
noticed Student B is cheating.
Student B, justify your cheating.
Student A, what would you do?
What response are you likely to get from
the class given your action in (2) above?
If you were caught (Student B),
what do you RECOMMEND
to happen to you?

Engineering ethics

A set of
scientific discipline
that applies to the
profession of
engineering

Formal code Personal

Codes of Ethics
Accreditation
Board For Engineering And Technology
American Institute Of Chemical Engineers
American Society Of Civil Engineers
American Society Of Mechanical Engineers
IEEE Code of Ethics
NCEES Model Rules of Professional Condu
ct
NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers
Software Engineering Code Of Ethics And P
rofessional Practice

Case 1

Engineer Jane refuses


to design the military
hardware because she
believe war is immoral

However, the
engineering codes
do not prohibit
engineers from
designing military
hardware

Formal
code

Person
al
moralit
y

However,
he may no
personally
believe
these code
are correct

Case 2

Bob civil engineer refuses


to design a project that he
believes will damage the
sustainable development
which are set out in the
code of Malaysian Society
of Civil Engineers

Person
al
moralit

Formal
code

ethics
Preventive
ethics
Negative

Promote the
welfare to public

faces

Rules in the form


of prohibitions, implicitly
and negative characters
e.g: Section 1 c (National Society of
Professional Engineers)
Engineers shall not reveal facts, data
or information without the prior
consent of the client or employer
except as authorized by law or this
code

Positive
faces

Aspects:
1- Global environmental
management
2-Sustainable development
3-Steps toward greater
economic justice
4-Awareness of culture
differences and skill

e.g: designing a new energy


saving device; install a water
purification system in the
undeveloped country

Scope of Engineering
Ethics
7 Themes

1.Engineering projects are social


experiments that generate both new
possibilities and risks, and engineers
share responsibility for creating
benefits, preventing harm, and
pointing out dangerous.

Case study: DC-10

McDonnell Douglas
subcontracted the
Convair to design and
build a cargo door latch
for the DC-10.
A pressure test caused the
cargo door to blow out, buckling
the passenger floor, and
severing critical hydraulic and
electrical lines. After
modifications, the design was
still faulty.

Convair engineer, informed his


managers about the design flaws,
but they suppressed the
information to avoid financial
penalties and litigation

In Paris in 1974,
the cargo hatch
blew open killing
346 people.

Honesty sometimes requires


public disclosure of problems
DC-10 cargo hatch case: Convair
didnt pass their concerns along (to
McDonnell-Douglas)
Result:

~ loss of plane with


346 deaths.

Question:

~ Who should take


responsibility?

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #2

Moral values permeate all aspects


of technological development, so
ethics and excellence in engineering
go together.

Case study: Chicken Coop


Design

Mayan local workers


design a chicken coop
that would increase egg
and chicken production
The

end users were to be


the women of weaving
cooperative who wanted to
increase the protein in
their childrens diet

Goals:

To double current chicken


and egg production
To

increase community extra


income, in weaving
industry

To
To
To
To
1.
2.

Task:

identify suitable building materials.


decide between cages or one open air.
design the structure for strength & endurance.
create safe access for the villagers

Ample head and shoulder room at entrance


A safe for the bare feet

To improve cleaning procedure to minimize damage to


the environment while recycling chicken droppings as
fertilizers
To ensure humane conditions for the chickens
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adequate space & ventilation


Comfort during climate changes
convenient delivery of food & water
Protection from local predators that could dig under fences

Moral Value:
The basic standards of safety
and efficiency.
The structure of technological corporations as
communities of people engaged in shared activities.
The character of engineers who spearhead
technological progress.
The very idea of engineering as a profession that
combines advanced skill with commitment to the
public good.
Moral aspiration in structuring
the relationship with the
communities; communication

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #3

Personal meaning and commitment matter


in engineering ethics, along with principles
of responsibility that are stated in codes of
ethics that must be follow by all engineers.

