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Production of X Rays

Rakesh C A

PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS

X-rays are produced by energy


conversion when fast moving
stream of electrons is suddenly
decelerated in the target anode of
an x-ray tube.

X-ray tube is made


of Pyrex glass that
encloses a vacuum
containing two
electrodes - anode
and cathode.

X-ray tubes are 2 types

1.Stationary anode x-ray tube


2. Rotatory anode x-ray tube

X-RAY TUBE STRUCTURE


Cathode
Anode
Filters
Tube housing
Tube envelope

Forms of tube used by Roentgen


in 18951896 for the production
of X rays.

CATHODE

Negative terminal of the x-ray tube.

Contains 3 elements.
1. Filament: source of electrons for the x-ray tube.
2. Connecting wires: supply voltage (10V) and
amperage (3-5 A) that heat the filament.
3. Metallic focusing cup: Made up of nickel and it
surrounds the filament.

FILAMENT
Made of Tungsten wire.
Diameter is about 0.2 mm
Coiled to form vertical spiral of 0.2 cm
in diameter and 1 cm or less in length.
Filament is source of electrons.

ADVANTAGES OF TUNGSTEN AS CATHODE

High melting point (3370o C).


Little tendency to vaporize.
Ductility & Stability
Malleability and strength
Long life expectancy.

Disadvantages:Not an efficient electron emitting material.

TUBE CURRENT
Is the number of electrons flowing from cathode
to anode per second.
Measured in milli amperes(mA)
The tube current is unidirectional - from cathode
to anode.

THERMIONIC EMISSION
When current flows though
filament, it becomes heated up,
thermal energy is taken up by
electrons and they move a small
distance from the surface.
Emission of electrons resulting
from absorption of thermal
energy is k/a thermionic
emission.
EDISON EFFECT
The electron cloud surrounding
the filament, which is produced
by thermionic emission.

SPACE CHARGE
Electrons emitted from
the tungsten filament
form a small cloud in
front of the filament.
This collection of
negatively charged
electrons forms space
charge.
SPACE CHARGE
EFFECT
Tendency of space
charge to limit emission
of other electrons from
filament.

EQUILIBRIUM STATE
As the electrons leave the
filament, it acquires a positive
charge attracting some electrons
back to itself.
Number of electrons returning to
filament is equal to number of
electrons being emitted.
As a result, space charge
remains constant with actual
number depending on filament
temperature.

METALLIC FOCUSSING CUP


Made of nickel.
Prevents bombardment of unacceptably large
target area
The specially designed cup cause the electron
stream to converge to the target area on the anode
It is maintained at same negative terminal as that
of filament.
In grid controlled tubes the cup (-1.5 kV) acts as a
switch

MODERN DAY X-RAY TUBES


Contain single filament/ double filaments/
sometimes 3 filaments
DOUBLE FILAMENT ARRANGEMENT: They are placed side by side or one above the
other.
One filament is large, other one is small.
Only one filament is used for any fixed x ray
exposure. Larger filament is used for longer
exposure.

DOUBLE FILAMENTS IN
FOCUSING CUP
Filament for
small focal spot

Filament for large


focal spot

HIGHLY SPECIALISED X-RAY TUBES


Tube with 3 filaments
Stereoscopic angiographic tube
In this tube, 2 focal spots are widely separated producing
stereoscopic film pair when 2 films are exposed.
Used in angiography.

AUTOMATIC FILAMENT BOOSTING


CURCUIT
When x-ray is turned on and no exposure is
made, (as in fluoroscopy) stand by current
heats the filament at low current (5mA).
When exposures are needed, automatic circuit
will raise filament current to required value
and lower it to stand by after exposure.

ANODE
The positive terminal of tube

STATIONARY ANODE

ROTATING ANODE

STATIONARY ANODE

Made of tungsten
2-3 mm thick.
Embedded in large mass of copper
Triangular/ rectangular shape
Anode angle = 15-200

Adv of using tungsten:1. High melting point


2. High atomic number
3. Good absorption & dissipation of heat
Tungsten should be bonded with copper of anode to
further facilitate heat dissipation

STATIONARY ANODE

ROTATING ANODE X-RAY TUBE

Consists of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Rotating anode
Anode stem
Stator of induction coil
Rotor of induction coil
Ball bearings
Safety circuit

ROTATING ANODE
Made of tungsten or alloy of tungsten with
Rhenium.
Has beveled edge
Angle of bevel is 6 to 20 degrees
Speed of rotation is 3000rpm practically
The purpose of rotating anode is to spread the
heat produced during an exposure over a large
area of the anode.

