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Prepositions

Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns and


pronouns:
at dawn
the people with whom I am travelling (f)
the people I am travelling with (i)
Prepositions of place IN,ON, AT
In this garden
On the walls
On a plane
At the theatre

over/across
A footbridge across/over the motorway
but compare
Their eyes met across the table.
The children climbed over the wall.

above/over
The workshop is above/over the garage.
but
Put this rug over that old chair.(directly)
The hotel is above the beach.
Please dont write above this line.

under/below
The garage is below/under the workshop.
under over
There is a beautiful old chair under that rug.
below above
The beach is below the hotel.
below is used in documents
Please dont write below this line.

between/among
Between is used when we talk about two places, things, people:
The dictionary is between the grammar book and the atlas.
Among is used to identify something as a part of a group:
Is there a dictionary somewhere among these books?

beyond/behind
Beyond is used for somewhere further away from us than
something else:
You cant see the lake, its beyond the forest.
Behind is used for somewhere which is partly or completely
hidden by an object in front of it:
The robber stood behind the door, hoping he woudnt
be seen.
Prepositions of time AT,IN, ON
At six
At New Year
at the weekend, at first, at present, at the moment, at times, at
once

On Monday
On my wedding day
In the afternoon
In winter
In the Middle Ages
during/for/in
in/during the summer
We went to Spain for the summer (how long)
Ill meet you in ten minutes (how soon)

She hid below the bed until the vistors had gone.
We arrived to our destination in dawn.
Shall we meet at the bus stop on the Oxford road.
At the night, we heard strange noises in the room over us.
The gymnast sailed along the air and landed lightly to the mat.
We took the mirror out of its frame and found a 17th.century painting
beyond it.
The detective found an earring in the path along the pool and the
house.
I put your socks in the drawer.
The prisoners managed to get across the fence and ran away into the
forest.
I need to use the cash machine so Ill see you outside the cinema by ten
minutes.

Prepositions which follow verbs and adjectives


Some verbs are nearly always followed by a particular
preposition:
approve of
She doesnt approve of smoking.
enquire about
We enquired about our hotel eservation.
insist on
My boss insists on not having plants in the office.
look forward to
Im really looking forward to eating it.
succeed in:
Did you succeed in finding accommodation?

Verb+object+preposition
accuse someone of
They accused the girl of taking the parcel.
forgive someone for
he cant forgive that man for all the lies he told.
Adjectives + prepositions
angry about
She is angry about the theft of her purse.
angry with
Hes angry with his assistant.
pleased about(something)/with (someone)
My parents arent pleased about my bad behaviour.
good/bad at
Shes good at drawing flowers.

Expressions with prepositions


By air, by road, on foot (ways of travelling)
By post, by phone (ways ofcontacting people)
By chance, by accident, on purpose (ways things happen)
On holiday, on bussiness (reason for being smewhere)
In love, in private, in debt/out of debt, in a hurry, at peace, at war,
at home, at work (circumstances)
At least (not less then) at last(finally)

MODALS
Characteristics
NICE properties (negation, inversion, code and emphasis).
They are followed by bare infinitive:
You must pay now.
You must to pay now.
No inflection for the third person singular
He can ride a horse.
He cans ride a horse.

Question is made by inversion


Can you remember her phone?
Do you can remember her phone?
Shortened negative forms are used in everyday language
cannot=can't
will not=won't
must not= mustn't
She must study computer science. (Mora da studira
informatiku.)
She must study computer science. (Ona mora
studirati infomatiku.)

Permission
May/can
May I go out= Can I go out?
Could
Could I leave early today?
Might
Might I borrow your bag?

Obligation
must:
You must complete your work today.
*I must remember to send her a message.
have to:
You have to pay to park your car here.
I have to get up early to cook breakfast.
I had to work every day.
Ill have to go to the conference.
mustnt vs dont have to
I mustn't wear jeans at school.
You don't have to stay at school until you are 18.

Ability
Can
I can cook quite well.
Richard can speak Russian.
Could vs was/were able to
He was late for school because he couldn't find his
bag.
He was able to read when he was three.
I will be able give you a lift on my way to college.

Certainty
must:
You must be tired after all your hard work.
can't:
You can't be that tired.

Prediction
will
People will live on Mars.

Adult ladybirds may/might be black, red or yellow.


We can /well be able to get into the city centre in less than ten minutes when
the road is finished.
I left Doncaster because I wasnt able/couldnt find a job there.
We got a parcel from New Yealand.
Well it couldnt / mightnt be from Ken. He is working in Australia.
Not so long ago, more then 20 species of fish could /were be able to be found
in this river.
There was an accident in High Street. That might /could explain why the bus is
taking so long.
This camera is a bit cheaper than the other one, although it mightnt /cant be
as good of course.

Adult ladybirds may be black, red or yellow.


We well be able to get into the city centre in less than ten minutes when the
road is finished.
I left Doncaster because I wasnt able/couldnt find a job there.
We got a parcel from New Zealand.
Well it couldnt be from Ken. He is working in Australia.
Not so long ago, more then 20 species of fish could to be found in this river.
There was an accident in High Street. That might /could explain why the bus is
taking so long.
This camera is a bit cheaper than the other one, although it mightnt be as good
of course.

It isnt possible for this to be a car advert.


BE
This ________________________ a car advert.
If you the slogan, it sounds as if its about shampoo.
MUST
Reading the slogan,________________ about shampoo.
Im not sure, but I think its Radiohad singing that jingle.
MIGHT
That jingle ________________ by Radiohead.
Im sure that advert in 1984 for Apple computers had enormous budget.
MUST
The advert in 1984 for Apple computers ___________ enormous budget.
I bet Ginola earned a lot for that Renault ad.
PAID
Ginola________________________ paid a lot for that Renault ad.

This cant possible be a car advert.


Reading the slogan,it must be about shampoo.
That jingle might be sung by Radiohead.
The advert in 1984 for Apple computers must have
had enormous budget.
Ginola must have been paid a lot for that Renault
ad.