Case study: Artificial Lung


A team of engineers are
redesigning an artificial lung
marketed by their company. They
are working in a highly competitive
market, with long hours and high
stress.
They are focused on technical, not
people and invited as speakers to
the recipients of artificial lungs
and their families about how their
lives were affected by the artificial

Moral Value:
Scenario: ..when families began to bring in their
children who for the first time could breathe
freely, relax, learn and enjoy life because of the
firms product
..evidence that their efforts really did improve
peoples live.
Motive excellence (commitment) in engineering:
1. The desire for meaningful work
2. Concern to make a living
3. Care for other human being
4. To maintain self-respect

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #4

Promoting responsible conduct is


even more important than punishing
wrong doing (preventing wrong doing).

Case study: Enron Case


Year 2001, a wave of corporate
scandals shook Americans confidence in
corporations. Enron became the largest
bankruptcy in U.S history, erasing about $60
billion in share value. Arthur Andersen,
a large and respected
accounting firm charge
with complicity and was
forced to dissolve.

Moral Value:
Compliance issues are about making sure that
individuals comply to professional standard and
avoid wrong doing.
Procedures are needed in all corporation:
1. To deter fraud
2. Theft
3. Bribery ..other form of outright immorality

Engineering ethics is preventing WRONGDOING


in the first place.
.Reinforcing the connection between ethnics an
excellence, individuals and corporation
should primarily be value-driven rather than
compliance-based procedures.

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #5

Ethical dilemmas arise in engineering,


as elsewhere, because moral values
are myriad* and can conflict.

*too many; a lot

Case study: Environment Issue


The

primary report showed that the


company should implement stronger pollution
controls but the manager insists the cost of
doing so is prohibitive and that technically
the company is in compliance with the law.

Moral Value:
Ethical or moral dilemmas, are situations in which
moral reasons come into conflict.
Moral reasons might be:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Obligation/responsibility
Right,
Good ideas ..other moral
Considerations.

When come into conflict, requiring good judgment


about how to reconcile and integrate them.
.Ethical dilemmas does not something has go
wrong but they indicate the presence of
moral complexity.

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #6

Engineering ethics should explore


both micro and macro issues,
which are often connected.

Case study: Ford SUVs Case


Late 1990s, it was reported about the tread on Ford
Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUVs) tires leading to
blowouts and rollovers. By 2002, estimates were 300
people had died and another thousand were injured and
more recent estimates the numbers much higher since
then.

Ford and Bridgestone/Firestone blamed each other for


the problem, leading to the breakup of a century-old
business partnership.

Case study: Ford SUVs Case


The hazard had multiple sources:

Bridgestone/Firestone use a flawed tire design and


poor quality control at major manufacturing facility
Ford chose tires with poor safety margin
Ford relied on drivers to maintain proper inflation
within in very narrow range

Finally, Ford admitting the problem and recalling


dangerous tires.

Moral Value:
Micro issues concern the decisions made by
individuals and the companies.
Macro issues concern more global issues, such as:
1. The direction in technological development
2. The laws that should or should no be passed
3. Collective responsibilities of group such as
engineering professional societies and
consumer groups

Macro issues claimed that the SUVs


are among the most harmful vehicles
on the road.

Scope of Engineering Ethics


Themes #7

Technologist development
warrants cautions optimism.

Moral Value:
Optimists highlight how technology profoundly
improves all our lives?
Pessimists view advanced technology as ominous
and often out of control, such as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pollution of environment
Depletion of natural resources
Mass death on highways
Mass death in high-tech wars
Fear of biological and chemical weapons
The lingering threat of nuclear war.

Moral Value:
Top 20 engineering achievement of the 20th century
identified by National Academic of Engineering, such as:
Electrification; Electronics; Highways
Automobiles; Airplanes; Spacecraft; Health technologies
Radio and television; Air conditioning and refrigeration
Water supply and distributions
Agricultural mechanization; Household appliances
Computers; Internet; Telephones. Hand phones
Laser and fiber optics; Imaging technologies in medicine
Nuclear technologies; Petrochemical technologies
High-performance materials

Why study
engineering
ethics?

Ethics are an technologist most valuable


asset.
Without ethics, an technologist has little
value in a technical community.

Relationships

It is about people not things

Suppliers
Customers
Competitors
Colleagues
Public
Government
Friends
Neighbors
Family

THANK YOU
PLAY SAFE
PROTECT YOUR GOOD
NAME AS
TECHNOLOGIST

THANK U