ANODE STEM
Made up of molybdenum
It has high melting point
but poor conductor of heat
- It protects ball bearings
from un-desirable heat
The length of the
molybdenum should be as
short as possible
(length inertia load
on the bearings)

STATOR OF INDUCTION COIL


Provides magnetic field necessary for induction of
current.

ROTOR OF INDUCTION COIL


The magnetic field provided by stator induces
current in copper rotor
This current provides power for rotation of anode
assembly

BEARINGS

Increases life of the tube.


Lubricant used is silver.
Silver is suitable in vacuum
Ball bearings

SAFETY CIRCUIT
There is short delay (0.5 1 sec) between
application of force and full rotation of anode
due to inertia.
Safety circuit prevents un-necessary exposure
during this delay.

HALF LIFE OF ROTATING X-RAY TUBE

Depends on roughing
and pitting of surface of
anode exposed to
electron beam.
Prevented by using
alloy of 90% tungsten
and 10% rhenium

Why increased speed of


rotation?
speed of rotation ability of anode to withstand heat
MODIFICATIONS TO INCREASE SPEED OF ANODE

1.Decrease anode-stem length ( inertia)


2.Use of two sets of ball bearings.
3.Decrease weight of anode ( inertia)
- compound anode disc
- molybdenum or graphite

Compound Anode

Compound anodes contain combination of rhenium, molybdenum, and graphite being application
based

GRID CONTROL X-RAY TUBE

It contains its own switch, which allows it to be turned


on and off rapidly (as in cineflurography)
Third electrode - focusing cup is used to control the
flow of electrons from filament to target.
Focusing cup is negative to filament. (in conventional,
it is connected to the filament)
Voltage(-1.5 kV) applied between focusing cup and
filament acts as switch

Emission limited
Or
Temperature limited

Using resistors

FOCAL SPOT
Area of tungsten target i.e. bombarded by electrons
from the cathode.
Large focal spot greater heat loading
v/s
Small focal spot better resolution

Ans:

LINE FOCUS PRINCIPLE


(-)

(+)
200
Anode

Electrons

Cathode

Apparent Focal
spot size
Anode is inclined so it forms an angle with the plane perpendicular to
electron beam. The angle is anode angle.
Effective or apparent focal spot is smaller than actual focal spot d/t
anode angle.

(-)

(+)
200
Anode

Electrons

Cathode

Apparent Focal
spot size

Normal anode angle is 60 200


Apparent focal spot sine (anode angle)
For FFD 40 inch, anode angle is usually no smaller
than 150 (heel effect)

HEEL EFFECT
Intensity of x-rays depends on the angle at which
the x-rays are emitted from the focal spot.
The intensity of beam towards anode side is less
than that towards cathode side.
Intensity of the beam towards the anode side of
the tube is less because of absorption of some of
the x-ray photons by the target itself.

CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

1. Used for obtaining balanced densities in


radiographs of body parts of different
thickness, i.e. thicker parts towards cathode
2. When FFD is increased, heel effect is
reduced.
3. For smaller films, less heel effect.

USEFUL RADIATION
PROJECTED TOWARD THE PATIENT

LEAKAGE RADIATION
HOUSING

TUBE HOUSING
Consists of metal case made up of Aluminum alloy
lined on the inside by a layer of lead which protects
and supports the glass x-ray tube insert.
Tube housing provides an efficient radiation barrier where
in the x-rays produced in the x-ray tube are attenuated in
all the directions except at the tube port.
Provides shielding for the high voltages required to
produce x rays

The tube housing is packed with industrial grade oil


to provide electrical and thermal insulation.

GLASS ENCLOSURE
Is a sealed evacuated tube made up of borosilicate into
which are mounted the anode and cathode.
Accelerated electrons collide with gas molecules
secondary electrons (less speed) wide variation in
tube current and energy of x ray produced.
The purpose of the vacuum in the modern x-ray tube
is to allow the number and speed of accelerated
electrons to be controlled independently.
The shape and size of these x-ray tubes are specially
designed to prevent electric discharge between
electrodes.

Disadvantages of glass enclosure:


On long term use, tungsten vaporizes and
form thin coat on inner surface of glass
wall of x-ray tube.
It gives bronze colored sunburn to x-ray
tube.

Results of sun burning of x-ray tube


1. It filters x-ray beam and gradually changes its
quality.
2. It increases probability of arcing between glass
and electrodes at higher kVp which may
puncture the tube.

