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Ch.

5 Reshaping America in the


Early 1800s Lesson 1 Moving
West

Reshaping America in the Early 1800s Lesson 1


Moving West

Key Terms:

Expansionists
Manifest Destiny
Santa Fe Trail
Mountain Men
Oregon Trail
Brigham Young
Treaty of Fort Laramie

The Borderlands of Northern Mexico

In 1830, what is now the American


Southwest was considered Northern
Mexico. Like the former British
colonies in the East, this region had a
long colonial history, one that dated
back to the Spanish conquest of the
Americas.

The Borderlands of Northern Mexico

Challenges in New Mexico

By 1765- 9,600 colonists lived in New Mexico, mostly in El Paso and Santa Fe
Colonists feared the Apache and Comanche but had an alliance with the Pueblo
started dying due to disease
Indians became more powerful with horses and guns

Warfare Threatens the Colony

Warfare typically over buffalo


Native Americans began raiding Spanish settlements

Settlement is Limited in Texas

Spain paid Comanche and Navajo to attack Apaches, as it became safer, population of settlement
grew- 18210 Hispanic population- 40,000

Security didnt extend to Texas


Texas was a buffer to more profitable Spanish colonies
1760- 1,200 colonists in Texas

Missions Thrive in California

Spanish settled in California


Afraid to lose territory to Russians
Isolated so they wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity
Led by Fr. Junipero Serra

Set up Catholic Missions

The Borderlands of Northern Mexico


Analyze Maps What geographic and political obstacles did Americans moving westward face in the 1820s?
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America Looks to the West


In 1821, a revolution toppled Spanish
rule and established Mexico as an
independent republic. The U.S.
government officially recognized its
fellow republic to the south. But
American expansionists, people who
favored territorial growth, soon
began to covet New Mexico, Texas,
and California. Thinly settled but rich
in resources, the three provinces

America Looks to the West


Manifest Destiny

Coined by John OSullivan


Belief that God wanted the United States to own all of North America
At the Expense of Native Americans and Mexicans
Fueled Slave Debates

American Commerce With Mexico


Spurred by Mexican independence
Welcoming this new trade spurred the Santa Fe trail
New Mexico and California became economically dependent on trade with Americans

Mountain Men Cross the Rockies


Seeking furs
Mountain men- young American trappers who hunted for beaver pelts in the Rockies
Made lots of discoveries
Jedediah Smiths path became the California trail

Missionaries Follow the Oregon Trail


Oregon trail is variant of the California trail
Started to found an Indian mission

America Looks to the West


In the 1873 illustration 'American Progress' by John Gast, figures representing progress
sweep westward across the western landscape. Analyze Primary Sources What does this
illustration suggest about westward expansion?
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Settling New Lands in the West


In 1842, an official government expedition
led by John C. Frmont set off across the
western country, following trails blazed by
the Mountain Men and people like the
Whitmans. Although Frmont found little
that was new, his vivid and romantic
reports gave wider publicity to the fertility
of the Far West. In the years that followed,
the overland trails drew thousands of
settlers west to California and Oregon.

Settling New Lands in the West


A Long Journey West 2,000 miles- Took 5 months with oxen and covered wagons
Traveled in trains
Many died through the journey

Mormons Prosper in New Zion


Founder Joseph Smith was killed in Illinois
Brigham Young was new leader who moved Mormons west,
settled near Great Salt Lake at New Zion
By 1860- 40,000
Became part of Utah

Restricting the Plains Indians


Treaty of Fort Laramie- 18510 bound the American Indians to
territories away from the major trails
Future conflicts were still to come

Settling New Lands in the West


The Oregon Trail, shown here in the 1850s, was originally used by fur traders and missionaries
but quickly became the main route settlers took to reach the Northwest. Infer What geographic
features presented challenges for travelers?
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Settling New Lands in the West


Analyze Information How did travelers prepare for the possible dangers of the trail?
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