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FERROCEMENT

DEFINITION OF FERROCEMENT
ACI 549 R definition Ferrocement is a thin walled
reinforced concrete commonly constructed of
hydraulic mortar reinforced with closely spaced layers
of continuous and relatively small size wire mesh. The
mesh may be made of metallic or other suitable
materials.

REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE and


FERROCEMENT
Physical
Thickness- Less than 25 mm
Reinforcement- Distributed uniformly
Matrix-Cement Mortar
Mechanical
Homogenous and Isotropic- Two Way action
Tensile Strength- High. Also high modulus of rupture.
Specific Surface of Reinforcement-High
Ductility-High increases with increase in layers
Smaller crack widths-Multiple cracking
Durability-GI wire and small cracks
Fire Resistance- Ok

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
Four Major Stages of Construction- Placement of wire mesh in a proper position,
Mortar mixing, Mortar Preparation and Curing
Preparation and Placement of wire mesh:
Wire mesh usually the main reinforcement except for highly stressed structures.
Galvanised wire mesh is preferable
No. of layers of wire mesh usually vary from two to eight.
Square woven wire meshes-Ensure Isotropicity.

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
Mortar Preparation
Consistent design strength- Usually 1:2 cement to
sand and a w/c ratio of 0.6
High Strength, High Performance Mortar-reduced
workability-Use of mineral and chemical admixtures
Hand mixing-Most of the times.
Plastering
Most critical phase-Plastering by hand, fingers and
trowels are used.
Single stage and Two stage techniques.

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
Curing
Curing to promote hydration of cement under controlled temperature.
Moist Curing- keeping mortar in contact with water for at least 10-14 Days.
Spraying of flooding by covering surface with wet sand or earth etc;
Impermeable Cover Curing- Water proof paper-prevent evaporation of water.
Steam Curing- After 4 to 5 hours of casting- 70 degrees temperature.

FERROCEMENT ROOFING CHANNELS(FRC)

Use Residential, Commercial


and Light Industrial buildings
Roof ready in 3 days!
No plastering required. Shutter
finished product
Length upto 6.1m; Weighs only
60-68 kilos per rm
Price: 30% cheaper; 5-8 times
more strength to weight ratio;
41% more thermally
insulating; 75% lighter than
RCC slab

FERROCEMENT WALL PANELS (FWP)

Structure ready in 3 days!


No plastering required.
Shutter finished product
Size upto 3.75 m; Weighs
only kilos per sqm
15-20% cheaper; 5-10 times
more strength to weight ratio
Easier to install; 5 times
faster construction; 75-%
lighter than conventional
Brick work

FERROCEMENT C- SECTIONS (FCC)

Pre-cast Beams for Structures for


Residential, Commercial and Light
Industrial buildings
Structure ready in 3 days!
No plastering required. Shutter
finished product
Length upto 3.75 m; Weighs only
kilos per rm
Price Approx. Rs. 200/- to 250/per rm
15-20% cheaper; 5-8 times more
strength to weight ratio; Easier to
install; 5 times faster construction;
75% lighter than RCC Beams

ROOFING
Very
Light-Weight Roofing
Easily transportable
Same strength as RCC
Very High Water Proofing Quality
No Plastering for Ceiling
Roof ready in just 3 days
20-40% cheaper roofs; 5-10 times
more strength to weight ratio;
Easier to install; 10 times faster
construction; 75% lighter than
conventional RCC slabs

BEAMS
Very Light-Weight Beams
Easily transportable
5 times higher strength to weight
ratio w.r.t. RCC
No Plastering required
Beams Installed in Just 3-Days
15-25% cheaper beams; 5-10
times more strength to weight
ratio; Very Easy to install; 10
times faster construction than
conventional RCC; 75% lighter
than conventional RCC

WALLING

Very Light-Weight Panels used for partition walls


Easily transportable any where
Strength is equal to 4" thick brick walls
No Plastering required on one face
Saves huge amount of space.
Can be used as cupboards also
Cost saving between 15-25%
3.0 m Height Walling can be done in ONE DAY
15-25% cheaper walls; 5-10 times more strength to weight ratio;
Easier to install; 5 times faster construction; 75% lighter than
conventional Brick work

COMPARISON OF FERROCEMENT
WITH OTHER CONVENTIONAL
ELEMENTS

PROPERTIES OF FERROCEMENT
TECHNOLOGY

Very High quality Control


Prefabricated products .. Readily available
Easy production & Installation - of product & machinery - At site
Manpower can be Easily trained at site
Very useful in rural areas
No extra time required. Fast production - 262 sqft of Roof ready
in One shift
50-75% lighter than conventional techniques
41% more insulating than RCC
Cost effective - 15%-50% cheaper than conventional techniques

Environment friendly - 40% less cement & sand.

PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Semi-Mechanised System
Well laid out yard with clear flow / movement required
1 Machine + 6 Moulds per 8 hours shift
Vibrating System: Table Vibrator for improved consolidation
1 Expert + 3 to 6 labour required
Concrete Mixer preferred. Hand mixing acceptable.
8 hours normal production time required
Casting time per channel: 15 minutes only
Curing Period as per concrete code books
Upto 24.3 rm of FRC ready in 8 hour shift with basic inputs
Reduces the trouble of laying at site. Near-perfect production
system! Near-perfect product!

VOLUME FRACTION
Volume Fraction of reinforcement is the ratio of the volume of
reinforcement to the volume of composite
Vr = Volume Fraction = Vreinforcement/Vcomposite

Vr = N dw2
----------- (1/DL+1/DT)
4h

N - Number of Layers,

d
w

DT

dw Diameter of Wire

DL Spacing of Longitudinal Wires

DL

DT Spacing of Transverse Wires

Vr = N dw2
for square mesh
----------2hD

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM-FCRC
0

4
Details of
Reinforcement

Details of Mould used

STRESS-STRAIN CURVES(with 8mm


ties)

ENERGY DISSIPATION(With 8mm


ties)

FERROCEMENT-LABORATORY MODELS

Mould

Fabricated mesh

EXPT. PROGRAM FOR TENSIONTENSION

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE


TENSION-TENSION SET UP

TEST SET UP FOR TENSION-TENSION

EXPT. PROGRAM FOR TENSIONCOMPRESSION

LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF THE


TEST SET UP FOR C-T AND T-C

DETAILS OF THE C-T AND T-C TEST


AND TINIUS OLSEN MACHINE

EXPT. PROGRAM COMPRESSIONCOMPRESSION

CONSTITUENT PARTS OF BIAXIAL


COMPRESSION-COMPRESSION

ARRANGEMENT OF RUBBER TUBE


FOR COMPRESSION-COMPRESSION

EXPT. PROGRAM COMPRESSIONCOMPRESSION

LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF
COMPRESSION-COMPRESSION

A VIEW OF TEST FACILITY FOR


COMPRESSION-COMPRESSION

FAILURE ENVELOPE FOR BIAXIAL STATES


OF STRESS

CT

TC

TT

CC

OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR AND NORMAL STRESSES


FOR ALL BIAIXIAL CONDITIONS

COLUMN FAILURES

BOND FAILURE OF LAP SPLICES

FLEXURAL SHEAR FAILURE

WELD FAILURE OF LONGITUDINAL BARS

SHEAR FAILURE

FLEXURAL PLASTIC HINGE

SHEAR FAILURE OUTSIDE SHEAR FAILURE IN PLASTIC HINGE


PLASTIC HINGE

FERROCEMENT JACKETING

PEELING OF COVER(OPTIONAL)

WINDING OF WIRE MESH TO COLUMN

FERROCEMENT JACKETED COLUMN

CASTING OF COLUMN

DETAILS OF TESTING

Column

FrReactameion
Bsi
draelforce
L
at
e
alStParess
1.Axi47M

Specimen
Asi
draelforce
L
at
e
Footing AnchorBolts
0

B
A

MONITORING OF TEST RESULTS


A,B
SIDE

C,D
SIDE
Card Scope

Strain
gauge

Bridge
Box

Dial
gaug
e

Bridge
Box

AMP

AMP

Signal
Conditioner

Strain

Gauges

Displacement

meters

A/D

A/D

BEHAVIOUR OF CONTROL AND


FERROCEMENT JACKETED SPECIMENS
Control Spe cim en(450m m )

-40

200

100

100

0
-20
0
-100

20

40

60

-60

0
-20
0
-100

-40

-200

-100

-150

20

40

60

-60

-40

-20
-100 0

40

60

6 Layers Ferrocem ent(450m m )

100

100

20

40

-200
Lateral Displacem ent(mm )

60

Load(kN)

200

-60

-40

0
-20
0
-100

-20

10

20

30

-200

LOAD-DISPLACEMENT
ENVELOPES

Displacem ent(m m )

200

-30

Lateral Displacem ent(m m )

-200

6 Layers Ferrocem ent(100mm )

0
-20
0
-100

20

-40

0
-10-50 0

100

Load(kN)

Load in kN

50

100

Displacem ent(mm )

Load(kN)