SOLUTION

Metallic Enclosures

CERAMIC/ METALLIC X-RAY TUBES

Has metal encasing and 3


ceramic insulators high
voltage cables and anode
stem
Anodes up to 2000 g can
be supported
(conventional tubes
700g)

CERAMIC INSULATORS

Made of aluminum oxide. They


insulate high voltage parts of x-ray
tube from metal envelope.
The use of insulators allows a more
compact tube design.

ADVANTAGES OF METALLIC ENCLOSERS

Less off focus radiation.


Longer tube life with high tube currents.
Higher tube loading.
Adequate electrical safety
Compact size

OFF FOCUS RADIATION


It is due to electron
back scatter from
anode interacting
with metal other than
the focal track and
striking anode a
second time to
produce X-rays.
Decreased by
USEFUL

OFF-FOCUS

1.Placing collimator
2.Lead diaphragm as
close to X-ray tube as
possible.
3.Using a metal
enclosure attracts off
focus radiation to the
grounded metal tube.

COOLING MECHANISM OF X-RAY TUBE


Almost all energy put into x-ray tube is converted
into heat and <1% is converted into x-rays.
The process of heat
dissipation:
Conduction: Through solid
parts of anode.
Convection: Through oil
surrounding the tube.
Radiation : Occurring
through the vacuum of the tube
which passes off the heat to glass
envelope or from metallic
housing through air into the
atmospheric air.

PROCESS OF X-RAY
GENERATION

There are three basic requirements for XRay production in an X-Ray tube:
1. A source of electrons (cathode)
2. A target to stop the electrons (anode)
3. A method of accelerating the electrons
from the source to the target (PD
maintained across the tube)
1% of the incident energy is converted to X-Rays
the remainder is converted into heat

Produced by 2 different processes


GENERAL RADIATION
Reaction of electron with
nucleus of tungsten atoms,
producing x-rays.

CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

Collision between high speed


electrons and electrons in the
shells of target tungsten atoms.

GENERAL RADIATION

When electron passes near the nucleus of tungsten atom, the +ve charge of the nucleus acts on the ve
charge of the electron.The electron is attracted towards the nucleus and deflected from its original
direction.The electron will lose some energy and slows down when its direction changes.The kinetic energy
lost by the electron directly in the form of a photon of radiation called general radiation /

bremsstrahlung.

CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

Results when electrons bombarding the target eject electrons from the inner orbits of the target atoms.
Removal of an electron from a tungsten atom causes the atom to have an excess positive charge, and the
atom thus becomes a positive ion

CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

In the process of returning to its normal state the ionized atom of tungsten may
get rid of excess energy in two ways.

CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

An additional electron (auger electron) expelled by the atom and carry off the
excess energy - does not produce x-rays.

CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

An alternative way to get rid of excess energy is for the atom to emit
radiation that has wave lengths with in the x-ray range.

BRAKE RADIATION

Only about 5 % of
electrons participate
These 5% produce
most of the X-Rays
There is no
ionization

CHARACTERISTIC
RADIATION

No characteristic
radiation below 70
kV
In the 70 to 150 kv
range contribution is
10-28 %
Ionization of target
atom

Intensity of X ray beams


Intensity of an x ray beam
=
Number of photons x Energy of each photon
Varies with:
Kilovoltage (proportional to kVp2)
X ray tube current
Target material
Atomic number quantity(number) of bremsstrahlung
quality(energy) of characteristic radiation
Filtration

FILTRATION
The spectrum of x-ray beam includes a wide range of
energies low to high.
For diagnostic purposes very low intensity x-rays are
not useful & increase the patient dose and decrease
the quality of the image.
Hence the x-ray beam reaching the patient is filtered
so as to make it most useful for image formation
without increase in patient dose.

Filtration of x-ray beam 2 types

Inherent Filtration:

Added Filtration:

Provided by the tube


envelope, tube housing and
the tube port.

Provided by the use of


Aluminum and
Copper across the
beam path.

First X ray made in public.


Hand of the famed
anatomist, Albert von
Klliker, made during
Roentgen's initial
lecture before the
Wrzburg Physical
Medical Society on
January 23, 1896.

GENERATORS

Generator
Ordinary Generator
Mechanical energy

Electrical energy

X-ray generator
device that supplies electric power to the X-ray tube
Electric supply

Generator

X-ray tube

Electric supply : 220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power

Why does x ray tube require electrical energy ?


To boil of electrons from cathode - filament circuit(10V)
To accelerate from cathode to anode - high voltage circuit(40-150kVp)
To regulate the length of exposure - timer circuit

cathode
(-)

anode
(+)

Generator

Control panel

Transformer assembly

- kVp

-Grounded metal box

-mA

-Low voltage filament

-Exposure time

transformer
-High voltage transformer
-Group of rectifiers
-Oil (Insulator)

Electric supply

220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power

Filament circuit -

10 V

High voltage circuit -

40-150 kVp

Transformer
A transformer is a device that either increases or decreases the
voltage in a circuit
When current flows in primary coil it creates a magnetic field in the
core, and this induces current in the secondary coil
Current only flows in the secondary circuit when the magnetic field is
increasing or decreasing,(i.e. when there is some potential difference
between the two ends of primary coil), hence requirement for AC
current
Switch
Primary coil

Secondary coil

Laws of transformer
1. The voltage in the two circuits is proportional to the
number turns in the two coils
NP
NS

VP
VS

More turns in the secondary coil - step up transformer


Fewer turns in the secondary coil - step down transformer

2. A transformer cannot create energy. An increase in voltage


must be accompanied by a corresponding decrease in
current
Vp Ip = Vs Is

The output of Transformers is an alternating current(AC)

Electric supply

220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power

Filament circuit -

10V

Step down transformer

High voltage circuit -

40-150kVp

Step up transformer

Autotransformer
Electric supply
tube

Autotransformer

Generator

X-ray

Principle of self induction


110v/55
230v/115
320v/160

Turns of windings
230v/115

Incoming power voltage

Autotransformer

Step down transformer(filament)

Step up transformer (cathode to anode)

- 10 V

- 40-150 kV

-Turns in secondary coil less

- Turns in secondary coil > 600

PROBLEM- Output of Transformers is alternating current(AC)

Alternating current

(+)

(-)
X-ray tube

PROBLEM- Output of Transformers is alternating current(AC)

Alternating current

(-)

(+)
X-ray tube

SOLUTION:

RECTIFY!!!

Rectification
Electric supply
Autotransformer
Generator
AC

Rectifier

DC

X-ray tube

Rectification is the process of changing the alternating


current into direct current
A rectifier is the device that allows electrical current in
one direction but does not allow current to flow in the other
direction

High voltage rectifiers


Two types
vacuum tube type (thermionic diode tubes)
solid state rectifier

Modern x-ray tubes use solid state rectifier


which are more reliable and have a longer
life.
Selenium was the first material and silicon
is most widely used in modern days.
The heart of a solid state rectifier is a semi
conductor.

Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier


Conduction band
Forbidden gap
Valency band

Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier

Conduction band
Forbidden gap

Valency band

Conductor

Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier


Conduction band
Forbidden gap
Valency band

Insulator (10 eV)

Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier


Conduction band
Forbidden gap
Valency band

Semi-conductor (1 eV)

Semiconductor acts like an insulator at low temperature


and acts like a conductor at room temperature

N-type semiconductors
The material with five
valence electrons is
added as a impurity to
silicon lattice creating a
extra electron.
Impurity- arsenic or
antimony.
(N Negative)

These are called


donors.

P-type semiconductors
In this an impurity with
only three valance
electrons is added to
silicon crystal.
This leaves behind a
Hole (P Positive)
Impurity- indium,
gallium and aluminum.
These are called
acceptors.

P-N junction
It is formed when N-type
and P-type crystals are
joined.
This will create a
depletion layer which is
opposite in polarity to the
adjacent material.

If voltage is applied across


current will flow or not flow
depending upon the polarity.
Forward bias
When the negative pole of a
battery is connected to the Ntype and positive pole to the Ptype.
Electrons will start flowing
from negative to
positive
direction.
Reverse bias
When negative pole is
connected to P-type and
positive to N-type.
Electrons will stop flowing.

P-N diode conducts current in a forward direction only,


hence it meets the definition of a rectifier.

Half wave rectification


1/60 sec

Two rectifiers
connected in series
with X-ray tube

1 cycle

1 PULSE

Advantage:
Prevents damage to the tube in inverse cycle.
Disadvantage:
Half of the power will be wasted.

Full wave rectification


1/60 sec

Diode bridge

1 cycle

2 PULSE

Seen in Modern X ray tubes.


This is brought about by using 4rectifiers connected in
opposite circuits.
Advantage:
Utilizes full electrical potential
Prevents tube damage.