100

200

-200

-40

150

200

-20-100 0

Control
6 Layers
4 Layers

200

4 Layers Ferrocem ent(450m m )

-60

60

Lateral Displace m ent(m m )

4 Layers Ferrocem ent(100m m)

-40

40

-200

Lateral Displacem ent(m m )

-60

20

Load(kN)

-60

200

L oad (kN)

Load(kN)

Control Specim en(100m m )

20

40

-200
Lateral Displacem ent(m m )

60

40

BEHAVIOUR OF CONTROL AND FERROCEMENT


JACKETED SPECIMENS
150

Load in kN

Load in kN

50

0
-800 -400-50 0

0
400

800 1200 1600 2000 2400

-150

100

400

800 1200 1600 2000 2400

-100
-150

-100

50

0
-800 -400-50 0

400

800

1200 1600 2000 2400

-100

-200

-150

Micro Strain

Micro Strain

6 Layers Ferrocement

150

100
50

100

-800 -400
0
-50

200

4 Layers Fe rroce ment

Control Spe cime n

Load in kN

150

-200

Micro strain

LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT
6 Layers Ferrocement

Control Specimen
150

200
100

50
0
-500

-50

500

1000

1500

2000

Load(kN)

Load(kN)

100

0
-200

-100

100

-100

-100
-200

-150

MicroStrains

MicroStrains

TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT

200

300

400

200

200

150

150

Load(kN)

Load(kN)

LOAD-DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAMS
100
50

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-50
Disp(m m )
-100

-150

-200
RCC S1-100kN

-200
FERROCEMENT RETROFITTED

F1-100kN

200

200

150

150

SHEAR FAILURE OF

100

RCC SPECIMEN

Load(kN)

Load(kN)

50

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-50
Disp(m m )
-100

-150

100
50

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-50
Disp(m m )
-100

50

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-50
Disp(m m )
-100

-150

-150

-200
RCC S2-150kN

-200
FERROCEMENT RETROFITTED

200

200

150

150

Load(kN)

Load(kN)

100

100
50

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0
-50
-100

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Disp(m m )

-150
-200
RCC S3-200kN

F2-150kN

100
50

DUCTILE FLEXURAL

0
-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 FAILURE OF FERROCEMENT
-50
Disp(mm )
JACKETED SPECIMENS
-100
-150
-200
FERROCEMENT RETROFITTED

F3-200kN

ENERGY DISSIPATION CAPACITY

3500

1400

3500

1200

3000

1200

3000

1000

2500

800

2000

600

1500

400

1000

200

500
0

1000

2500

800

2000

600

1500

400

1000

200

500

60000
55000
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0

Loading Cycle

1200

3000

1000

2500

800

2000

600

1500

400

1000

200

500

15000
14000
13000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

Individual Cycle Energy(F2)

Loading Cycle

60000
55000
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0

Loading Cycle

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

Individual Cycle Energy(F1)

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

15000
14000
13000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

3500

Loading Cycle

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

Loading Cycle

1400

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

1400

4000

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

4000

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

1600

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

4000

Dissipated Energy(kNmm)

1600

1600

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

Individual Cycle Energy(S3)

Individual Cycle Energy(S2)

15000
14000
13000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

Individual Cycle Energy(F3)

60000
55000
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0

Loading Cycle

Cumulative Energy(kNmm)

Individual Cycle Energy(S1)

NUMERICAL MODEL

SHEAR FAILURE OF CONTROL SPECIMEN

Specimen
RCC Column

Displacement(m
m)
0
H/2

Stress (MPa)
H/2

Result

4.60

3.00

4.2

7.1

Expt.

4.53

2.88

3.6

6.0

Num.

4-Layered
Ferrocement

1.72
1.69

1.19
1.08

2.7
2.4

5.0
4.5

Expt.
Num.

6 Layered
Ferrocement

1.39

0.84

1.9

2.4

Expt.

1.37

0.81

1.4

2.1

Num.

DUCTILE FLEXURAL FAILURE OF


FERROCEMENT JACKETED SPECIMENS

COST & FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Cost(Yen/m2)

Carbon Fiber

10,000-20,000

Establishment of a standard test


procedure

Aramid Fiber

10,000-15,000

Glass Fiber

5,000-7,500

Social trend of structural


performance- shift from
Specification based to
performance based.

Ferrocement

200-300

Selection of material as per need


and cost aspects

Quality and maintenance of


constructed works
Educating engineers and
technicians for using the
materials.

Use of Ferrocement
1200
Number of Projects

Material

1023

1000
762

800
600
400

425
256

200
0
1990

1995

2000
Year

2005

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