PULSED POTENTIAL

Fluctuating voltage from 0 to its Max.

Disadvantage:

1/60 sec

- Loss of exposure time


- Low energy X-rays
-Increased patient dose
- Tube life

1 cycle

2 PULSE

Three phase generators


Three phase generator consists of three single phase currents
out of step with each other by 1200

00
1200

2400

Supply power at near constant potential


2000 mA, 150 KV, 1 msec

Three phase transformers


Consists of three sets of primary and
secondary windings.
Two types of configurations:
Delta
Wye (star)
Generally
Primary delta
Secondary wye / delta

Six pulse six rectifier


Six solid state
rectifiers are used.
Six max. positive
voltages per cycle

Six pulse twelve rectifier.


Employs 12 rectifiers
Advantage:
allows a 150 kV
generator to allow a
wide range of voltage
(-75 to +75 kV)

Twelve pulse
Secondary winding
will have both delta
and wye connection
Advantage:
Delta will lag
the wye by
30degrees which
fills the ripple

Ripple factor
The ripple factor is the variation in the voltage across the
x-ray tube expressed as the percentage of maximum value
Single phase

100%

Triple phase
Six pulse six rectifier

13.5%

Six pulse twelve rectifier 13.5%


Twelve pulse

3.5%

Advantages
Produces X rays efficiently throughout the
exposure.
No time is spent in bombarding the X ray tube with
low energy electrons.
High tube ratings for extremely short exposure
times.
Produces radiographs with short exposure times
and high repetition rates.

+75kVp

AUTOTRANSFORMER

+11OV

.
.
.

.
mA

150 kVp to rect.

kVp

-11OV

-75kVp
STEP UP

.
TO X-RAY TUBE FILAMENT

STEP DOWN

Transformer rating
The rating of a transformer states the maximum safe output of its
secondary winding , expressed in kilowatts

kW = kV x mA
1000
Transformer rating is determined when the generator is under
load ( 100 kVp)

Power storage generator


Provides means of supplying power
for the tube independent of an
external power supply ( mobile
radiographic equipment)

Storage generators

Capacitor discharge generator

Battery powered generator

Electric supply

Electric supply

Step up transformer

Nickel-cadmium battery

Large capacitor

DC chopper

X-ray tube

Transformer

KV falls during exposure at


the rate of 1KV for each mA

Rectifier
X-ray tube
Supplies constant kVp and mA

Advantage:
Small and easy to move.
Limitations:
Must be charged prior to use.
Cannot be used for thicker
body parts abdomen

Limitation:
Heavy and requires regular
battery maintenance.
Advantages:
Stores considerable energy
Independent of power supply

Medium frequency generator

V= fnA
Electric supply (50 Hz)
Invertor (DC chopper)
Power (6500 Hz)
Transformer
13000 Hz constant potential

Transformer is made more compact and small


Constant nearly ripple free voltage to the X-ray tube

Falling load generators


Produce X ray exposure in shortest possible time by
operating X ray tube at its maximum Kilowatt rating.
Disadvantages:
Causes Focal spot blooming
Reduces Tube life
Expensive

Exposure switching
A switch is a device that turns the high voltage to
the X-ray on and off
Secondary switching

Primary switching
- Takes place in the primary coil

- Secondary circuit of high voltage

- All general purpose generator

- Special purpose generator like in


angiography , cinefluoro

- Easier and cheaper


- 1-2 millisecond
-Cannot produce repeated
exposure
Silicon controlled rectifiers
(thyrister)

- Costly
- 0.5 ms (shorter exposures)
- Repeated exposure
Triode vacuum tube
Grid controlled X-ray tubes

SOLID STATE RECTIFIERS

Exposure timers
To control the length of an X-ray exposure
Exposure timer
Electromechanical Automatic exposure control Pulse counting timer
Photomultiplier
Ionisation chamber
Solid state

VALVE RECTIFERS

STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER

STEP UP TRANSFORMER

X-RAY GENERATOR-THEN

DUAL TUBE 800 mA HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR & CONTROL ASSEMBLY IN SINGLE CABINET

CAPACITORS

MICROPROCESSORS

HT
TIMER & ANODE CONTROL

X-RAY GENERATOR- NOW !

The first medical X ray taken


Drs. Edwin and Gilman Frost perform the first American
medical X-ray in Reed Hall, Dartmouth College on
February 3, 1896

The first American medical X-ray : 14year-old Eddie Murphys fractured


ulna.